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Covering fundamental research as well as real-world applications,
this first book on CMAs at an introductory level treats everything
from atomistic details to surface processing. Comprehensive,
self-contained chapters provide readers with the latest knowledge
on the most salient features of the topic, selected in terms of
their relevance to potential technological applications. Edited by
one of the most distinguished authorities on quasicrystals and this
most important of their subclasses, the contributions elucidate
aspects of CMAs from a particular viewpoint: physical and chemical
characteristics in the sub-nanometer regime, mesoscale phenomena,
preparation and processing of thin films, and large-scale
engineering properties. The whole is rounded off by a look at the
commercial potential of CMA-based applications.
This book is specially designed for the mechanical and production streams of B.E./B. Tech students. It is also a handy reference textbook for those interested in metallurgy. This book focuses on the fundamentals of physical metallurgy including crystal structure and imperfections, phase equilibria, phase transformations and heat treatment. Failure and corrosion properties of materials have been discussed in detail. A detailed discussion of magnetism, conductors and semiconductors is the asset of this book. The book also highlights the optical properties, diffusion, chemical bonding, non-conventional energy resources, ceramics and composites. Appendix I contains a collection of reference tables. Multiple-choice questions, short-answer-type questions, long-answer-type questions and numerical problems are provided in Appendix II of this book as exercise for students.
Introduces readers to the field of cyber modeling and simulation and examines current developments in the US and internationally This book provides an overview of cyber modeling and simulation (M&S) developments. Using scenarios, courses of action (COAs), and current M&S and simulation environments, the author presents the overall information assurance process, incorporating the people, policies, processes, and technologies currently available in the field. The author ties up the various threads that currently compose cyber M&S into a coherent view of what is measurable, simulative, and usable in order to evaluate systems for assured operation. An Introduction to Cyber Modeling and Simulation provides the reader with examples of tools and technologies currently available for performing cyber modeling and simulation. It examines how decision-making processes may benefit from M&S in cyber defense. It also examines example emulators, simulators and their potential combination. The book also takes a look at corresponding verification and validation (V&V) processes, which provide the operational community with confidence in knowing that cyber models represent the real world. This book: Explores the role of cyber M&S in decision making Provides a method for contextualizing and understanding cyber risk Shows how concepts such the Risk Management Framework (RMF) leverage multiple processes and policies into a coherent whole Evaluates standards for pure IT operations, "cyber for cyber," and operational/mission cyber evaluations--"cyber for others" Develops a method for estimating both the vulnerability of the system (i.e., time to exploit) and provides an approach for mitigating risk via policy, training, and technology alternatives Uses a model-based approach An Introduction to Cyber Modeling and Simulation is a must read for all technical professionals and students wishing to expand their knowledge of cyber M&S for future professional work.
Real insight from leading experts in the field into the causes of the unique photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells, describing the fundamentals of perovskite materials and device architectures. The authors cover materials research and development, device fabrication and engineering methodologies, as well as current knowledge extending beyond perovskite photovoltaics, such as the novel spin physics and multiferroic properties of this family of materials. Aimed at a better and clearer understanding of the latest developments in the hybrid perovskite field, this is a must-have for material scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers entering or already working in this booming field.
This book is a practical guide to help investigators choose the right experiment, carry it out properly and analyse the data to give the best reliable result. It book gives readers insights to extract what they need from the world of large scale experimental facilities like synchrotrons. Key features: * A no-nonsense introduction to the technique and applications of x-ray absorption spectroscopy * XAFS is now an everyday tool for the structural analysis of material science, biology and catalysts * Features Questions and Answers to support the student s learning through the book * Relevant to all working on synchrotron sources and applications in physics, materials, environment/geology, and biomedical materials * Four-colour representation to allow easy interpretation of images and data for the reader
Adopting a unique approach, this book provides a thorough, one-stop introduction to nanoscience and self-assembly of nanomaterials composed of such materials as metals, metal oxides, metal sulphides, polymers, and biopolymers. Clearly divided into three sections covering the main aspects of nanoscience, the first part deals with the basic principles of nanoscale science. Alongside essential approaches and forces, this section also covers thermodynamics, phase transitions, and applications to biological systems. The second and third parts then go on to provide a detailed description of the synthesis of inorganic and organic nanoparticles, respectively. With its interdisciplinary content of importance to many different branches of nanoscience, this is essential reading for material scientists, physicists, biophysical chemists, chemical engineers, and biotechnologists alike.
Nanoparticles exhibit a range of different properties when compared to bulk materials. Their high surface-area to volume ratio makes them particularly attractive for use as catalysts and recent years have seen an explosion of research in this area. The ability to fine-tune the size and structure of nanoparticles means that it is possible to design catalytic materials for improved activity or specificity. As catalysis is one of the key technologies for more sustainable production of both chemicals and energy, the past few years have seen increasing numbers of nanomaterials reported for these applications. Depending on the application, a number of different catalyst synthesis and optimization protocols can be used. This book provides comprehensive links between the design and fabrication method for nanoparticles and their catalytic performance (activity, selectivity and stability) in various applications. Presenting an introduction to the concept of catalyst design and recent developments in the preparation and characterisation of nanomaterials, followed by several chapters on the design of catalysts for specific applications, this book is a valuable resource for researchers working on catalytic reactions, industrial processes and nanomaterial applications.
This unique resource explains the fundamental physics of semiconductor nanolasers, and provides detailed insights into their design, fabrication, characterization, and applications. Topics covered range from the theoretical treatment of the underlying physics of nanoscale phenomena, such as temperature dependent quantum effects and active medium selection, to practical design aspects, including the multi-physics cavity design that extends beyond pure electromagnetic consideration, thermal management and performance optimization, and nanoscale device fabrication and characterization techniques. The authors also discuss technological applications of semiconductor nanolasers in areas such as photonic integrated circuits and sensing. Providing a comprehensive overview of the field, detailed design and analysis procedures, a thorough investigation of important applications, and insights into future trends, this is essential reading for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in optoelectronics, applied photonics, physics, nanotechnology, and materials science.
Based on a project backed by the European Union, this is a must-have resource for researchers in industry and academia concerned with application-oriented plasma technology research. Clearly divided in three sections, the first part is dedicated to the fundamentals of plasma and offers information about scientific and theoretical plasma topics, plasma production, surface treatment process and characterization. The second section focuses on technological aspects and plasma process applications in textile, food packaging and biomedical sectors, while the final part is devoted to concerns about the environmental sustainability of plasma processes.
A unique and timely book on understanding and tailoring the flow of fluids in porous materials Porous media play a key role in chemical processes, gas and water purification, gas storage and the development of new multifunctional materials. Understanding hydrodynamics in porous media is decisive for enabling a wide range of applications in materials science and chemical engineering. This all-encompassing book offers a timely overview of all flow and transport processes in which chemical or physicochemical phenomena such as dissolution, phase transition, reactions, adsorption, diffusion, capillarity, and surface phenomena are essential. It brings together both theoretical and experimental results and includes important industrial applications. Physicochemical Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media: Applications in Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering explains the thermodynamics of phase equilibria for multicomponent fluids, physicochemical models of single-phase and immiscible two-phase flow, based on the macroscopic theory of oil displacement by water. It also covers the theory of two-phase flow with partial miscibility and describes partially miscible flows with phase transitions by means of the negative saturation approach. The final chapters are devoted to flow with chemical reactions, based on the example of in-situ leaching of uranium, and flow with bio-chemical reactions in terms of the underground storage of hydrogen. -Brings together the theoretical and experimental results necessary for the understanding of hydrodynamics in porous media -Covers important industrial applications such as underground leaching of uranium and underground storage of hydrogen -Presents a state-of-the-art overview and summarizes the research results usually found only scattered in the literature Physicochemical Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media: Applications in Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering will appeal to chemical engineers, materials scientists, applied physicists, and mechanical engineers.
Introducing a unique, modular approach to modeling polymerization reactions, this useful book will enable practitioners - chemists and engineers alike - to set up and structure their own models for simulation software like Predici?, C++, MatLab? or others. The generic modules are exemplified for concrete situations for various reactor types and reaction mechanisms and allow readers to quickly find their own point of interest - a highly useful information source for polymer engineers and researchers in industry and academia.
Galileo Unbound traces the journey that brought us from Galileo's law of free fall to today's geneticists measuring evolutionary drift, entangled quantum particles moving among many worlds, and our lives as trajectories traversing a health space with thousands of dimensions. Remarkably, common themes persist that predict the evolution of species as readily as the orbits of planets or the collapse of stars into black holes. This book tells the history of spaces of expanding dimension and increasing abstraction and how they continue today to give new insight into the physics of complex systems. Galileo published the first modern law of motion, the Law of Fall, that was ideal and simple, laying the foundation upon which Newton built the first theory of dynamics. Early in the twentieth century, geometry became the cause of motion rather than the result when Einstein envisioned the fabric of space-time warped by mass and energy, forcing light rays to bend past the Sun. Possibly more radical was Feynman's dilemma of quantum particles taking all paths at once - setting the stage for the modern fields of quantum field theory and quantum computing. Yet as concepts of motion have evolved, one thing has remained constant, the need to track ever more complex changes and to capture their essence, to find patterns in the chaos as we try to predict and control our world.
This book will be mainly focussed on the properties and uses of dendrimers and dendrons. The aim of this book is to be the reference book about dendrimers applications. It will not describe all details, but it will give the reader a unique overview of what has currently been done with dendrimers, with numerous references and illustrations. It will be divided in four main parts: Part 1) Generalities, syntheses, characterizations and properties; Part 2) Applications in catalysis; Part 3) Applications for the elaboration or modification of materials; and Part 4) Applications in biology/medicine. The role of the nanometric size and the multiple functions of dendrimers on the properties will be emphasized.
Based on the very successful German edition and a seminar held by the German Engineers' Association (VDI) on a regular basis for years now, this English edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest developments. It supplies in particular the special aspects of vacuum technology, applied vacuum pump types and vacuum engineering in the chemical, pharmaceutical and process industry application-segments. The text includes chapters dedicated to latest European regulations for operating in hazardous zones with vacuum systems, methods for process pressure control and regulation and leak detection. All of the authors work or did work at a selection of the most important German companies involved in vacuum technology, and their expertise is disseminated here for engineers working in vacuum technology, chemical process design, plant operation, and mechanical engineering.
This edition of 'CMOS-MEMS' was originally published in the successful series 'Advanced Micro & Nanosystems'. Here, the combination of the globally established, billion dollar chip mass fabrication technology CMOS with the fascinating and commercially promising new world of MEMS is covered from all angles. The book introduces readers to this fi eld and takes them from fabrication technologies and material charaterization aspects to the actual applications of CMOS-MEMS - a wide range of miniaturized physical, chemical and biological sensors and RF systems. Vital knowledge on circuit and system integration issues concludes this in-depth treatise, illustrating the advantages of combining CMOS and MEMS in the first place, rather than having a hybrid solution.
Edited by the initiators of a priority research program funded by the German Science Foundation and written by an international team of key players, this is the first book to provide an overview of nanostructured thermoelectric materials -- putting the new developments into perspective alongside conventional thermoelectrics. As such, it reviews the current state of research on thermoelectric Bi2Te3 nanomaterials, covering advanced methods of materials synthesis, characterization of materials structures and thermoelectric properties, as well as advances in the theory and modeling of transport properties. Nanomaterials-based thermoelectric devices are also discussed with respect to their properties, their suitability for different energy generation applications, and in light of their commercialization potential. An outlook on the chances, challenges and future directions of research rounds off the book, giving a straightforward account of the fundamental and technical problems - plus ways to overcome them.
What are the chemical aspects of graphene as a novel 2D material and how do they relate to the molecular structure? This book addresses these important questions from a theoretical and computational standpoint. Graphene Chemistry: Theoretical Perspectives presents recent exciting developments to correlate graphene s properties and functions to its structure through state-of-the-art computational studies. This book focuses on the chemistry aspect of the structure-property relationship for many fascinating derivatives of graphene; various properties such as electronic structure, magnetism, and chemical reactivity, as well as potential applications in energy storage, catalysis, and nanoelectronics are covered. The book also includes two chapters with significant experimental portions, demonstrating how deep insights can be obtained by joint experimental and theoretical efforts. Topics covered include: * Graphene ribbons: Edges, magnetism, preparation from unzipping, and electronic transport * Nanographenes: Properties, reactivity, and synthesis * Clar sextet rule in nanographene and graphene nanoribbons * Porous graphene, nanomeshes, and graphene-based architecture and assemblies * Doped graphene: Theory, synthesis, characterization and applications * Mechanisms of graphene growth in chemical vapor deposition * Surface adsorption and functionalization of graphene * Conversion between graphene and graphene oxide * Applications in gas separation, hydrogen storage, and catalysis Graphene Chemistry: Theoretical Perspectives provides a useful overview for computational and theoretical chemists who are active in this field and those who have not studied graphene before. It is also a valuable resource for experimentalist scientists working on graphene and related materials, who will benefit from many concepts and properties discussed here.
A work on turbulent premixed combustion is timely because of increased concern about the environmental impact of combustion and the search for new combustion concepts and technologies. An improved understanding of lean fuel turbulent premixed flames must play a central role in the fundamental science of these new concepts. Lean premixed flames have the potential to offer ultra-low emission levels, but they are notoriously susceptible to combustion oscillations. Thus, sophisticated control measures are inevitably required. The editors' intent is to set out the modeling aspects in the field of turbulent premixed combustion. Good progress has been made recently on this topic. Thus, it is timely to edit a cohesive volume containing contributions from international experts on various subtopics of the lean premixed flame problem.
"Analysis and Modelling of Non-Steady Flow in Pipe and Channel Networks" deals with flows in pipes and channel networks from the standpoints of hydraulics and modelling techniques and methods. These engineering problems occur in the course of the design and construction of hydroenergy plants, water-supply and other systems. In this book, the author presents his experience in solving these problems from the early 1970s to the present day. During this period new methods of solving hydraulic problems have evolved, due to the development of computers and numerical methods.
This book is accompanied by a website which hosts the author's software package, "Simpip ""("an abbreviation of "sim""ulation of pipe flow) "for solving non-steady pipe flow using the finite element method. The program also covers flows in channels. The book presents the numerical core of the SimpipCore program (written in Fortran).
Key features: Presents the theory and practice of modelling different flows in hydraulic networksTakes a systematic approach and addresses the topic from the fundamentalsPresents numerical solutions based on finite element analysisAccompanied by a website hosting supporting material including the SimpipCore project as a standalone program
"Analysis and Modelling of Non-Steady Flow in Pipe and Channel Networks" is an ideal reference book for engineers, practitioners and graduate students across engineering disciplines.
The focus of Thermodynamics: Concepts and Applications is on traditional thermodynamics topics, but structurally the book introduces the thermal-fluid sciences. Chapter 2 includes essentially all material related to thermodynamic properties clearly showing the hierarchy of thermodynamic state relationships. Element conservation is considered in Chapter 3 as a way of expressing conservation of mass. Constant-pressure and volume combustion are considered in Chapter 5 - Energy Conservation. Chemical and phase equilibria are treated as a consequence of the 2nd law in Chapter 6. 2nd law topics are introduced hierarchically in one chapter, important structure for a beginner. The book is designed for the instructor to select topics and combine them with material from other chapters seamlessly. Pedagogical devices include: learning objectives, chapter overviews and summaries, historical perspectives, and numerous examples, questions and problems and lavish illustrations. Students are encouraged to use the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) online properties database.
This book summarizes the results of the research on how to make small electronic devices with high properties by using simple liquid processes such as coating, self-assembling and printing, especially focusing on devices composed of silicon and oxide materials. It describes syntheses and analyses of solution materials, formations of solid thin films from solutions, newly developed patterning methods to make devices, and characterization of the developed devices. In the first part of the book, the research on liquid silicon (Si) materials is described. Because the use of a liquid material is a quite new idea for Si devices, this book is the first one to describe liquid Si materials for electronic devices. Si devices as typified by MOS-FET have been produced by using solid and gas materials. This volume precisely describes a series of processes from material synthesis to device fabrication for those who are interested and are/will be engaged in liquid Si-related work. In the latter part of the book, a general method of how to make good oxide films from solutions and a new imprinting method to make nanosized patterns are introduced. For making oxide films with high quality, the designing of the solution is crucial. If a solution is designed properly, a gel material called "cluster gel" can be formed which is able to be imprinted to form nanosized patterns. The anticipated readers of this book are researchers, engineers, and students who are interested in solution and printing processes for making devices. More generally, this book will also provide guidelines for corporate managers and executives who are responsible for making strategies for future manufacturing processes.
Nanomaterials are defined as materials in which at least one length dimension is below 100 nanometers. In this size regime, these materials exhibit particular - and tunable - optical, electrical or mechanical properties that are not present at the macro-scale. This opens up the possibility for a plethora of applications at the interface of materials, chemistry, physics and biology, many of which have already entered the commercial realm. When nanomaterials are blended with other materials not necessarily in the nanometer regime, the resulting nanocomposites can exhibit dramatically different properties than the bulk material alone, leading to an enhanced performance in terms of, for example, increased thermal and mechanical stability. This book presents the synthesis, characterization and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites, covering zero-dimensional, elemental nanoparticles, one-dimensional materials such as nanorods and nanowhiskers, two-dimensional materials such as graphene and boron nitride as well as three-dimensional materials such as fullerenes, polyhedral oligomers and zeolites, complemented by bio-based nanomaterials, e.g., cellulose, chitin, starch and proteins. Introductory chapters on the state-of-the-art of nanomaterial research and the chemistry and physics in nanoscience and nanotechnology round off the book.
A review of the various methodologies for the surface treatment of different types of inorganic spherical and fibrous fillers, describing ball milling, cationic polymerization, vapor phase grafting, plasma treatment and UV irradiation in detail. In addition, the book connects the resulting composite properties to the modified filler surface properties, thus allowing for a purposeful, application-oriented composite design.
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