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The focus of Thermodynamics: Concepts and Applications is on traditional thermodynamics topics, but structurally the book introduces the thermal-fluid sciences. Chapter 2 includes essentially all material related to thermodynamic properties clearly showing the hierarchy of thermodynamic state relationships. Element conservation is considered in Chapter 3 as a way of expressing conservation of mass. Constant-pressure and volume combustion are considered in Chapter 5 - Energy Conservation. Chemical and phase equilibria are treated as a consequence of the 2nd law in Chapter 6. 2nd law topics are introduced hierarchically in one chapter, important structure for a beginner. The book is designed for the instructor to select topics and combine them with material from other chapters seamlessly. Pedagogical devices include: learning objectives, chapter overviews and summaries, historical perspectives, and numerous examples, questions and problems and lavish illustrations. Students are encouraged to use the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) online properties database.
This book summarizes the results of the research on how to make small electronic devices with high properties by using simple liquid processes such as coating, self-assembling and printing, especially focusing on devices composed of silicon and oxide materials. It describes syntheses and analyses of solution materials, formations of solid thin films from solutions, newly developed patterning methods to make devices, and characterization of the developed devices. In the first part of the book, the research on liquid silicon (Si) materials is described. Because the use of a liquid material is a quite new idea for Si devices, this book is the first one to describe liquid Si materials for electronic devices. Si devices as typified by MOS-FET have been produced by using solid and gas materials. This volume precisely describes a series of processes from material synthesis to device fabrication for those who are interested and are/will be engaged in liquid Si-related work. In the latter part of the book, a general method of how to make good oxide films from solutions and a new imprinting method to make nanosized patterns are introduced. For making oxide films with high quality, the designing of the solution is crucial. If a solution is designed properly, a gel material called "cluster gel" can be formed which is able to be imprinted to form nanosized patterns. The anticipated readers of this book are researchers, engineers, and students who are interested in solution and printing processes for making devices. More generally, this book will also provide guidelines for corporate managers and executives who are responsible for making strategies for future manufacturing processes.
Nanomaterials are defined as materials in which at least one length dimension is below 100 nanometers. In this size regime, these materials exhibit particular - and tunable - optical, electrical or mechanical properties that are not present at the macro-scale. This opens up the possibility for a plethora of applications at the interface of materials, chemistry, physics and biology, many of which have already entered the commercial realm. When nanomaterials are blended with other materials not necessarily in the nanometer regime, the resulting nanocomposites can exhibit dramatically different properties than the bulk material alone, leading to an enhanced performance in terms of, for example, increased thermal and mechanical stability. This book presents the synthesis, characterization and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites, covering zero-dimensional, elemental nanoparticles, one-dimensional materials such as nanorods and nanowhiskers, two-dimensional materials such as graphene and boron nitride as well as three-dimensional materials such as fullerenes, polyhedral oligomers and zeolites, complemented by bio-based nanomaterials, e.g., cellulose, chitin, starch and proteins. Introductory chapters on the state-of-the-art of nanomaterial research and the chemistry and physics in nanoscience and nanotechnology round off the book.
A review of the various methodologies for the surface treatment of different types of inorganic spherical and fibrous fillers, describing ball milling, cationic polymerization, vapor phase grafting, plasma treatment and UV irradiation in detail. In addition, the book connects the resulting composite properties to the modified filler surface properties, thus allowing for a purposeful, application-oriented composite design.
Electronic materials provide the basis for many high tech industries that have changed rapidly in recent years. In this fully revised and updated second edition, the author discusses the range of available materials and their technological applications. Introduction to the Electronic Properties of Materials, 2nd Edition presents the principles of the behavior of electrons in materials and develops a basic understanding with minimal technical detail. Broadly based, it touches on all of the key issues in the field and offers a multidisciplinary approach spanning physics, electrical engineering, and materials science. It provides an understanding of the behavior of electrons within materials, how electrons determine the magnetic thermal, optical and electrical properties of materials, and how electronic properties are controlled for use in technological applications. Although some mathematics is essential in this area, the mathematics that is used is easy to follow and kept to an appropriate level for the reader. An excellent introductory text for undergraduate students, this book is a broad introduction to the topic and provides a careful balance of information that will be appropriate for physicists, materials scientists, and electrical engineers.
This expanded second edition presents in one text the concepts and processes covered in statics and mechanics of materials curricula following a systematic, topically integrated approach. Building on the novel pedagogy of fusing concepts covered in traditional undergraduate courses in rigid-body statics and deformable body mechanics, rather than simply grafting them together, this new edition develops further the authors' very original treatment of solid mechanics with additional figures, an elaboration on selected solved problems, and additional text as well as a new subsection on viscoelasticity in response to students' feedback. Introduction to Solid Mechanics: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, offers a holistic treatment of the depth and breadth of solid mechanics and the inter-relationships of its underlying concepts. Proceeding from first principles to applications, the book stands as a whole greater than the sum of its parts.
What mysteries lurk in the depths of a glass of water? What makes the wispy clouds of vapour rising from your cup of hot coffee? Or the puffy white clouds hovering in the sky? Why do bubbles in your fizzy drinks get bigger the longer you wait? What keeps Jelly's water from oozing out? Why does your tongue stick to something frozen? Professor Pollack takes us on a fantastic voyage through water, showing us a hidden universe teeming with physical activity, providing cogent explanations to many of waters long-held secrets. In conversational prose, Pollack exposes where some scientists may have gone wrong, and instead lays a simple foundation for understanding how changes of water structure underlie most energetic transitions of form and motion on Earth. This seminal work, peppered with whimsical illustrations and simple diagrams invites us to open our eyes and re-experience our natural world, to take nothing for granted, and to reawaken our childhood dream of having things make sense.
This is the first detailed description in English of radiation and
polymeric material interaction and the influences of thermal and
optical material properties. As such, it provides comprehensive
information on material and process characteristics as well as
applications regarding plastic laser welding.
ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS covers the basic concepts of first law and second law, Availability and irreversibility; Equations of ideal and real gas mixtures; Discussion on properties of pure substance and their applications; Derivation of general thermodynamic relations; Gibbs, Helmholtz and Maxwell relation; Clausius Claperyon equation; Concepts of air standard cycles; Fuels and combustion and introduction to alternative fuels; Studies of air quality and psychrometric processes. KEY FEATURES: Problems are given in SI units throughout the book Illustrated examples are given to understand the concepts Many solved problems in each chapter Easy to follow and understand Many objective type questions, theory and unsolved problems in each chapter Useful for diploma, undergraduate, postgraduate engineering students
Reviewing recent progress in the fundamental understanding of the
molecule-metal interface, this useful addition to the literature
focuses on experimental studies and introduces the latest
analytical techniques as applied to this interface.
Written by an expert in the field of nanomaterials, composites, and polymers, this book provides up-to-date information on recent advances in various aspects of polymer composites reinforced by carbonaceous nanofillers, including their fabrication and their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. It also extensively covers applications of these nanocomposites in fuel cells, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding, human implants and scaffolds.
An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces is a streamlined yet comprehensive introduction that covers the basic physical properties of electronic materials, the experimental techniques used to measure them, and the theoretical methods used to understand, predict, and design them. Starting with the fundamental electronic properties of semiconductors and electrical measurements of semiconductor interfaces, this text introduces students to the importance of characterizing and controlling macroscopic electrical properties by atomic-scale techniques. The chapters that follow present the full range of surface and interface techniques now being used to characterize electronic, optical, chemical, and structural properties of electronic materials, including semiconductors, insulators, nanostructures, and organics. The essential physics and chemistry underlying each technique is described in sufficient depth for students to master the fundamental principles, with numerous examples to illustrate the strengths and limitations for specific applications. As well as references to the most authoritative sources for broader discussions, the text includes internet links to additional examples, mathematical derivations, tables, and literature references for the advanced student, as well as professionals in these fields. This textbook fills a gap in the existing literature for an entry-level course that provides the physical properties, experimental techniques, and theoretical methods essential for students and professionals to understand and participate in solid-state electronics, physics, and materials science research. An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces is an introductory-to-intermediate level textbook suitable for students of physics, electrical engineering, materials science, and other disciplines. It is essential reading for any student or professional engaged in surface and interface research, semiconductor processing, or electronic device design.
Presenting a unique perspective on state-of-the-art physical gels, this interdisciplinary guide provides a complete, critical analysis of the field and highlights recent developments. It shows the interconnections between the key aspects of gels, from molecules and structure through to rheological and functional properties, with each chapter focusing on a different class of gel. There is also a final chapter covering innovative systems and applications, providing the information needed to understand current and future practical applications of gels in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, cosmetic, chemical and food industries. Many research teams are involved in the field of gels, including theoreticians, experimentalists and chemical engineers, but this interdisciplinary book collates and rationalises the many different points of view to provide a clear understanding of these complex systems for researchers and graduate students.
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline compounds consisting of rigid organic molecules held together and organized by metal ions or clusters. Special interests in these materials arise from the fact that many are highly porous and can be used for storage of small molecules, for example H2 or CO2. Consequently, the materials are ideal candidates for a wide range of applications including gas storage, separation technologies and catalysis. Potential applications include the storage of hydrogen for fuel-cell cars, and the removal and storage of carbon dioxide in sustainable technical processes. MOFs offer the inorganic chemist and materials scientist a wide range of new synthetic possibilities and open the doors to new and exciting basic research. Metal-Organic Frameworks Materials provides a solid basis for the understanding of MOFs and insights into new inorganic materials structures and properties. The volume also reflects progress that has been made in recent years, presenting a wide range of new applications including state-of-the art developments in the promising technology for alternative fuels. The comprehensive volume investigates structures, symmetry, supramolecular chemistry, surface engineering, recognition, properties, and reactions. The content from this book will be added online to the Encyclopedia of Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry: http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eibc
The first textbook to cover this exciting compound class, this
introduction to the field of carbon nanotechnology discusses
everything from nanowires to nanodiamonds, and from synthesis to
We inhabit a world of fluids, including air (a gas), water (a liquid), steam (vapour) and the numerous natural and synthetic fluids which are essential to modern-day life. Fluid mechanics concerns the way fluids flow in response to imposed stresses. The subject plays a central role in the education of students of mechanical engineering, as well as chemical engineers, aeronautical and aerospace engineers, and civil engineers. This textbook includes numerous examples of practical applications of the theoretical ideas presented, such as calculating the thrust of a jet engine, the shock- and expansion-wave patterns for supersonic flow over a diamond-shaped aerofoil, the forces created by liquid flow through a pipe bend and/or junction, and the power output of a gas turbine. The first ten chapters of the book are suitable for first-year undergraduates. The latter half covers material suitable for fluid-mechanics courses for upper-level students Although knowledge of calculus is essential, this text focuses on the underlying physics. The book emphasizes the role of dimensions and dimensional analysis, and includes more material on the flow of non-Newtonian liquids than is usual in a general book on fluid mechanics - a reminder that the majority of synthetic liquids are non-Newtonian in character.
The Book The behaviour of helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft is so complex that understanding the physical mechanisms at work in trim, stability and response, and thus the prediction of Flying Qualities, requires a framework of analytical and numerical modelling and simulation. Good Flying Qualities are vital for ensuring that mission performance is achievable with safety and, in the first and second editions of Helicopter Flight Dynamics, a comprehensive treatment of design criteria was presented, relating to both normal and degraded Flying Qualities. Fully embracing the consequences of Degraded Flying Qualities during the design phase will contribute positively to safety. In this third edition, two new Chapters are included. Chapter 9 takes the reader on a journey from the origins of the story of Flying Qualities, tracing key contributions to the developing maturity and to the current position. Chapter 10 provides a comprehensive treatment of the Flight Dynamics of tiltrotor aircraft; informed by research activities and the limited data on operational aircraft. Many of the unique behavioural characteristics of tiltrotors are revealed for the first time in this book. The accurate prediction and assessment of Flying Qualities draws on the modelling and simulation discipline on the one hand and testing practice on the other. Checking predictions in flight requires clearly defined mission tasks, derived from realistic performance requirements. High fidelity simulations also form the basis for the design of stability and control augmentation systems, essential for conferring Level 1 Flying Qualities. The integrated description of flight dynamic modelling, simulation and flying qualities of rotorcraft forms the subject of this book, which will be of interest to engineers practising and honing their skills in research laboratories, academia and manufacturing industries, test pilots and flight test engineers, and as a reference for graduate and postgraduate students in aerospace engineering.
The first scientific volume to compile the modern analytical techniques for glass analysis, "Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass" presents an up-to-date description of the physico-chemical methods suitable for determining the composition of glass and for speciation of specific components. This unique resource presents members of Association Internationale pour l'Histoire du Verre, as well as university scholars, with a number of case studies where the effective use of one or more of these methods for elucidating a particular culturo-historical or historo-technical aspect of glass manufacturing technology is documented.
Recent years have seen a growing interest in the field of thermodynamic properties of solids due to the development of advanced experimental and modeling tools. Predicting structural phase transitions and thermodynamic properties find important applications in condensed matter and materials science research, as well as in interdisciplinary research involving geophysics and Earth Sciences. The present edited book, with contributions from leading researchers around the world, is aimed to meet the need of academic and industrial researchers, graduate students and non-specialists working in these fields. The book covers various experimental and theoretical techniques relevant to the subject.
Biosensors are devices that detect the presence of microbials such as bacteria, viruses or a range biomolecules, including proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA. For example, they are routinely applied for monitoring the glucose concentration in blood, quality analysis of fresh and waste water and for food control. Nanomaterials are ideal candidates for building sensor devces: where in just a few molecules can alter the properties so drastically that these changes may be easily detected by optical, electrical or chemical means. Recent advantages have radically increased the sensitivity of nanomaterial-based biosensors, making it possible to detect one particular molecule against a background of billions of others. Focusing on the materials suitable for biosensor applications, such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, meso- and nanoporous materials and nanotbues, this text enables the reader to prepare the respective nanomaterials for use in actual devices by appropriate functionalization, surface processing or directed self-assembly. The emphasis throughout is on electrochemical, optical and mechancial detection methods, leading to solutions for today's most challenging tasks. The result is a reference for researchers and developers, disseminating first-hand information on which nanomaterial is best suited to a particular application - and why.
Gain an understanding of fluid mechanics and the ability to analyze this important phenomena encountered by practicing engineers with MECHANICS OF FLUIDS, 5E. The authors use proven learning tools to help you visualize many difficult-to-understand aspects of fluid mechanics. The mathematics used in derivations are readily accessible to you as an undergraduate engineering student. This edition's accompanying Multimedia Fluid Mechanics DVD-ROM helps you gain insights and develop intuition about fluid flow as you view mathematical relationships through movies and conduct actual simulations. The book's companion website includes mini-exams and solutions as well as video tutorials to assist you in further mastering fluid mechanics as an emerging professional.
Complex behavior models (plasticity, cracks, visco elascticity) face some theoretical difficulties for the determination of the behavior law at the continuous scale. When homogenization fails to give the right behavior law, a solution is to simulate the material at a meso scale in order to simulate directly a set of discrete properties that are responsible of the macroscopic behavior. The discrete element model has been developed for granular material. The proposed set shows how this method is capable to solve the problem of complex behavior that are linked to discrete meso scale effects.
Provides a comprehensive overview of the emerging applications of ferroelectric materials in energy harvesting and storage Conventional ferroelectric materials are normally used in sensors and actuators, memory devices, and field effect transistors, etc. Recent progress in this area showed that ferroelectric materials can harvest energy from multiple sources including mechanical energy, thermal fluctuations, and light. This book gives a complete summary of the novel energy-related applications of ferroelectric materials?and reviews both the recent advances as well as the future perspectives in this field. Beginning with the fundamentals of ferroelectric materials, Ferroelectric Materials for Energy Applications offers in-depth chapter coverage of: piezoelectric energy generation; ferroelectric photovoltaics; organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites for solar energy conversion; ferroelectric ceramics and thin films in electric energy storage; ferroelectric polymer composites in electric energy storage; pyroelectric energy harvesting; ferroelectrics in electrocaloric cooling; ferroelectric in photocatalysis; and first-principles calculations on ferroelectrics for energy applications. -Covers a highly application-oriented subject with great potential for energy conversion and storage applications. -Focused toward a large, interdisciplinary group consisting of material scientists, solid state physicists, engineering scientists, and industrial researchers -Edited by the "father of integrated ferroelectrics" Ferroelectric Materials for Energy Applications is an excellent book for researchers working on ferroelectric materials and energy materials, as well as engineers looking to broaden their view of the field.
Presenting the latest coverage of the fundamentals and applications of nanofibrous materials and their structures for graduate students and researchers, this book bridges the communication gap between fiber technologists and materials scientists and engineers. Featuring intensive coverage of electroactive, bioactive and structural nanofibers, it provides a comprehensive collection of processing conditions for electrospinning and includes recent advances in nanoparticle-/nanotube-based nanofibers. The book also covers mechanical properties of fibers and fibrous assemblies, as well as characterisation methods.
Lightness, efficiency, durability and economic as well as
ecological viability are key attributes required from materials
today. In the transport industry, the performance needs are felt
exceptionally strongly. This handbook and ready reference covers
the use of structural materials throughout this industry,
particularly for the road, air and rail sectors. A strong focus is
placed on the latest developments in materials engineering. The
authors present new insights and trends, providing firsthand
information from the perspective of universities, Fraunhofer and
independent research institutes, aerospace and automotive companies
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