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In response to the credit crunch during the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, many have called for the re-establishment of regional banks in the UK and elsewhere. In this context, Germany's regional banking system, with its more than 1,400 small and regional savings banks and cooperative banks, is viewed as a role model in the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, in line with the `death of distance' debate, the universal application of ICT-based scoring and rating systems potentially obviates the necessity for proximity to reduce information asymmetries between banks and SMEs, calling into question the key advantage of regional banks. Utilising novel ethnographic findings from full-time participant observation and interviews, this book presents intimate insights into regional savings banks and compares their SME lending practices with large, nationwide-operating commercial banks in Germany. The ethnographic insights are contextualised by concise description of the three-pillar German banking system, covering bank regulation, structural and geographical developments, and enterprise finance. Furthermore, the book advances an original theoretical approach that combines classical banking theories with insights from social studies of finance on the (ontological) foundation of new realism. Ethnographic findings reveal varying distances of credit granting depending on the rating results, i.e. large banks allocate considerable credit-granting authority to local staff and therefore challenge the proximity advantages of regional banks. Nevertheless, by presenting case studies of lending to SMEs, the book demonstrates the ability of regional banks to capitalise on proximity when screening and monitoring financially distressed SMEs and explains why the suggestion that ICT can substitute for proximity in SME lending has to be rejected.
Discover the latest thinking of today's economists on important macroeconomic phenomena while developing a solid global understanding of macroeconomic principles with Melvin/Boyes's PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS, 9E, International Edition. This book clearly illustrates the connections between key macroeconomic principles and today's actual business practices using a reader-friendly approach, memorable examples, and unique global emphasis. The latest macroeconomic statistics and developments as well as new coverage of recent events, such as the financial crisis and its global implications, ensure readers are familiar with contemporary applications of concepts. Proven learning tools and accompanying technology help clarify the macroeconomics concepts and applications that are most important for today's career and business success.
Issues in debates about foreign currency exposure-the denomination of liabilities or assets in foreign currency. The foreign currency denomination of contracts in international transactions can lead to international currency exposure at the country level with important economic and policy implications. When debts are denominated in foreign currency and revenues in domestic currency, exchange rate fluctuations can result in balance sheet effects for countries with either net asset or liability positions. Moreover, currency mismatch between assets and liabilities can be a cause for crises in developing and emerging economies. This book looks at the issues surrounding foreign currency exposure in today's increasingly integrated world economy. The contributors draw on cross-country as well as country-specific data. They consider international currency risk after the Swiss franc ended its one-sided peg with the euro, for example, and the foreign exchange positions of firms in Turkey and Russia. Other contributors take macroeconomic perspectives, examining the potential effects of exchange rate realignment, the pressure to appreciate on countries with current account surpluses, and the currency exposure in international trade. Finally, contributors consider the issue from finance and political economy perspectives, addressing the phenomenon of the forward premium puzzle and discussing geopolitical aspects ascending currencies. Contributors Fatih Altunok, Huseyin Aytug, Agustin S. Benetrix, Joerg Breitung, Paul De Grauwe, Eiji Fujii, Peter Garber, Juann H. Hung, Signe Krogstrup, Philip R. Lane, Katja Mann, Arif Oduncu, Gunther Schnabl, Maria V. Sokolova, Cedric Tille
From the New York Times bestselling author of This Time Is Different, "a fascinating and important book" (Ben Bernanke) about phasing out most paper money to fight crime and tax evasion--and to battle financial crises by tapping the power of negative interest rates The world is drowning in cash--and it's making us poorer and less safe. In The Curse of Cash, Kenneth Rogoff, one of the world's leading economists, makes a persuasive and fascinating case for an idea that until recently would have seemed outlandish: getting rid of most paper money. Even as people in advanced economies are using less paper money, there is more cash in circulation--a record $1.4 trillion in U.S. dollars alone, or $4,200 for every American, mostly in $100 bills. And the United States is hardly exceptional. So what is all that cash being used for? The answer is simple: a large part is feeding tax evasion, corruption, terrorism, the drug trade, human trafficking, and the rest of a massive global underground economy. As Rogoff shows, paper money can also cripple monetary policy. In the aftermath of the recent financial crisis, central banks have been unable to stimulate growth and inflation by cutting interest rates significantly below zero for fear that it would drive investors to abandon treasury bills and stockpile cash. This constraint has paralyzed monetary policy in virtually every advanced economy, and is likely to be a recurring problem in the future. The Curse of Cash offers a plan for phasing out most paper money--while leaving small-denomination bills and coins in circulation indefinitely--and addresses the issues the transition will pose, ranging from fears about privacy and price stability to the need to provide subsidized debit cards for the poor. While phasing out the bulk of paper money will hardly solve the world's problems, it would be a significant step toward addressing a surprising number of very big ones. Provocative, engaging, and backed by compelling original arguments and evidence, The Curse of Cash is certain to spark widespread debate.
This introductory textbook for business statistics teaches statistical analysis and research methods via business case studies and financial data using Excel, Minitab, and SAS. Every chapter in this textbook engages the reader with data of individual stock, stock indices, options, and futures. One studies and uses statistics to learn how to study, analyze, and understand a data set of particular interest. Some of the more popular statistical programs that have been developed to use statistical and computational methods to analyze data sets are SAS, SPSS, and Minitab. Of those, we look at Minitab and SAS in this textbook. One of the main reasons to use Minitab is that it is the easiest to use among the popular statistical programs. We look at SAS because it is the leading statistical package used in industry. We also utilize the much less costly and ubiquitous Microsoft Excel to do statistical analysis, as the benefits of Excel have become widely recognized in the academic world and its analytical capabilities extend to about 90 percent of statistical analysis done in the business world. We demonstrate much of our statistical analysis using Excel and double check the analysis and outcomes using Minitab and SAS-also helpful in some analytical methods not possible or practical to do in Excel.
In international commentary and debate on the effects of the Great Recession and austerity, Ireland has been hailed as the poster child for economic recovery and regeneration out of deep economic and fiscal contraction. While the genesis of Ireland's financial, economic, and fiscal crisis has been covered in the literature, no systematic analysis has yet been devoted to the period of austerity, to the impact of austerity on institutions and people, or to the roots of economic recovery. In this book a group of Ireland's leading social scientists present a multidisciplinary analysis of recession and austerity and their effects on economic, business, political, and social life. Individual chapters discuss the fiscal and economic policies implemented, the role of international, and, in particular, of EU institutions, and the effects on businesses, consumption, work, the labour market, migration, political and financial institutions, social inequality and cohesion, housing, and cultural expression. The book shows that Ireland cannot be viewed uncritically as a poster child for austerity. While fiscal contraction provided a basis for stabilizing the perilous finances of the state, economic recovery was due in the main to the long-established structure of Irish economic and business activity, to the importance of foreign direct investment and the dynamic export sector, and to recovery in the international economy. The restructuring and recovery of the financial system was aided by favourable international developments, including historically low interest rates and quantitative easing. Migration flows, nominal wage stability, the protection of social transfer payments, and the involvement of trade unions in severe public sector retrenchment - long-established features of Irish political economy - were of critical importance in the maintenance of social cohesion.
This book presents research that applies contemporary monetary theory and state-of-the-art econometric methods to the analysis of the monetary and financial aspects of the Indian economy and the impact of monetary policy on economic performance. Indian monetary policy has attracted significant attention from Indian and international macroeconomists over the last several years. Interest in how monetary policy influences economic performance and how monetary policy is conducted in India is growing. The prospects for further financial sector reform and ongoing inflation in India have sparked new interest in the role of money and monetary policy in India among economists, policy makers and students alike. The book should also interest economists outside India because it studies monetary economics in a major emerging market economy and makes advances in the analysis of how financial market imperfections and structural constraints influence the effects of monetary policy.
For half a century, the United States has garnered substantial political and economic benefits as a result of the dollar's de facto role as a global currency. In recent years, however, the dollar's preponderant position in world markets has come under challenge. The dollar has been more volatile than ever against foreign currencies, and various nations have switched to non-dollar instruments in their transactions. China and the Arab Gulf states continue to hold massive amounts of U.S. government obligations, in effect subsidizing U.S. current account deficits, and those holdings are a point of potential vulnerability for American policy.
What is the future of the U.S. dollar as an international currency? Will predictions of its demise end up just as inaccurate as those that have accompanied major international financial crises since the early 1970s? Analysts disagree, often profoundly, in their answers to these questions. In The Future of the Dollar, leading scholars of dollar's international role bring multidisciplinary perspectives and a range of contrasting predictions to the question of the dollar's future. This timely book provides readers with a clear sense of why such disagreements exist and it outlines a variety of future scenarios and the possible political implications for the United States and the world.
Contributors: David Calleo, The Johns Hopkins University; Benjamin Cohen, University of California, Santa Barbara; Marcello de Cecco, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, Italy; Eric Helleiner, University of Waterloo; Harold James, Princeton University and European University Institute; Jonathan Kirshner, Cornell University; Ronald I. McKinnon, Stanford University; Herman Schwartz, University of Virginia
Central bank collateral frameworks are an often overlooked feature of monetary policy that play a key role in the monetary and financial system. Readers will discover how central banks conduct and implement monetary policy beyond merely setting interest rates, and develop their understanding as to how collateral policies may affect financial markets, financial stability, and the real economy. This book studies the collateral framework in the euro area in detail, and levers this analysis to provide an account of the euro crisis from the perspective of collateral policy. Readers gain access to a wealth of institutional and economic data and information with a level of density and accessibility unavailable elsewhere. This book, the first of its kind, is a valuable read for academic monetary and financial economists, those working in banking and policy-making financial institutions, and anyone who wishes to learn more about the role of central banks in society.
The Future of the Euro is an attempt by political economists to analyze the fundamental causes of the euro crisis, determine how it can be fixed, and consider what likely futures lie ahead for the currency. The book makes three interrelated arguments that emphasize the primacy of political over economic factors. First, the 'euro problem' is discussed as the result of the single currency's fundamental lack of institutional embeddedness, insofar as its original design omitted three 'forgotten unions' alongside of monetary union: a financial and banking union, mutually supporting institutions of fiscal union and economic government, and a political union holding similar legitimacy to the nation-state. Second, the 'euro experience' shows how the euro's unfinished design led to economic divergence - quietly altering the existing distribution of economic and political power within Europe prior to the crisis - which in turn determined the EU's crisis response. The book highlights how the euro's four most important members - Germany, France, Italy and Spain - each changed once they adopted the euro, why the crisis affected them so differently, and how each has since struggled to live with the commitments the euro necessitates. Third, the book examines three possible 'euro futures' through the lens of the politics of its reluctant leader Germany; through the lens of the EU's capacity to 'move forward' through crises; and through the geopolitical lens of the international monetary system. The book concludes that any successful long-term solution to the euro's predicament needs to start with the political foundations of markets.
This book offers an excellent survey of various macroeconomic topics that feature prominently in the research agenda and have inspired both theoretical and policy debate. The book presents an authoritative and comprehensive summary and original critique of macroeconomic approaches by a scholar whose own contribution to the field is considerable. In each of his seven chapters, the author reviews one school of economic thought. These are: the Keynesian school of macroeconomics; the monetarist school; the New Classical school; the New-Keynesian school; supply side macroeconomics, and `non-monetary' models of macroeconomics - the real business cycle theory and the `structuralist school' which views changes in unemployment as the outcome of shifts in the structural characteristics of the economy.
This book presents a comprehensive evaluation of the likely economic impact upon the UK economy arising from Brexit. It seeks to assess both the methods adopted, and conclusions reached, by the existing economic studies, and supplements this by providing additional evidence to assist the reader in forming their own assessment of the relative merits of the different approaches. It additionally outlines the options available to policy makers for the formation of an economic strategy capable of adapting the economy to the challenges and opportunities presented by Brexit. Finally, it outlines and comments upon the range of alternative models of future trading relationships that are available to the UK, both in relation to the EU and the rest of the world.
The financial system is a densely interconnected network of financial intermediaries, facilitators, and markets that serves three major purposes: allocating capital, sharing risks, and facilitating intertemporal trade. Asset prices are an important mechanism in each of these phenomena. Capital allocation, whether through loans or other forms of investment, can vary both across sectors-at the broadest, manufactures, agriculture, and services-and within sectors, for example different firms. The risk that various investors are willing to take reflects their financial position and alternative opportunities. Risk and asset allocation are also influenced by whether money, and especially its expenditure, is more important now or in the future. These decisions are all influenced by governmental policies. When there are mismatches, the results include financial meltdowns, fiscal deficits, sovereign debt, default and debt crises. Harold L. Cole provides a broad overview of the financial system and assets pricing, covering history, institutional detail, and theory. The book begins with an overview of financial markets and their operation and then covers asset pricing for standard assets and derivatives, and analyzes what modern finance says about firm behavior and capital structure. It then examines theories of money, exchange rates, electronic payments methods, and cryptocurrencies. After exploring banks and other forms of financial intermediation, the book examines the role they played in the Great Recession. Having provided an overview of the provate sector, Cole switches to public finance and government borrowing as well as the incentives to monetize the public debt and its consequences. The book closes with an examination of sovereign debt crises and an analysis of their various forms. Finance and financial intermediation are central to modern economies. This book covers all of the material a sophisticated economist needs to know about this area.
In one lifetime, GDP, or Gross Domestic Product, has ballooned from a narrow economic tool into a global article of faith. As The Little Big Number demonstrates, this spells trouble. While economies and cultures measure their performance by it, GDP only measures output. It ignores central facts such as quality, costs, or purpose. Sustainability and quality of life are overlooked. Losses don't count. The world can no longer afford GDP rule--GDP ignores real development. Dirk Philipsen demonstrates how the history of GDP reveals unique opportunities to fashion smarter goals and measures. The Little Big Number explores a possible roadmap for a future that advances quality of life rather than indiscriminate growth.
An in-depth look at how politics and economics shape the relationship between Congress and the Federal Reserve Born out of crisis a century ago, the Federal Reserve has become the most powerful macroeconomic policymaker and financial regulator in the world. The Myth of Independence marshals archival sources, interviews, and statistical analyses to trace the Fed (TM)s transformation from a weak, secretive, and decentralized institution in 1913 to a remarkably transparent central bank a century later. Offering a unique account of Congress (TM)s role in steering this evolution, Sarah Binder and Mark Spindel explore the Fed (TM)s past, present, and future and challenge the myth of its independence.
The absolute and relative performance of various asset classes is systematically related to macroeconomic trends. In this new book, Robert McGee provides a thorough guide to each stage of the business cycle and analyzes the investment implications using real-world examples linking economic dynamics to investment results.
This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization. Over the past twenty years, the study of industrial organization-the analysis of imperfectly competitive markets-has grown from a niche area of microeconomics to a key component of economics and of related disciplines such as finance, strategy, and marketing. This book provides an issue-driven introduction to industrial organization. It includes a vast array of examples, from both within and outside the United States. While formal in its approach, the book is written in a way that requires only basic mathematical training. Supplemental materials posted on the Web make more extensive use of algebra and calculus.
The new European edition of Mankiw's bestselling and highly readable text communicates the theories and models of macroeconomics in a concise and accessible way, with real-world examples, discussions and case studies. The text is fully updated with extensive coverage of the global financial crisis and in particular its impact on European economies.
Today, the most pressing challenges for public economics are of macroeconomic nature: pensions, debt, income distribution, and fiscal sustainability. All these problems are compounded by the phenomenon of demographic transition and aging. This graduate textbook addresses these issues with the help of state-of-the-art macroeconomic tools that are based on a sound microfoundation and rooted in empirical evidence. Different from the standard partial-equilibrium analysis in traditional textbooks on public economics, the concept of general equilibrium helps to account for compensating or amplifying side-effects of economic policy. GAUSS and MATLAB computer code as well as teaching material (slides) are available as downloads from the author's homepage.
This book makes clear that systematic gender biases are present at all levels - in institutions, markets and the household - and presents options for introducing social structures to the macro-economic agenda. The intention is to offer a new framework that brings economic theory and policy-making closer to the circumstances and motivations of real life economic agents. The contributors cover three broad areas - macro-economics and gender, gender and the state, and the institutionalisation of gender considerations in national and international organizations. Using original empirical material, in particular from Latin American countries, they explore a wide range of key issues. These include the gender-differentiated effects of economic policy and public spending decisions; unpaid household labour and its measurement; gender statistics; gender equality in planning and public policy; and the notion of economies as gendered structures. With backgrounds in a variety of disciplines, the authors go beyond a theoretical debate and place the practical realities of policy making centre stage. Their work should be relevant to development research and activity worldwide, while being particularly valuable in its emphasis on how state reform processes can advance a democratic development for women and men on equal terms.
With a combined population larger than that of the EU or NAFTA, economic integration of the ASEAN states will have a massive impact on both the Asian and global economies. This book examines the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) and its opportunities and challenges. It looks at the impacts of economic integration, trade structure and economic interlinkage among these countries through case studies. The book also utilizes theories to further examine areas such as trade, cross-border infrastructure, border management, and the regional development in terms of trade liberalization and foreign labor. This book also provides insight and analysis to developing policies for "ASEAN Connectivity". Given the challenges faced and huge potential impacts of the AEC's cross-border project, this book will be of interest to policy makers, business leaders and researchers in the ASEAN region and throughout the world.
Help today's learner visualize macroeconomics in action with the most pedagogically rich, complete book available--Tucker's MACROECONOMICS FOR TODAY, 8e, International Edition. A quick look at this engaging, dynamic text will show you why this is the book that is famous for helping readers at all levels of skill and preparation grasp and master economic principles. Written by an award-winning educator, recognized for his work in relating basic economic principles to global issues, Irvin Tucker's MACROECONOMICS FOR TODAY, 8e, International Edition continues its unique textual and visual learning system. This edition concisely presents and reinforces core concepts, then immediately assesses student comprehension. You will find the latest economic information on federal deficits, the stimulus package, environmental issues, and other developments presented in an engaging, easy-to-follow format applicable to everyday life. MACROECONOMICS FOR TODAY, 8e, International Edition provides a full complement of instructor resources, including a handy Instructor's Resource CD, new PowerPoint (R) slides, optional CourseMate website, and complete array of videos.
This essential volume reflects the continuing and enduring utility of general equilibrium as a framework of analyses. It attempts to reiterate that understanding broad and holistic consequence of economic events and policies go beyond partial equilibrium perspective. Cutting across areas of research, general equilibrium perspectives in terms of small-scale GE models following the theory and perspectives of Ronald Jones can help readers develop informed judgement regarding critical policies. These include but are not limited to several areas of specific interest - the interaction of financial factors with international trade and implications for the 'real sectors' of the economy, the impact of labour market reforms on the unorganised sectors in developing and transition countries, the non-uniform effects of inflation and deflation on internal and external factor flows, and the sought-after relation between foreign investment and skill accumulation.
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