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Everything you need to know about race (but were afraid to ask), previously published in 2015 as Black Brain, White Brain: Is Intelligence Skin Deep?.
In academic journals and on internet message boards, certain scientists and thinkers are laying siege to one of the great taboos. Could it be, they ask, that racism has a rational basis in science? These ideas are no longer limited to the fringe: race-based studies of intelligence have been discussed by thinkers such as Steven Pinker, Sam Harris and Jordan Peterson. If true, it would provide an intellectual foundation for so many of the attitudes that characterise the right wing, justifying inequality and discrimination. Gavin Evans tackles the nature vs nurture debate head-on, examining the latest studies on how intelligence develops and laying out new discoveries in genetics, palaeontology, archaeology and anthropology to unearth the truth about our shared past.
In doing so, Skin Deep demolishes the pernicious myth that our race is our destiny, and instead reveals what really makes us who we are.
Racial differences are rooted in biological reality, right? That's certainly what a small group of anthropologists, psychologists and pundits would have you believe. Portraying themselves as brave defenders of the inconvenient truth, this group took the revival of 'race science' from alt-right online message boards into mainstream academic journals. They seek to justify raging social inequalities from poverty to incarceration rates with a simple message: some people are just born to be poor. There's just one problem... race science isn't real. The first Europeans had dark skin and black curly hair. Culture was born in Africa, not Western Europe. Gavin Evans examines the latest research on how intelligence develops and laying out new discoveries in genetics, palaeontology, archaeology and anthropology to unearth the truth about our shared past. Skin Deep stands up to the pseudo-science deployed to justify colonial rule, the apartheid regime and the vast inequalities that persist today. As race dominates the political agenda, it's time to put the hateful myths about it to bed.
Easy to read, yet comprehensive, this is the perfect introduction into the molecular basis of disease and the novel treatment options that have become available. The authors, Jens Kurreck and Cy Stein, have both long-standing teaching experience on the subject, one from a biologist's angle, the other with a medical background. Together, they have produced a modern textbook for courses in Molecular Medicine that incorporates modules from immunology to signaling, from virology to gene therapy, and the latest development in personalized medicine.
Why do we get cancer? Is it our modern diets and unhealthy habits? Chemicals in the environment? An unwelcome genetic inheritance? Or is it just bad luck? The answer is all of these and none of them. We get cancer because we can't avoid it--it's a bug in the system of life itself. Cancer exists in nearly every animal and has afflicted humans as long as our species has walked the earth. In Rebel Cell: Cancer, Evolution, and the New Science of Life's Oldest Betrayal, Kat Arney reveals the secrets of our most formidable medical enemy, most notably the fact that it isn't so much a foreign invader as a double agent: cancer is hardwired into the fundamental processes of life. New evidence shows that this disease is the result of the same evolutionary changes that allowed us to thrive. Evolution helped us outsmart our environment, and it helps cancer outsmart its environment as well--alas, that environment is us. Explaining why "everything we know about cancer is wrong," Arney, a geneticist and award-winning science writer, guides readers with her trademark wit and clarity through the latest research into the cellular mavericks that rebel against the rigid biological "society" of the body and make a leap towards anarchy. We need to be a lot smarter to defeat such a wily foe--smarter even than Darwin himself. In this new world, where we know that every cancer is unique and can evolve its way out of trouble, the old models of treatment have reached their limits. But we are starting to decipher cancer's secret evolutionary playbook, mapping the landscapes in which these rogue cells survive, thrive, or die, and using this knowledge to predict and confound cancer's next move. Rebel Cell is a story about life and death, hope and hubris, nature and nurture. It's about a new way of thinking about what this disease really is and the role it plays in human life. Above all, it's a story about where cancer came from, where it's going, and how we can stop it.
Five leaders in the field of mammalian preimplantation embryo development provide their own perspectives on key molecular and cellular processes that mediate lineage formation during the first week of life. The first cell-fate decision involves the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and extraembryonic trophectoderm (TE). The second cell-fate choice encompasses the transformation of ICM into extraembryonic primitive endoderm (PE) and pluripotent epiblast. The processes, which occur during the period of preimplantation development, serve as the foundation for subsequent developmental events such as implantation, placentation, and gastrulation. The mechanisms that regulate them are complex and involve many different factors operating spatially and temporally over several days to modulate embryonic chromatin structure, impose cellular polarity, and direct distinct gene expression programs in the first cell lineages.
A fundamental and groundbreaking reassessment of how we view and manage cancer When we think of the forces driving cancer, we don't necessarily think of evolution. But evolution and cancer are closely linked, for the historical processes that created life also created cancer. The Cheating Cell delves into this extraordinary relationship, and shows that by understanding cancer's evolutionary origins, researchers can come up with more effective, revolutionary treatments. Athena Aktipis goes back billions of years to explore when unicellular forms became multicellular organisms. Within these bodies of cooperating cells, cheating ones arose, overusing resources and replicating out of control, giving rise to cancer. Aktipis illustrates how evolution has paved the way for cancer's ubiquity, and why it will exist as long as multicellular life does. Even so, she argues, this doesn't mean we should give up on treating cancer-in fact, evolutionary approaches offer new and promising options for the disease's prevention and treatments that aim at long-term management rather than simple eradication. Looking across species-from sponges and cacti to dogs and elephants-we are discovering new mechanisms of tumor suppression and the many ways that multicellular life-forms have evolved to keep cancer under control. By accepting that cancer is a part of our biological past, present, and future-and that we cannot win a war against evolution-treatments can become smarter, more strategic, and more humane. Unifying the latest research from biology, ecology, medicine, and social science, The Cheating Cell challenges us to rethink cancer's fundamental nature and our relationship to it.
This volume provides a collection of cutting-edge strategies in siRNA delivery that were developed and refined over the years with tried-and-true methods. Written by a team of internationally renowned authors, this book describes, in detail, a variety of successful siRNA delivery methods, including peptide-based nanoparticles, liposomes, exosomes, polymers, aptamers, and viral vehicles. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, each proven protocol includes brief introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and authoritative, SiRNA Delivery Methods: Methods and Protocols, will provide researchers, educators, clinicians, and biotechnology specialists with a broad understanding of the issues in siRNA delivery and how they can be overcome strategically.
This monograph describes the progress in neuropathological HD research made during the last century, the neuropathological hallmarks of HD and their pathogenic relevance. Starting with the initial descriptions of the progressive degeneration of the striatum as one of the key events in HD, the worldwide practiced Vonsattel HD grading system of striatal neurodegeneration will be outlined. Correlating neuropathological data with results on the functional neuroanatomy of the human brain, subsequent chapters will highlight recent HD findings: the neuronal loss in the cerebral neo-and allocortex, the neurodegeneration of select thalamic nuclei, the affection of the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, the involvement of select brainstem nuclei, as well as the pathophysiological relevance of these pathologies for the clinical picture of HD. Finally, the potential pathophysiological role of neuronal huntingtin aggregations and the most important and enduring challenges of neuropathological HD research are discussed.
This current edition explores new tests for genotoxicity testing, along with other well-known techniques. This will further help in our understanding of the genotoxic effects of chemicals. The book has different sections dealing with various assays for gene mutation, chromosomal abnormalities, primary DNA damage, etc. It also delves into plant models, animals and their alternates, as well as in silico approaches for genetic toxicology. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and up-to-date, Genotoxicity Assessment: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as a highly useful and ready resource for research students and scientists working in regulatory toxicology as well as biomedical, biochemical, and pharmaceutical sciences.
Written by leading experts in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedic surgery and plastic and reconstructive hand surgery, Congenital Anomalies of the Upper Extremity encompasses the current knowledge of genetic and molecular causes of and surgical and non-surgical treatment for, deformities of the hand. The book covers the many variations of congenital anomaly encountered in the clinical setting. Embryology, classification, incidence and anesthesia considerations are discussed first, followed by physical medicine, rehabilitation and therapy management, including psychological considerations, for children living with these conditions. Failures of formation and differentiation of the fingers and hand plate, duplication, and overgrowth, as well as other generalized anomalies, are then presented in detail, including symbrachydactyly, syndactyly, Apert syndrome, polydactyly, amniotic band syndrome and Madelung deformity, among others. Complete with plentiful photographs and illustrations to guide the clinician in preparing for and performing the necessary treatments, this is an essential book for hand surgeons, orthopedists and plastic surgeons.
This fourth edition of the best-selling textbook, Human Genetics and Genomics, clearly explains the key principles needed by medical and health sciences students, from the basis of molecular genetics, to clinical applications used in the treatment of both rare and common conditions. A newly expanded Part 1, Basic Principles of Human Genetics, focuses on introducing the reader to key concepts such as Mendelian principles, DNA replication and gene expression. Part 2, Genetics and Genomics in Medical Practice, uses case scenarios to help you engage with current genetic practice. Now featuring full-color diagrams, Human Genetics and Genomics has been rigorously updated to reflect today s genetics teaching, and includes updated discussion of genetic risk assessment, single gene disorders and therapeutics. Key learning features include: * Clinical snapshots to help relate science to practice * Hot topics boxes that focus on the latest developments in testing, assessment and treatment * Ethical issues boxes to prompt further thought and discussion on the implications of genetic developments * Sources of information boxes to assist with the practicalities of clinical research and information provision * Self-assessment review questions in each chapter Accompanied by the Wiley E-Text digital edition (included in the price of the book), Human Genetics and Genomics is also fully supported by a suite of online resources at www.korfgenetics.com, including: * Factsheets on 100 genetic disorders, ideal for study and exam preparation * Interactive Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) with feedback on all answers * Links to online resources for further study * Figures from the book available as PowerPoint slides, ideal for teaching purposes The perfect companion to the genetics component of both problem-based learning and integrated medical courses, Human Genetics and Genomics presents the ideal balance between the bio-molecular basis of genetics and clinical cases, and provides an invaluable overview for anyone wishing to engage with this fast-moving discipline.
Human iPS cells have a great potential to be cell sources for regenerative medicine because of the promise of infinite self-renewal and the capability to differentiate into multiple cell types. This book focuses on another great potential of human iPS cells, which is the establishment of human disease models using patient-specific iPS cells. Human iPS cells can be easily obtained from a patient's somatic cells and provide the entire information on the patient's genome. Accordingly, we can generate disease models for inheritable diseases in cell culture dishes using iPS cells. This is a quite new technique but holds tremendous potential for our increased understanding of pathogenesis, and will then be the basis for novel drug development industries. All the authors are leading researchers in this field and they have reported many kinds of patient-derived iPS cells. In this book, they introduce the aspects that could be recapitulated in terms of disease modelling as well as further innovative findings such as novel pathogenetic insights and novel therapies.
Genomics has transformed the biological sciences. From epidemiology and medicine to evolution and forensics, the ability to determine an organism's complete genetic makeup has changed the way science is done and the questions that can be asked of it. Its most celebrated achievement was the Human Genome Project, a technologically challenging endeavor that took thousands of scientists around the world 13 years and over 3 billion US dollars to complete. In this Very Short Introduction John Archibald explores the science of genomics and its rapidly expanding toolbox. Sequencing a human genome now takes only a few days and costs as little as $1,000. The genomes of simple bacteria and viruses can be sequenced in a matter of hours on a device that fits in the palm of your hand. The resulting sequences can be used to better understand our biology in health and disease and to 'personalize' medicine. Archibald shows how the field of genomics is on the cusp of another quantum leap; the implications for science and society are profound. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This volume details the most important methods used for studying prokaryotic non-coding RNAs and their protein accomplices. Chapters present methods in sections covering different aspects of the biology of that field: identification of ncRNAs, their differential expression, characterization of their structure, abundance, intracellular location and function, their interaction with RNA binding proteins, and plausible applications of ncRNA elements in the rapidly emerging field of synthetic biology. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Regulatory RNA: Methods and Protocols serves as a guidebook for scientists working toward the development of new tools and procedures for the vital field of sRNA biology.
This comprehensive handbook synthesizes the often-fractured relationship between the study of biology and the study of society. Bringing together a compelling array of interdisciplinary contributions, the authors demonstrate how nuanced attention to both the biological and social sciences opens up novel perspectives upon some of the most significant sociological, anthropological, philosophical and biological questions of our era. The six sections cover topics ranging from genomics and epigenetics, to neuroscience and psychology to social epidemiology and medicine. The authors collaboratively present state-of-the-art research and perspectives in some of the most intriguing areas of what can be called biosocial and biocultural approaches, demonstrating how quickly we are moving beyond the acrimonious debates that characterized the border between biology and society for most of the twentieth century. This landmark volume will be an extremely valuable resource for scholars and practitioners in all areas of the social and biological sciences. The chapter 'Ten Theses on the Subject of Biology and Politics: Conceptual, Methodological, and Biopolitical Considerations' is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com. Versions of the chapters 'The Transcendence of the Social', 'Scrutinizing the Epigenetics Revolution', 'Species of Biocapital, 2008, and Speciating Biocapital, 2017' and 'Experimental Entanglements: Social Science and Neuroscience Beyond Interdisciplinarity' are available open access via third parties. For further information please see license information in the chapters or on link.springer.com.
The Organizing Committee of the 15th International Conference on Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases compiled a group of junior investigators to provide reviews on the topics they presented at the Puerto Vallarta Bioactive Lipids conference, as part of the book series, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (AEMB). The book in this series will be titled Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation and Related Diseases. Topics range from all classes of lipids including prostaglandins, resolvins, spingolipids, P450-derived lipids, endocannabanoids and phospholipids. The focus includes physiology, cell biology, and structural studies in organisms from bacteria to humans and how these studies addressed the role of lipids in various disease i.e. cancer, inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and others.
Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field incorporating the principles of biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine to create biological substitutes of native tissues for scientific research or clinical use. Specific applications of this technology include studies of tissue development and function, investigating drug response, and tissue repair and replacement. This area is rapidly becoming one of the most promising treatment options for patients suffering from tissue failure. This abundantly illustrated and well-structured guide serves as a reference for all clinicians and researchers dealing with tissue engineering issues in their daily practice.
The focus of this book is to introduce up-to-date information on applications and practical use of RNA for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine. It provides unique ideas, tools, and methods in detail from a variety of scientific and technical disciplines. RNA science has progressed enormously in recent decades, and vast amounts of information on RNA functions and their regulatory mechanisms are becoming available. Such a progress opened the door to an age of practical application of RNA in many fields including agriculture, plant science, medical science, brewing and fermentation technology, and material production. This book inspires its readership and contributes to not only expansion in application of RNA but also to basic research.
This state-of-the-art review on longevity focuses on centenarians, studied as a model of positive biology. The extraordinary rise in the elderly population in developed countries underscores the importance of studies on ageing and longevity in order to decrease the medical, economic and social problems associated with the increased number of non-autonomous individuals affected by invalidating pathologies. Centenarians have reached the extreme limits of human life span. Those in relatively good health, who are able to perform their routine daily tasks, are the best examples of extreme longevity, representing selected individuals in which the appearance of major age-related diseases - including cancer and cardiovascular diseases - has been consistently delayed or avoided. The relationship between causality and chance is an open discussion topic in many disciplines. In particular, ageing, the related diseases, and longevity are difficult to define as a consequence of causality, chance or both. Discussing the relevance of these different factors in the attainment of longevity, the book gathers contributions on genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic aspects of centenarians. The "positive biology" approach is applied to clarify the causes of positive phenotypes, as well as to explain the biological mechanisms of health and well-being with the aim of preventing and/or reducing frailty and disability in the elderly.
Almost daily we hear news stories, advertisements, and scientific reports that promise genetic medicine will make us live longer, enable doctors to identify and treat diseases before they start, and individualize our medical care. But surprisingly, a century ago eugenicists were making the same promises. The Science of Human Perfection traces the history of the promises of medical genetics and of the medical dimension of eugenics. The book also considers social and ethical issues that cast troublesome shadows over these fields. Keeping his focus on America, science historian Nathaniel Comfort introduces the community of scientists, physicians, and public health workers who have contributed to the development of medical genetics from the nineteenth century to today. He argues that medical genetics is closely related to eugenics, and indeed the two cannot be fully understood separately. He also carefully examines how the desire to relieve suffering and to improve ourselves genetically, though noble, may be subverted. History makes clear that as patients and consumers we must take ownership of genetic medicine, using it intelligently, knowledgeably, and sceptically, lest pernicious interests trump our own.
This book proposes immunogenomics, or immunopharmacogenomics, as the next-generation big science to uncover the role that the immune system plays in the pathogenesis of many diseases, by summarizing the importance of the deep sequencing of T-cell and B-cell receptors. Immunogenomics/immunopharmacogenomics, a genetic characterization of the immune system made possible by next-generation sequencing (NGS), will be important for the further understanding of the pathogenesis of various disease conditions. Abnormal immune responses in the body lead to development of autoimmune diseases and food allergies. Rejection of recipient cells and tissues, as well as severe immune reactions to donor cells, is also the result of uncontrolled immune responses in the recipient body. There have been many reports indicating that activated immune responses caused by the interaction of drugs and HLA are present in drug-induced skin hypersensitivity and liver toxicity. The importance of the host immune responses has been recognized in cancer treatments, not only for immunotherapy but also for cytotoxic agents and molecular targeted drugs. Hence, characterization of the T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor repertoire by means of NGS deep sequencing will ultimately make possible the identification of the molecular mechanisms that underlie various diseases and drug responses. In addition, this approach may contribute to the identification of antigens associated with the onset or progression of autoimmune diseases as well as food allergies. Although the germline alterations and somatic mutations have been extensively analyzed, changes or alterations of the immune responses during the course of various disease conditions or during various treatments have not been analyzed. It is also clear that computational analyses to draw meaningful inferences of functional recognition receptors on the immune cells remain a huge challenge.
International uproar followed the recent announcement of the birth of twin girls whose genomes had been edited with a breakthrough DNA editing-technology. This technology, called clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats or CRISPR-Cas9, can alter any DNA, including DNA in embryos, meaning that changes can be passed to the offspring of the person that embryo becomes. Should we use gene editing technologies to change ourselves, our children, and future generations to come? The potential uses of CRISPR-Cas9 and other gene editing technologies are unprecedented in human history. By using these technologies, we eradicate certain dreadful diseases. Altering human DNA, however, raises enormously difficult questions. Some of these questions are about safety: Can these technologies be deployed without posing an unreasonable risk of physical harm to current and future generations? Can all physical risks be adequately assessed, and responsibly managed? But gene editing technologies also raise other moral questions, which touch on deeply held, personal, cultural, and societal values: Might such technologies redefine what it means to be healthy, or normal, or cherished? Might they undermine relationships between parents and children, or exacerbate the gap between the haves and have-nots? The broadest form of this second kind of question is the focus of this book: What might gene editing-and related technologies-mean for human flourishing? In the new essays collected here, an interdisciplinary group of scholars asks age-old questions about the nature and well-being of humans in the context of a revolutionary new biotechnology-one that has the potential to change the genetic make-up of both existing people and future generations. Welcoming readers who study related issues and those not yet familiar with the formal study of bioethics, the authors of these essays open up a conversation about the ethics of gene editing. It is through this conversation that citizens can influence laws and the distribution of funding for science and medicine, that professional leaders can shape understanding and use of gene editing and related technologies by scientists, patients, and practitioners, and that individuals can make decisions about their own lives and the lives of their families.
This book explains how the biological systems and their functions are driven by genetic information stored in the DNA, and their expression driven by different factors. The soft computing approach recognizes the different patterns in DNA sequence and try to assign the biological relevance with available information.The book also focuses on using the soft-computing approach to predict protein-protein interactions, gene expression and networks. The insights from these studies can be used in metagenomic data analysis and predicting artificial neural networks.
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