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This comprehensive book presents an original reconstruction of the different interpretations of the Phillips curve. The authors demonstrate through an in-depth analysis how it is possible to find non-neoclassical foundations in the trade-off between inflation and unemployment. The debate is presented from a historical perspective which charts the evolution of the Phillips curve from a non-neoclassical perspective, taking account of post Keynesian literature. In the first part of the book the authors focus on the origins of the Phillips curve and they critically analyse Richard Lipsey's interpretation and approach to the Phillips curve. They then explore the neoclassical and monetarist interpretation, paying special attention to the evolution of monetarism and the Keynesian critique of this approach. The Kaleckian, Keynesian and Marxist interpretations of the Phillips trade-off are then presented. Here the authors show how the relationship between inflation, unemployment and money described in these approaches accurately reflects the fundamental features of today's capitalist economies. In the final section a new Phillips curve is constructed, taking into account the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment and the hysteresis of it. Inflation, Unemployment and Money will be of interest to macroeconomists, post Keynesians and monetary and financial economists.
Rapid technological developments in communications and transportation, economic liberalization and the emergence of new economies with vast market potential have changed the shape of international production. This scholarly selection of articles represents some of the most important contributions to an understanding of this ongoing, global economic restructuring and its impact on the geographic configuration of production and the economic competitiveness of nations in the world economy.
The rise and relative decline of the Japanese economy has been an important feature of the world economy over the last decade. In this innovative book, distinguished experts re-evaluate commonly held perceptions in the West and in Japan about the strength of the economy. They shed new light on Japan's current economic situation and prescribe policies to restructure the domestic economy in order to achieve growth objectives. Japanese Economic Policy Reconsidered provides a critical evaluation of the key issues facing the Japanese economy, and the political and economic environments that continue to hold back Japan's future growth. The contributors advocate far-reaching structural reform in order to allow market forces to dictate industry policy. They then turn to the changing role of foreign trade and evaluate the Clinton Administration's attempt to define a new approach to US-Japan trade relations. Special attention is given to an empirical analysis of the problem of overseas production. They also examine the peculiar characteristics of Japanese foreign direct investment inflows, and advocate the removal of disincentives to foreign investment, in order to encourage trade and economic growth. The authors then discuss the role of the financial sector, particularly in relation to Germany and the United States, and discover parallels in monetary policy in all three countries. They recommend regulatory reform of the financial sector in Japan to adapt to the future financial environment. This volume will be accessible to both scholars and practitioners looking for a deeper insight into modern Japan. It will also be of great use to students of macroeconomics, Asian studies, business economics and international economics.
This book provides the first comprehensive and accessible account of the evolution of exchange rate regimes in the twentieth century. It presents a chronological, non-technical history and in doing so manages to link the past with the present to shed new light on the merits of different exchange rate systems. Since the golden age before the First World War, the international monetary system has experienced several changes in exchange rate regimes, alternating between fixed and floating rate systems interspersed with managed or dirty floats. The authors examine and assess the evolution of exchange rate regimes since the First World War to the present day. They discuss the forces that have brought about change in order to determine how different regimes affected the economic environment. They consider the merits or otherwise of the respective regimes and assess the evidence and arguments for and against fixed and floating exchange rate systems. Exchange Rate Regimes in the Twentieth Century provides a coherent and manageable analysis of a complex subject. It will prove invaluable to both undergraduates and postgraduates studying economic history, international economics and international studies.
Over the years the theoretical structure of input-output analysis has been refined and its applications have been widened. This three volume set presents an overview of this development and an assessment of the current state of the subject. It offers a comprehensive collection of previously published articles which present some of the most significant theoretical and empirical contributions of leading scholars to multisectoral economic analysis. The first volume is devoted to the foundations of input-output analysis, to dynamic models and to multisectoral extensions of the multiplier principle. Volume II explores approaches to the modelling of economics and the environment, to the analysis of foreign trade and to regional and interregional economic activities. The third volume discusses the methodologies developed for the investigation of economic structures, offers an analysis of various versions of price models and investigates the problems related to the estimation of input-output data.
This book makes an important contribution at the forefront of business cycle theory. The contributors evaluate historical evidence, present new empirical results and suggest that the explanation of business cycle phenomena may, in part, depend on the way in which historical data is interpreted. This innovative book places great emphasis on the complementarity between empirical and theoretical business cycle research. The authors present studies of business cycles concentrating on the Great Depression of the 1930s, early and late nineteenth century American economic history, the United Kingdom before 1914, interwar Germany and Japan, and Canada and the United States during the Gold Standard era. A number of contributions address the Phillips curve and labour markets, and provide illustrations of the use of both macro and micro data. An important finding is the contribution to business cycle research made by hitherto untouched sources of historical labour market microdata. The book demonstrates the importance of the reconstruction of well researched data to our conception and understanding of business cycle phenomena. This book will be useful reading for academics and students of macroeconomics and economic history, with an interest in understanding business cycles.
The preparation for European Monetary Union and the significant drop in inflation characterize the 1990s for European monetary policymakers. In the near future, the European Central Bank will be given the responsibility to fight inflation in the Euro area. This timely book analyses technical, empirical and international monetary policy considerations relevant to the European Central Bank in choosing an appropriate monetary strategy for achieving price stability. The dynamics of inflation and the choice of a monetary strategy are the binding ingredients of this book. To identify the most effective policy for the European Central Bank, the author uses the experiences of a number of industrialized countries, namely, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France, the United States, Canada and New Zealand. It is concluded that monetary targeting would be most effective in fighting inflation. The author also examines in detail the success of economic convergence in Europe and the qualification for participation in the Economic and Monetary Union. He concludes that there has been a remarkable convergence in inflation profiles over the last few decades but hardly any real convergence in the other major economic fields. This volume takes a fresh and original approach in investigating whether monetary or direct inflation targeting is appropriate for the European Central Bank. It will be of great relevance to monetary policy makers both in Europe and the rest of the world. It will also be of interest to academics and students of monetary economics and econometrics.
Edited by three very well known academics in the field and contributed to by John Smithin, Laurence Moss and G. C. Harcourt, this volume reflects the breath of the honoureea (TM)s interests and as such it covers a wide range of topics including political economy, labour economics, history of economic thought and macroeconomics.
Ingrid Rima, one of the first women to teach economics in America, has been a major figure in the development of Post-Keynesian economics over the past forty years. Rima has made numerous contributions to the fields of labour economics, history of economic thought, and Post Keynesian economic theory and in this volume the editors and contributors recognize them.
This important book investigates the causes of the decline in public capital spending which has occurred in most OECD countries over the past 25 years, and estimates the macroeconomic consequences of this decline. Governments can improve the future living conditions of their citizens in various ways including stimulating private investment, increasing spending on education and health programmes, preserving the environment and adding to the stock of public capital. In Public Capital Spending in OECD Countries the author focuses on government investment in physical capital within a macroeconomic context. He examines the consequences of the decline in public investment on physical assets such as infrastructure and the environment. The past few years have witnessed a growing awareness that especially the stock of public capital has been neglected by many OECD governments. Such a reduction in public investment may lead to a decline in economic growth, and therefore it is vital that the fall in government spending is rigorously examined. Key features include:- * a detailed and comprehensive review of existing literature. * original empirical investigations using alternative techniques and different datasets. * possible explanations for the trends in public capital spending. * estimates of the effect of public capital spending on economic growth.
In this invaluable book, Martin Fase, a notable academic and practitioner, draws together his most important contributions to monetary economics over two decades, using empirical evidence to assert his unique style in designing monetary policy. One of the main themes of Professor Fase's work, covered in the first part of the book, is the empirical analysis of the demand for money. For traditional monetary aggregates and Divisia aggregates the author investigates the dynamics, stability and determinants of money demand on a sectoral, national and Europe-wide level. The second part of the book uses empirical evidence to address a variety of monetary issues, including the system approach to money demand, the demand for bank loans, payment patterns and the demand for banknotes and coins. These chapters support the author's assertion that both the aggregate and disaggregate analyses of money demand are necessary for the design of a successful monetary policy in a European Monetary Union. On Money and Credit in Europe will be of great value to scholars and practitioners of monetary and financial economics, the economics of European integration and money and banking.
This important, original book focuses on the transformation of economic systems in Central Europe. It provides a comprehensive overview of different theoretical approaches to transformation - neoclassical, post Keynesian and Austrian. In the light of this theoretical discussion, it reconsiders the transformation policies applied in the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary and Poland. Dr Hoen challenges the dichotomous `shock-versus-gradualism' dispute, which he believes blurs the key elements of the transformation from a centrally planned to a market economy. He also maintains that the labels generally attached to the transformation strategies in Central Europe are inappropriate and misleading. Hungary's transformation to a market economy, for example, is to be qualified as a `hidden shock' rather than as an example of `gradualism'. This up-to-date new book, which theoretically explains the diverging paths of transformation in Central Europe will be of interest to researchers, students, policymakers and all those concerned with European integration and international relations.
This highly original contribution examines one of the most controversial concepts in the history of economics - the true meaning of the Law of Markets. This has been a contentious issue since the publication of Keynes's General Theory, but has also divided economists since it first emerged almost two centuries ago in the writings of James Mill. This book discusses the change in the understanding of the nature of the business cycle wrought by the General Theory whose major innovation in overturning Say's Law was to introduce demand deficiency into mainstream economic thought. The volume provides a robust and innovative exposition of the crucial point of division between classical and Keynesian economics, demonstrating that the role of demand deficiency was the fundamental issue at stake. Steven Kates first discusses Keynes's interpretation of Say's Law before documenting its development within classical theory. He then charts the development of post-General Theory interpretations of Say's Law, challenging Keynes's definition which was captured in the phrase `supply creates its own demand'. The author also attempts to unravel the vast literature on the progress made by Keynes between his Treatise on Money published in 1930 and the General Theory, published six years later. He suggests that the crucial point in the origins of the General Theory was Keynes's discovery of Malthus's writings on Say's Law at the very depths of the Great Depression in 1932. This provocative book will be required reading for scholars and students interested in the history of economic thought, the history of macroeconomics and the Keynesian revolution.
This book is the third and final volume of essays celebrating the work and lifetime contribution of Paul Davidson to economics, specifically the development of post Keynesian Economics. The outstanding group of international economists examine areas in which Paul Davidson has an interest, or has made significant contributions. They explore international macroeconomic issues such as consumption and investment, wage and price flexibility, sticky prices and aggregate production, and financial liberalization. Other contributions discuss economic rhetoric and post Keynesian methodological issues while the final part of the book turns to real problems such as the politics and economics of the European Union, the stabilization of the international oil market and realities of financial liberalization.
This book represents the full spectrum of Alan Walters's contribution to economics over thirty years, from academic debate to close involvement in British policy making. It includes not only his earlier contributions to applied monetary economics but also his work on political economy which generated much interest following his appointment as economic adviser to Margaret Thatcher. The volume charts the development of Alan Walters's thinking on money, monetary policy and macroeconomics. It makes special reference to his work on the demand for money and the money multiplier, money and the business cycle and the political economy of money. The book opens with an introduction by Kent Matthews in which he provides an overview of Alan Walters's work in the context of the so-called `monetarist counter-revolution'. He also offers an introductory discussion on each of the essays, which include: the quantity theory of money, consistent expectations, the time lag effects of money, supply-side policies, foreign exchange rates and anti-inflation policies. These essays offer important policy prescriptions, some of which are particularly timely in the light of increasing European economic and monetary integration. The Economics and Politics of Money will be welcomed by business and government as well as professional economists, social scientists and researchers interested in monetary economics and political economy.
Banking in Transition Economies is a modern analysis of banking in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe and includes a detailed examination of banking in the first five years of transition as well as policy recommendations for banking reform in the region. This authoritative book presents an extensive investigation of changes in the structure of the banking industry and the progress of privatization, particularly in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Privatization and the restructuring of 'problem banks' are analysed as well as the strategy for re-capitalization and bank failure, and the role of foreign banks in bringing reform to the region. The book offers policy prescriptions for the transition from a passive banking structure to an active financial sector supporting the development of the industrial sector, and for the role of the state after privatization. This book will be of great importance to bankers in Central and Eastern Europe and economists interested in the process of transition, as well as financial and monetary economists.
This important book is concerned with the evaluation of changes in income distribution and the analysis of tax and transfer systems. The book begins with an introduction to the measurement of inequality and poverty, stressing the role of value judgements. The following six chapters deal with cross- sectional comparisons, including the analysis of a labour market model of income distribution, the choice of transfer system, marginal indirect tax reform, and the distributional effects of inflation. The next seven chapters are concerned with dynamic aspects of income distribution. These examine the complex relationship between cross-sectional and lifetime distributions, relative income mobility, and the effects of income mobility on temporary and permanent poverty. The Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty will be essential reading for students and scholars of public sector economics, welfare economics and social economics, along with those directly concerned with policy formulation.
Economic Policy presents an authoritative selection of articles which have played a key role in influencing the direction of economic theory and methodology and thus the policy presecriptions which macroeconomists give to decision-makers. Volume I contains the most influential articles which have shaped the main debates in macroeconomic theory since its foundation. It covers such topics as the debate between Keynes and the Keynesians, the dispute between Keynes and the monetarists, the rational expectation revolution and critiques of that approach, and the debate between New Classical theorists and 'new' Keynesian theorists. Also included are papers which have defined alternative methodological approaches to modelling the macroeconomy. Volume II investigates some important applications of economic policy analysis. It examines some of the key economic problems on the political agenda such as the record of monetarism, the problems of trade and structural unemployment, European monetary integration and the reform of post-Communist societies and assesses the extent to which economic research throws light on these problems.
The major industrialized countries are undergoing a significant demographic transition associated with low fertility rates combined with reduced mortality rates. A major consequence of the current transition is that populations are expected to age substantially over the next forty years. This innovative book studies the effects of population ageing with the associated factor of immigration, on social expenditure and public finance. The authors begin by providing an introduction to some of the main issues concerning population ageing and migration. This is followed by a discussion of the demographic and economic aspects of the transition towards an older population which is taking place in the major industrialized countries. Within this framework the impacts of ageing on government budgets and the labour market are analysed. The book then turns to a discussion of some of the economic, social and demographic issues related to immigration. Particular emphasis is placed on the Australian economy, which provides an interesting case study in view of its high immigration levels, particularly over the last fifty years. The authors project population structure and social expenditure patterns under a variety of assumptions concerning the number and composition of immigrants. The quantitative techniques developed to produce these projections can be applied without modification to any other country. Population Ageing, Migration and Social Expenditure will be of use to academics and students with an interest in public finance, public policy and population studies.
Baumol's Cost Disease is the inevitable escalation of the real costs that occur in labour-intensive industries like the arts, health care and education. The labour costs in these industries tend to increase at the same rate as other industries, but their scope for utilizing labour-saving technical progress is either small or non-existent. The book opens with an introduction by Ruth Towse in which there is an overview of William Baumol's work. In this discussion Ruth Towse examines Baumol's work in the context of the development of the economics of the arts. The volume is then divided into parts and begins by introducing William Baumol's work through several autobiographical essays. This is followed by some of his early contributions to cultural economics and the cost disease. William Baumol's leading macroeconomic work on the `unbalanced growth model' is also included and the debate about it at its inception. In parts three and four some of the more empirical papers on the arts are presented as well as essays on policy implications for the arts. Following this are chapters on the theatre and publishing as well as historical studies of the arts and the implications of the cost disease for libraries, health care and education. This book contains William Baumol's contribution to cultural economics and spans over 30 years of writing on the subject, much of which is not widely available. It provides a real insight into the development of Baumol's analysis and his perception of the problems of the arts and other labour-intensive sectors.
In this book, well-known expert Riccardo Rebonato provides the theoretical foundations (no-arbitrage, convexity, expectations, risk premia) needed for the affine modeling of the government bond markets. He presents and critically discusses the wealth of empirical findings that have appeared in the literature of the last decade, and introduces the 'structural' models that are used by central banks, institutional investors, sovereign wealth funds, academics, and advanced practitioners to model the yield curve, to answer policy questions, to estimate the magnitude of the risk premium, to gauge market expectations, and to assess investment opportunities. Rebonato weaves precise theory with up-to-date empirical evidence to build, with the minimum mathematical sophistication required for the task, a critical understanding of what drives the government bond market.
With a population of 1.2 billion and nearly two decades of spectacular growth, China promises to become one of the world's largest economic powers and consumer markets in the next century. A salient feature of the contemporary Chinese economy is the significance of state intervention toward business in the form of `preferential policies'. Thanks to these policies, a firm's location, ownership type and area of business largely determine whether it should receive privileges of disadvantages in the regulated business environment. The fast changing preferential policies have had great influence on a wide range of economic activities, including foreign direct investment. The extent, complexity and variety of these policies are bewildering to both investors and academics who study the Chinese economy. State Intervention and Business in China is a systematic study of China's preferential economic policies. Dr Lu and Dr Tang present these policies in three categories, namely, the investor-oriented, the region-oriented, and the industry-oriented policies. The authors give a clear account of policies including: preferential tax rates, state bank loans, trade protection and subsidies, and licensing schemes. The book provides the in-depth political economy analyses that reveal the sources and functions of these policies. By offering empirical observations on the impact of state intervention on regional development and economic structures, this book sheds new light on the prospects for China's economic policy making. State Intervention and Business in China will be indispensably for scholars and specialists who are interested in contemporary Chinese economy and society. It is also a valuable guide for doing business in China.
In Government Versus the Market, Roger Middleton provides a comprehensive, interdisciplinary and controversial analysis of how Britain's relative economic decline from the late nineteenth century onwards generated an intense debate about the legitimate roles of government and the market. After a thorough analysis of Britain's long-run economic performance in a comparative context, which emphasizes how the problem of decline is frequently misunderstood, and an account of the long-run forces promoting and constraining government growth, he then charts how the economic role of government evolved in response to decline but produced a mix of macroeconomic and microeconomic policies which proved inadequate for the task. This major study emphasizes the institutional and political constraints to economic modernization and uses the specific characteristics of Britain's predicament, a combination of market failure and impotent state, to explain why by 1979 the burgeoning New Right were able to launch an attack upon big government. Dr Middleton then demonstrates how Britain's subsequent economic performance, while brilliantly propagandized as an economic renaissance, has in fact been lacklustre and why the Conservatives' economic strategy failed to address the underlying problems of decline and to reduce the size of the public sector. Government versus the Market brings an unrivalled historical, empirical and theoretical breadth to our understanding of the last century of British economic history as well as a wealth of material on economic performance and public sector growth, and the fullest bibliography yet published on Britain's economic decline. Comprehensive, authoritative and wide-ranging, this extensive study uses a long-term and comparative framework which draws upon the latest research of economists, historians and political scientists to show why successive governments have been unable to halt Britain's relative economic decline.
Full Employment and Growth presents James Tobin's unique modern Keynesian slant on the major monetary, fiscal and international policy issues of the 1990s. More than twenty recent essays collected together in this volume address the major contemporary issues of macroeconomic policy, especially in America. Usually dissenting from the orthodoxies of the day, both liberal and conservative, Professor Tobin offers a common sense, unhysterical view of public deficits and debt, speaks for pragmatic monetary policies, argues against protectionism and favours slowing down the speculative movement of funds between currencies. The author also presents his own suggestions for reform of social security and health care. Again and again, Professor Tobin warns against blind faith that the markets will always produce optimal results. All those interested in the application of economic analysis and argument to the salient policy issues of our time will find these essays eminently readable and will appreciate the clear ways in which the power of economic analysis is explained and used.
Macroeconomic analysis has undergone profound and controversial changes during the past twenty-five years and, as such, economists have developed and evolved their approaches to the discipline. Reflections on the Development of Modern Macroeconomics presents a collection of eight original essays, from leading scholars, each of which focuses on an important issue relating to these developments. These accessible, reflective surveys include: * to stabilize or not to stabilize: is that the question? Brian Snowdon and Howard Vane * the rhetoric and methodology of modern macroeconomics Roger Backhouse * how relevant is Keynesian economics today? Keith Shaw * what remains of the monetarist counter-revolution? Thomas Mayer * macroeconomics: before and after rational expectations Patrick Minford * the ups and downs of modern business cycle theory Cillian Ryan and Andrew Mullineux * the role of imperfect competition in new Keynesian economics Huw Dixon * politics and the macroeconomy: endogenous politicians and aggregate instability Brian Snowdon and Howard Vane This book will attract a wide readership among intermediate undergraduates, as well as postgraduates and lecturers in the fields of macroeconomics and the history of economic thought.
Money and Macroeconomics is a significant collection of David Laidler's most important papers on the so-called `monetarist counter-revolution'. This volume contains both published and unpublished examples of his influential contribution, detailing empirical work on the demand for money, the economics of inflation, the foundations of the `buffer stock' approach to monetary theory, the monetarist critique of new classical economics and issues of economic policy. David Laidler has also prepared a personal memoir to accompany his volume which gives a revealing account of his academic career and influences, and places each essay in its original intellectual context. Money and Macroeconomics presents in one volume David Laidler's most important contributions to monetary economics. It will be invaluable to monetary and financial economists as well as policy makers and historians of economic thought.
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