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Healthcare delivery in the 21st century has become increasingly complex and demanding . Clinical consultations frequently raise scientific, ethical and legal challenges. While scientific issues may be resolved using an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach, ethical theory is needed to justify decision making in the face of ethical conflict. Medical ethics, law and human rights: a South African perspective provides the conceptual background and analytic skills necessary to assist with the resolution of ethical dilemmas encountered in the South African healthcare environment. Medical ethics, law and human rights: a South African perspective uses case studies to help the healthcare team to identify and analyse ethical, moral and value concepts, and to apply these to scenarios that they may encounter on a daily basis. Part 1 explores theories and principles of ethics (including African philosophy), introduces medical law, discusses health and human rights, and also makes the transition from theory to practice. Part 2 looks at specific topics in healthcare that raise challenges from an ethics perspective - HIV/AIDS, use of social media, euthanasia, human reproduction, genetics and genomics. In view of the increasing emphasis on ethical considerations in healthcare from the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA), coupled with the rising incidence of litigation in healthcare, Medical ethics, law and human rights: a South African perspective is essential reading for health science, law and philosophy students as well as practising healthcare professionals.
Up-to-date and comprehensive, this practical best-selling text helps readers learn how to deal with and apply ethical standards. It provides readers with the basis for discovering their own guidelines within the broad limits of professional codes of ethics and divergent theoretical positions. The authors raise what they consider to be central issues, present a range of diverse views on these issues, discuss their position, and present many opportunities for users to refine their own thinking and actively develop their own position. Readers explore such questions as: What role do the therapist's personal values play in the counseling relationship? What ethical responsibilities and rights do clients and therapists have? What considerations are involved in adapting counseling practice to diverse client populations?
Welfel's ETHICS IN COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY prepares you to deal effectively with the complex ethical and legal issues that you will confront in practice. The book's ten-step model for ethical decision making guides you as you work through and analyze complicated ethics cases and challenging dilemmas. Coverage includes legal research and the professional literature of major topics in ethics (such as consent, confidentiality, and multiple relationships) and in applied settings (such as community mental health, private practice, schools, and teaching/research). Among other changes, the sixth edition integrates the new 2014 ACA Code of Ethics and includes updated discussions of technology and ethics, as well as culturally competent ethical practice.
Professional practice is the foundation of every interaction between nurse and patient; it both governs and guides the way the nurse behaves towards the patient and also grants the patient certain rights and responsibilities. This nurse-patient relationship has ethical as well as legal components; all of which are dealt with in this text. The nurse today faces many challenges, such as staff shortages and industrial action and must continuously assess his or her professional responsibilities. A new approach to Professional Practice provides sound advice on all relevant issues.
Expert medical evidence is often essential and pivotal in support or defence of medical negligence. Such cases invariably involve questions of technical and factual complexity requiring the evaluation of conflicting expert medical testimony. In this book, the first standalone textbook on expert evidence in South Africa, the authors expound and extrapolate the whole process from the initial obtaining of the relevant health records to the eventual testimony of the medical expert witness in court. The authors offer an instructive guide to busy practitioners to assist them with - Identifying the correct expert speciality or sub-speciality, The construction of a medico-legal opinion, The status of joint minutes of such experts, The preparation of an expert's examination-in-chief, Cross- and re-examination of an expert. Expert evidence in clinical negligence also discusses the invaluable role of experts in the resolution of medical malpractice disputes by way of mediation. Relevant case law and the applicable uniform rules of court are comprehensively discussed and set out in the footnotes for ease of reference.
Oral health care professionals are becoming increasingly aware that almost every clinical consultation raises scientific, ethical and legal challenges. While scientific challenges may be resolved using an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach, moral complexity must be resolved using ethical theory to justify decision making in the face of ethical conflict. Ethics and the dental team, the first title of its kind in South Africa, provides the theoretical background necessary for the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Ethics and the dental team uses case studies to demonstrate how to identify, analyse and apply ethical, moral and value concepts to scenarios that are encountered on a daily basis.
Res Ipsa Loquitur and Medical Negligence: A Comparative Survey analyses the application of the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur ('it speaks for itself') to medical negligence cases. The book aims to establish conclusively that the approach of the South African courts, that the doctrine should never find application in medical negligence cases, is untenable and out of touch with modern approaches adopted in other countries. Constitutional principles such as procedural equality, access to courts, access to health care, access to information, post-constitutional legislation, medical ethics and policy considerations are also discussed.
The book further provides a theoretical and practical legal framework for the application of the doctrine to medical negligence cases in South Africa in future. The authors argue for the application of the doctrine, not only in medical negligence cases, but also to related legal procedures that follow a medical accident such as medical inquests, criminal prosecutions and disciplinary inquiries instituted by the Health Professions Council of South Africa.
Res Ipsa Loquitur and Medical Negligence includes a comprehensive comparison of the practical application of the doctrine to medical negligence cases in South Africa, England and the United States of America.
Good neurosurgical practice is based not only on evidence, skills, and modern equipment, but also on good values. Young surgeons often learn about ethical behavior by observing the behavior of their teachers in different situations, but for several reasons, this is not enough. This book discusses the ethical issues that arise during the daily practice of neurosurgery. It will be especially informative for neurosurgeons, other surgeons, physicians, residents, medical students, and allied health care providers. The book is not a philosophical expose but an easily readable and highly practical road map on how to navigate ethically challenging situations in neurosurgical and other practice. The book is divided into five parts addressing general issues, patients' rights, end of life issues, neurosurgeons' duties, and neurosurgeons and society. The contributing authors are well- established neurosurgeons and other doctors with long experience and from different backgrounds. They discuss ethical problems encountered in everyday practice, introduced by cases, and in all, there are more than 50 neurosurgical cases drawn from real life. The editors introduce in the title and throughout the book the term "value-based medicine" which reinforces that while modern medicine and surgery have come very far in technical aspects, the core of what we do must be based on the values embodied in bioethics.
A Primer That Introduces The Reader To The Fundamentals Of Administrative Responsibility And Ethics, This Text Seeks To Explain Why Ethics Are Important To Administrators In Governmental And Non-Profit Organizations, And How These Administrators Can Relate Their Own Personal Values To The Norms Of The Public Sector. Additionally, The Text Helps Identify Ways To Link Ethics And Management In Order To Strengthen The Ethical Climate In A Public Organization.
This textbook brings the humanities to students in order to evoke the humanity of students. It helps to form individuals who take charge of their own minds, who are free from narrow and unreflective forms of thought, and who act compassionately in their public and professional worlds. Using concepts and methods of the humanities, the book addresses undergraduate and premed students, medical students, and students in other health professions, as well as physicians and other healthcare practitioners. It encourages them to consider the ethical and existential issues related to the experience of disease, care of the dying, health policy, religion and health, and medical technology. Case studies, images, questions for discussion, and role-playing exercises help readers to engage in the practical, interpretive, and analytical aspects of the material, developing skills for critical thinking as well as compassionate care.
Teaches counselors how to think and act quickly when facing ethical dilemmas.This practical worktext addresses common ethical quagmires faced by counseling professionals. Boasting sixty-three case examples in compliance with CACREP's accreditation standards, this must-have resource demonstrates step-by-step application of decision-making models to real life counseling scenarios. Each chapter includes seven cases related to a section of the ACA's code of ethics examined carefully using a specific decision-making model. The case examples included are designed to be relatable and accessible while demonstrating the process of arriving at a solution that reflects the standards of professional counseling. Valuable features include "Questions for Discussion," "Straight from the Code," "Applying a Decision-Making Model," "The Likely Answer," and in-class discussion activities and exercises at the end of each chapter. Key Features: Includes 63 real-life case examples demonstrating step-by-step application of decision-making models Teaches counselors how to think and act quickly when facing ethical dilemmas In compliance with CACREP accreditation standards Maps to the ACA Code of Ethics Includes group discussion questions Includes role playing activities Helps professionals to reconcile personal and professional values
Guidance for addiction counselors in understanding and applying ethical standards
Filled with proven strategies to help you examine your current practice for ethical snags and refresh your ethical thinking, "Ethics for Addiction Professionals" leads you in examining, building, and rebuilding aspects of your ethical practice with the goal of helping you become the strongest clinician possible--ethically speaking.Up-to-date and comprehensive, this practical guide examines real-life examples of ethical issues in clinical practice and illustrates potential pitfalls and the actions needed when faced with dilemmas. Helping addiction counselors learn how to deal with and apply ethical standards, "Ethics for Addiction Professionals" explores the gray area of common dilemmas and provides guidelines on how to determine the best course of action when the best course is unclear.Covers basic principles that affect current ethical concerns and dilemmasIncludes illustrative real-world case studiesFeatures well-defined professional codes of ethicsTreats ethics as a set of guidelines designed to protect the client, the clinician, and the profession as a whole
Principles of Biomedical Ethics provides a highly original, practical, and insightful guide to morality in the health professions. Acclaimed authors Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress thoroughly develop and advocate for four principles that lie at the core of moral reasoning in health care: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. Drawing from contemporary research--and integrating detailed case studies and vivid real-life examples and scenarios--they demonstrate how these prima facie principles can be expanded to apply to various conflicts and dilemmas, from how to deliver bad news to whether or not to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments. Ideal for courses in biomedical ethics, bioethics, and health care ethics, the text is enhanced by hundreds of annotated citations and a substantial introduction that clarifies key terms and concepts.
There is an understandable tendency or desire to attribute blame when patients are harmed by their own healthcare. However, many cases of iatrogenic harm involve little or no moral culpability. Even when blame is justified, an undue focus on one individual often deflects attention from other important factors within the inherent complexity of modern healthcare. This revised second edition advocates a rethinking of accountability in healthcare based on science, the principles of a just culture, and novel therapeutic legal processes. Updated to include many recent relevant events, including the Keystone Project in the USA and the Mid Staffordshire scandal in the UK, this book considers how the concepts of a just culture have been successfully implemented so far, and makes recommendations for best practice. This book will be of interest to anyone concerned with patient safety, medical law and the regulation of healthcare.
The essential book on how not to be a doctor - and how to be a better one. Drawn from his popular medical columns over the years, John Launer shares fifty of his best-loved essays, covering topics from essentials skills they don't teach you in medical school to his poignant account of being a patient himself as he received treatment for a life-threatening illness. Taken together, the stories make the case that being a doctor should mean drawing on every aspect of yourself, your interests and your experiences no matter how remote they seem from the medical task at hand. How Not to Be a Doctor combines humour, candour and the human touch to inform and entertain readers on both ends of the stethoscope. ***PRAISE FOR HOW NOT TO BE A DOCTOR*** 'An essential read... It is a gem.' Dr. Fiona Moss, CBE, Dean of the Royal Society of Medicine 'This collection is warm, wise, generous, thoughtful and thought-provoking... imbued with a moving humanity which offers inspiration and reassurance in equal measure.' Dr. Deborah Bowman, MBE, BBC Broadcaster and Professor of Medical Ethics and Law 'Witty and wise. Shows how important it is that doctors are allowed to be human.' Kit Wharton, author of Emergency Admissions: Memoirs of an Ambulance Driver 'An all-round excellent book, which would appeal to a wide range of healthcare professionals and students... a light-hearted way of looking at serious subjects.' BMA Panel of Judges 'I raced through this book, laughing, nodding, highlighting and then read some favourite bits again. Every chapter has a gem of wisdom as well as being so very elegantly written and entertaining.' Jenny Rogers, Co-Author of Coaching for Health 'Bursting with wonder and wisdom, this seductively readable book imparts courage and joy in equal measure.' Dr. Iona Heath, CBE. Former President, Royal College of General Practitioners and author of The Mystery of General Practice 'Gets to the heart and soul of current medical practice. Written by a doctor, but incorporates life experience and wisdom, making it an easy, thought provoking read.' Professor Jane Dacre, President of the Royal College of Physicians
How influential has the Nazi analogy been in recent medical debates on euthanasia? Is the history of eugenics being revived in modern genetic technologies? And what does the tragic history of thalidomide and its recent reintroduction for new medical treatments tell us about how governments solve ethical dilemmas? Bioethics in Historical Perspective shows how our understanding of medical history still plays a part in clinical medicine and medical research today. With clear and balanced explanations of complex issues, this extensively documented set of case studies in biomedical ethics explores the important role played by history in thinking about modern medical practice and policy. This book provides student readers with up-to-date information about issues in bioethics, as well as a guide to the most influential ethical standpoints. New twists added to well-known stories will engage those more familiar with the challenging field of contemporary bioethics.
Essential Clinical Oral Biology is an accessible guide to oral biology, introducing the scientific knowledge necessary to succeed in clinical practice. * Student-friendly layout with clinical photographs throughout * Each chapter has clearly defined key topics and learning objectives * Covers the essentials: what you need to know and why * Companion website featuring interactive MCQs, teaching presentations and downloadable images
Colin Farrelly contemplates the various ethical and social quandaries raised by the genetic revolution. Recent biomedical advances such as genetic screening, gene therapy and genome editing might be used to promote equality of opportunity, reproductive freedom, healthy aging, and the prevention and treatment of disease. But these technologies also raise a host of ethical questions: Is the idea of "genetically engineering" humans a morally objectionable form of eugenics? Should parents undergoing IVF be permitted to screen embryos for the sex of their offspring? Would it be ethical to alter the rate at which humans age, greatly increasing longevity at a time when the human population is already at potentially unsustainable levels? Farrelly applies an original virtue ethics framework to assess these and other challenges posed by the genetic revolution. Chapters discuss virtue ethics in relation to eugenics, infectious and chronic disease, evolutionary biology, epigenetics, happiness, reproductive freedom and longevity. This fresh approach creates a roadmap for thinking ethically about technological progress that will be of practical use to ethicists and scientists for years to come. Accessible in tone and compellingly argued, this book is an ideal introduction for students of bioethics, applied ethics, biomedical sciences, and related courses in philosophy and life sciences.
Re-examining psychiatric interventions from a cultural-historical and political-economic perspective, Szasz demonstrates that the main problem that faces mental health policymakers today is adult dependency. Millions of Americans, diagnosed as mentally ill, are drugged and confined by doctors for non-criminal conduct, go legally unpunished for the crimes they commit, and are supported by the state - not because they are sick, but because they are unproductive and unwanted. Obsessed with the twin beliefs that misbehaviour is a medical disorder and that the duty of the state is to protect adults from themselves, we have replaced criminal-punitive sentences with civil-therapeutic programmes. The result is the relentless loss of individual liberty and erosion of personal responsibility - symptoms of the transformation of a Constitutional Republic into a Therapeutic State, unconstrained by the rule of law.
Winner of the First Prize in Anaesthesia at the 2017 British Medical Association Book Awards! With the increasing frequency of breaks from practice, the importance of proper preparation and guidance for doctors returning to work has recently been recognised by the Royal College of Anaesthetists. This is the first dedicated resource to support anaesthetists returning to work after a significant break, and is designed to complement the growing range of regional and national return to work courses by gathering relevant information and advice into one easily accessible reference source. Divided into three parts, specific to different stages in the return to work process, this book offers information and advice about the practicalities of returning to work, 120 clinical scenarios to refresh the reader's knowledge, and useful guidelines and checklists for the first days and weeks back, forming a vital practical resource for anaesthetists in this situation and those supporting them.
In Better than Human?, noted bioethicist Allen Buchanan grapples with the ethical dilemmas of the medical revolution now upon us. Biomedical enhancements, he writes, can make us smarter, have better memories, be stronger, quicker, have more stamina, live much longer, be more resistant to disease and to the frailties of aging, and enjoy richer emotional lives. They can even improve our character, or at least strengthen our powers of self-control. In spite of the benefits that biomedical enhancements may bring, many people instinctively reject them. Some worry that we will lose something important-our appreciation for what we have or what makes human beings distinctively valuable. To think clearly about enhancement, Buchanan argues, we have to acknowledge that nature is a mixed bag and that our species has many "design flaws". We should be open to the possibility of becoming better than human, while never underestimating the risk that our attempts to improve may backfire.
Torture doctors administer and invent techniques to inflict pain and suffering without leaving scars.Their knowledge of the body and its breaking points and their credible authority over death certificates and medical records make them powerful and elusive perpetrators of the crime of torture. In The Torture Doctors, Steven H. Miles fearlessly explores who these physicians are, what they do, how they escape justice, and what can be done to hold them accountable. At least one hundred countries employ torture doctors, including both dictatorships and democracies. While torture doctors mostly act with impunity-protected by governments, medical associations, and licensing boards-Miles shows that a movement has begun to hold these doctors accountable and to return them to their proper role as promoters of health and human rights. Miles's groundbreaking portrayal exposes the thinking and psychology of these doctors, and his investigation points to how the international human rights community and the medical community can come together to end these atrocities.
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