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This Guide supports study and revision for IBDP Mathematics HL Paper 3, for students planning to answer questions on Topic 8 Option: Sets, Relations, and Groups. Coverage includes: a review of key aspects of the syllabus relating to abstract algebra; how to apply mathematical concepts to exam-style questions; concise definitions of important concepts, laws, theorems, and proofs; and guidance on boosting exam performance. Key features: worked examples to demonstrate how to solve exam problems; practice questions to test understanding; margin boxes with key points, hints, and tips; and clearly presented equations, diagrams, and tables.
This full colour and visually engaging workbook is designed to help you learn and the master the necessary Functional Skills in Maths at your required level. With examples and questions written specifically for Health and Social Care, you will understand the relevance of Functional Skills and be able to apply them in the workplace.
This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician's toolkit.
A lucid, elegant, and complete survey of set theory, this volume is
drawn from the authors' substantial teaching experience. The first
of three parts focuses on axiomatic set theory. The second part
explores the consistency of the continuum hypothesis, and the final
section examines forcing and independence results.
Written by one of the subject's foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of un decidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah's seminal work on the un decidability in ZFC of Whitehead's Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, the book reviews the fundamentals of abelian group theory and provides some background material from category theory, set theory, topology and homological algebra. An abundance of exercises are included to test the reader's comprehension, and to explore noteworthy extensions and related sidelines of the main topics. A list of open problems and questions, in each chapter, invite the reader to take an active part in the subject's further development.
Ranking issues are found everywhere. For example, bank houses, universities, towns, watersheds etc. are ranked. But also assessment of students in one discipline is a ranking. This last example is trivial, because we have only one criterion, namely the quality of the student in that discipline. In the other cases ranking can be a very hard job. Why? There is often no measure. How do we measure towns with respect to living quality? How do we measure the hazard exerted by chemicals? No chemical has its intrinsic identity card where its hazard can be identified. Thus multi-indicator systems come into play. We gather indicators which help to characterize the items of interest for ranking. Measurement of indicators, selecting indicators, testing indicators. And we arrive at a multi-indicator system. We have gathered useful information for ranking. However, we do not know how to derive ranking from the multitude of valuable information. In a popular approach, the indicator values are weight-averaged. The resulting weighted averages are used to obtain the ranking. We offer the mathematical tool of partial order as a tool to get insight into the process, starting with the multi-indicator system and finishing up with ranking. Application of partial order involving multi-indicator systems is in its initial phases and is advancing with more and more tools. This book provides a timely introduction to the partial order theory and its techniques with worked out illustrations and applications to a variety of live case studies. It is written for interested social and technical scientists, statisticians, computer scientists, and graph theorists, stakeholders, instructors, and students at graduate and senior undergraduate levels. We have enjoyed writing it. You will hopefully enjoy reading it and using it.
An important problem that arises in many scientific and engineering applications is that of approximating limits of infinite sequences which in most instances converge very slowly. Thus, to approximate limits with reasonable accuracy, it is necessary to compute a large number of terms, and this is in general costly. These limits can be approximated economically and with high accuracy by applying suitable extrapolation (or convergence acceleration) methods to a small number of terms. This book is concerned with the coherent treatment, including derivation, analysis, and applications, of the most useful scalar extrapolation methods. The methods it discusses are geared toward problems that commonly arise in scientific and engineering disciplines. It differs from existing books on the subject in that it concentrates on the most powerful nonlinear methods, presents in-depth treatments of them, and shows which methods are most effective for different classes of practical nontrivial problems; it also shows how to fine-tune these methods to obtain the best numerical results. This state-of-the-art reference on the theory and practice of extrapolation methods will interest mathematicians interested in the theory of the relevant methods as well as giving applied scientists and engineers a practical guide to applying speed-up methods in the solution of difficult computational problems. Avram Sidi is Professor is Numerical Analysis in the Computer Science Department at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and holds the Technion Administration Chair in Computer Science. He has published extensively in various areas of numerical analysis and approximation theory and in journals such as Mathematics of Computation, SIAM Review, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, Journal of Approximation Theory, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Numerische Mathematik, and Journal of Scientific Computing. Professor Sidi's work has involved the development of novel methods, their detailed mathematical analysis, design of efficient algorithms for their implementation, and their application to difficult practical problems. His methods and algorithms are successfully used in various scientific and engineering disciplines.
Looking at a sequence of zeros and ones, we often feel that it is not random, that is, it is not plausible as an outcome of fair coin tossing. Why? The answer is provided by algorithmic information theory: because the sequence is compressible, that is, it has small complexity or, equivalently, can be produced by a short program. This idea, going back to Solomonoff, Kolmogorov, Chaitin, Levin, and others, is now the starting point of algorithmic information theory. The first part of this book is a textbook-style exposition of the basic notions of complexity and randomness; the second part covers some recent work done by participants of the ``Kolmogorov seminar'' in Moscow (started by Kolmogorov himself in the 1980s) and their colleagues. This book contains numerous exercises (embedded in the text) that will help readers to grasp the material.
This book is dedicated to Professor Ernst--Rudiger Olderog on the occasion of his 60th birthday. This volume is a reflection on Professor Olderog's contributions to the scientific community. It provides a sample of research ideas that have been influenced directly by Ernst--Rudiger Olderog's work. After a laudatio section that provides a brief overview of Ernst--Rudiger Olderog's research, the book is comprised of five parts with scientific papers written by colleagues and collaborators of Professor Olderog. The papers address semantics, process algebras, logics for verification, program analysis, and synthesis approaches.
Graduate students in the natural sciences--including not only geophysics and space physics but also atmospheric and planetary physics, ocean sciences, and astronomy--need a broad-based mathematical toolbox to facilitate their research. In addition, they need to survey a wider array of mathematical methods that, while outside their particular areas of expertise, are important in related ones. While it is unrealistic to expect them to develop an encyclopedic knowledge of all the methods that are out there, they need to know how and where to obtain reliable and effective insights into these broader areas. Here at last is a graduate textbook that provides these students with the mathematical skills they need to succeed in today's highly interdisciplinary research environment. This authoritative and accessible book covers everything from the elements of vector and tensor analysis to ordinary differential equations, special functions, and chaos and fractals. Other topics include integral transforms, complex analysis, and inverse theory; partial differential equations of mathematical geophysics; probability, statistics, and computational methods; and much more. Proven in the classroom, Mathematical Methods for Geophysics and Space Physics features numerous exercises throughout as well as suggestions for further reading. * Provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to the subject * Covers vector and tensor analysis, ordinary differential equations, integrals and approximations, Fourier transforms, diffusion and dispersion, sound waves and perturbation theory, randomness in data, and a host of other topics * Features numerous exercises throughout * Ideal for students and researchers alike * An online illustration package is available to professors
This Festschrift is published in honor of Yuri Gurevich's 75th birthday. Yuri Gurevich has made fundamental contributions on the broad spectrum of logic and computer science, including decision procedures, the monadic theory of order, abstract state machines, formal methods, foundations of computer science, security, and much more. Many of these areas are reflected in the 20 articles in this Festschrift and in the presentations at the "Yurifest" symposium, which was held in Berlin, Germany, on September 11 and 12, 2015. The Yurifest symposium was co-located with the 24th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2015).
Proof complexity is a rich subject drawing on methods from logic, combinatorics, algebra and computer science. This self-contained book presents the basic concepts, classical results, current state of the art and possible future directions in the field. It stresses a view of proof complexity as a whole entity rather than a collection of various topics held together loosely by a few notions, and it favors more generalizable statements. Lower bounds for lengths of proofs, often regarded as the key issue in proof complexity, are of course covered in detail. However, upper bounds are not neglected: this book also explores the relations between bounded arithmetic theories and proof systems and how they can be used to prove upper bounds on lengths of proofs and simulations among proof systems. It goes on to discuss topics that transcend specific proof systems, allowing for deeper understanding of the fundamental problems of the subject.
This contributed volume includes both theoretical research on philosophical logic and its applications in artificial intelligence, mostly employing the concepts and techniques of modal logic. It collects selected papers presented at the Second Asia Workshop on Philosophical Logic, held in Guangzhou, China in 2014, as well as a number of invited papers by specialists in related fields. The contributions represent pioneering philosophical logic research in Asia.
This book provides a general survey of the main concepts, questions and results that have been developed in the recent interactions between quantum information, quantum computation and logic. Divided into 10 chapters, the books starts with an introduction of the main concepts of the quantum-theoretic formalism used in quantum information. It then gives a synthetic presentation of the main "mathematical characters" of the quantum computational game: qubits, quregisters, mixtures of quregisters, quantum logical gates. Next, the book investigates the puzzling entanglement-phenomena and logically analyses the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and introduces the reader to quantum computational logics, and new forms of quantum logic. The middle chapters investigate the possibility of a quantum computational semantics for a language that can express sentences like "Alice knows that everybody knows that she is pretty", explore the mathematical concept of quantum Turing machine, and illustrate some characteristic examples that arise in the framework of musical languages. The book concludes with an analysis of recent discussions, and contains a Mathematical Appendix which is a survey of the definitions of all main mathematical concepts used in the book.
The Elements of Advanced Mathematics, Fourth Edition is the latest edition of the author's bestselling series of texts. Expanding on previous editions, the new Edition continues to provide students with a better understanding of proofs, a core concept for higher level mathematics. To meet the needs of instructors, the text is aligned directly with course requirements. The author connects computationally and theoretically based mathematics, helping students develop a foundation for higher level mathematics. To make the book more pertinent, the author removed obscure topics and included a chapter on elementary number theory. Students gain the momentum to further explore mathematics in the real world through an introduction to cryptography. These additions, along with new exercises and proof techniques, will provide readers with a strong and relevant command of mathematics.
Descriptive set theory is mainly concerned with studying subsets of the space of all countable binary sequences. In this paper the authors study the generalization where countable is replaced by uncountable. They explore properties of generalized Baire and Cantor spaces, equivalence relations and their Borel reducibility. The study shows that the descriptive set theory looks very different in this generalized setting compared to the classical, countable case. They also draw the connection between the stability theoretic complexity of first-order theories and the descriptive set theoretic complexity of their isomorphism relations. The authors' results suggest that Borel reducibility on uncountable structures is a model theoretically natural way to compare the complexity of isomorphism relations.
This text covers topics in algebraic geometry and commutative algebra with a strong perspective toward practical and computational aspects. The first four chapters form the core of the book. A comprehensive chart in the Preface illustrates a variety of ways to proceed with the material once these chapters are covered. In addition to the fundamentals of algebraic geometry-the elimination theorem, the extension theorem, the closure theorem and the Nullstellensatz-this new edition incorporates several substantial changes, all of which are listed in the Preface. The largest revision incorporates a new Chapter (ten), which presents some of the essentials of progress made over the last decades in computing Groebner bases. The book also includes current computer algebra material in Appendix C and updated independent projects (Appendix D). The book may serve as a first or second course in undergraduate abstract algebra and with some supplementation perhaps, for beginning graduate level courses in algebraic geometry or computational algebra. Prerequisites for the reader include linear algebra and a proof-oriented course. It is assumed that the reader has access to a computer algebra system. Appendix C describes features of Maple (TM), Mathematica (R) and Sage, as well as other systems that are most relevant to the text. Pseudocode is used in the text; Appendix B carefully describes the pseudocode used. From the reviews of previous editions: "...The book gives an introduction to Buchberger's algorithm with applications to syzygies, Hilbert polynomials, primary decompositions. There is an introduction to classical algebraic geometry with applications to the ideal membership problem, solving polynomial equations and elimination theory. ...The book is well-written. ...The reviewer is sure that it will be an excellent guide to introduce further undergraduates in the algorithmic aspect of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry." -Peter Schenzel, zbMATH, 2007 "I consider the book to be wonderful. ... The exposition is very clear, there are many helpful pictures and there are a great many instructive exercises, some quite challenging ... offers the heart and soul of modern commutative and algebraic geometry." -The American Mathematical Monthly
David Hilbert was particularly interested in the foundations of mathematics. Among many other things, he is famous for his attempt to axiomatize mathematics. This now classic text is his treatment of symbolic logic. It lays the groundwork for his later work with Bernays. This translation is based on the second German edition, and has been modified according to the criticisms of Church and Quine. In particular, the authors' original formulation of Godel's completeness proof for the predicate calculus has been updated. In the first half of the twentieth century, an important debate on the foundations of mathematics took place. ""Principles of Mathematical Logic"" represents one of Hilbert's important contributions to that debate. Although symbolic logic has grown considerably in the subsequent decades, this book remains a classic.
Both in science and in practical affairs we reason by combining facts only inconclusively supported by evidence. Building on an abstract understanding of this process of combination, this book constructs a new theory of epistemic probability. The theory draws on the work of A. P. Dempster but diverges from Depster's viewpoint by identifying his "lower probabilities" as epistemic probabilities and taking his rule for combining "upper and lower probabilities" as fundamental.
The book opens with a critique of the well-known Bayesian theory of epistemic probability. It then proceeds to develop an alternative to the additive set functions and the rule of conditioning of the Bayesian theory: set functions that need only be what Choquet called "monotone of order of infinity." and Dempster's rule for combining such set functions. This rule, together with the idea of "weights of evidence," leads to both an extensive new theory and a better understanding of the Bayesian theory. The book concludes with a brief treatment of statistical inference and a discussion of the limitations of epistemic probability. Appendices contain mathematical proofs, which are relatively elementary and seldom depend on mathematics more advanced that the binomial theorem.
Math is a universal language used by all people on a daily basis. This 3-panel (6-page) guide, jam-packed with useful information and easy-to-use tips from calculating sales discounts to coming up with household budgets is sure to be a hit with math lovers and math haters, alike.
Dirk van Dalen's popular textbook "Logic and Structure," now in its fifth edition, provides a comprehensive introduction to the basics of classical and intuitionistic logic, model theory and Godel's famous incompleteness theorem.
Propositional and predicate logic are presented in an easy-to-read style using Gentzen's natural deduction. The book proceeds with some basic concepts and facts of model theory: a discussion on compactness, Skolem-Lowenheim, non-standard models and quantifier elimination. The discussion of classical logic is concluded with a concise exposition of second-order logic.
In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, intuitionistic logic and Kripke semantics is carefully explored. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Godel translation, the disjunction and existence property are also included.
The last chapter on Godel's first incompleteness theorem is self-contained and provides a systematic exposition of the necessary recursion theory.
This new edition has been properly revised and contains a new section on ultra-products."
Essentials for students & professionals - calculations, formulas, measurements, dosages, rates, equivalents and more
6-page guide includes detailed information on:
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This book, suitable for interested post-16 school pupils or undergraduates looking for a supplement to their course text, develops our modern view of space-time and its implications in the theories of gravity and cosmology. While aspects of this topic are inevitably abstract, the book seeks to ground thinking in observational and experimental evidence where possible. In addition, some of Einstein's philosophical thoughts are explored and contrasted with our modern views. Written in an accessible yet rigorous style, Jonathan Allday, a highly accomplished writer, brings his trademark clarity and engagement to these fascinating subjects, which underpin so much of modern physics. Features: Restricted use of advanced mathematics, making the book suitable for post-16 students and undergraduates Contains discussions of key modern developments in quantum gravity, and the latest developments in the field, including results from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) Accompanied by appendices on the CRC Press website featuring detailed mathematical arguments for key derivations
"Non-Euclidean Geometry is a history of the alternate geometries that have emerged since the rejection of Euclid s parallel postulate. Italian mathematician ROBERTO BONOLA (1874 1911) begins by surveying efforts by Greek, Arab, and Renaissance mathematicians to close the gap in Euclid s axiom. Then, starting with the 17th century, as mathematicians began to question whether it was actually possible to prove Euclid s postulate, he examines non-Euclidean predecessors Saccheri, Lambert, Legendre, W. Bolyai, Wachter, and Thibaut, and non-Euclidean founders Gauss, Schweikart, Taurinus, Lobachevski, and J. Bolyai. He concludes with a look at later developments in non-Euclidean geometry. Including five appendices and an index of authors, Bonola s Non-Euclidean Geometry is a useful reference guide for students of mathematical history."
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