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Now in its eleventh edition, De Haan’s Health of Southern Africa has been updated so that it is aligned with new as well as legacy nursing qualifications, and remains a ‘must-have’ source of information.
Text on the Sustainable Development Goals, antimicrobial stewardship and infection control practices surrounding Ebola have been added. The three chapters on environmental health have been revised and strengthened. All content focuses on the situation in southern Africa and the local burden of disease.
Understanding the diagnostic methods necessary to identify bloodstream infections. In the clinical microbiology laboratory, blood is a critical diagnostic sample that, in the majority of cases is sterile (or is it?). However, when microbes gain access to and multiply in the bloodstream, it can result in life-threatening illness including sepsis. Mortality rates from bloodstream infection and sepsis range from 25% to 80%, killing millions of people annually. Blood cultures are a vital technology used in the microbiology laboratory to isolate and identify microbes and predict their response to antimicrobial therapy. The Dark Art of Blood Cultures, edited by Wm. Michael Dunne, Jr., and Carey-Ann D. Burnham, surveys the entire field of blood culture technology, providing valuable information about every phase of the process, from drawing samples to culture methods to processing positive cultures. The Dark Art of Blood Cultures is organized around several major topics.
Worldwide, infectious disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, infection accounts for a substantial proportion of all recorded deaths. Likewise, in developed countries, pneumonia alone results in a large number of deaths. Along with bacteria, parasites and rickettsial organisms, viruses are responsible for many of the infections afflicting the human host. In the past decade alone, viruses that primarily target the lung have caused major respiratory illnesses including outbreaks of severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza. This book is distinctive in that the entire spectrum of viral disease of the lung is conveniently compiled within a single volume. The epidemiologic, ultrastructural, immunologic, clinical and histopathologic features of well-known viral pathogens and newer emergent infectious agents are discussed. The book is organized in a classic fashion, starting with introductory material and sections on lung defenses and the taxonomic classification of pneumotropic viruses. The various acute viral pneumonias are then considered in a standard format in the main body of the book. Subsequent sections are devoted to the human immunodeficiency virus, viral lung disease in children and other viral-linked tumoral and nontumoral lung conditions. A chapter is also included on animal lung diseases caused by viruses. The text is supplemented by numerous color images.
Includes a revised taxonomic outline for the phyla Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochetes, Fibrobacters, Fusobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Dictyoglomi, and Gemmatomonadetes based upon the SILVA project as well as a description of more than 153 genera in 29 families. Includes many medically important taxa.
Praised forits clarity of presentation and accessibility, Introduction to Modern Virology has been a successful student text for over 30 years. It provides a broad introduction to virology, which includes the nature of viruses, the interaction of viruses with their hosts and the consequences of those interactions that lead to the diseases we see. This new edition contains a number of important changes and innovations including: * The consideration of immunology now covers two chapters, one on innate immunity and the other on adaptive immunity, reflecting the explosion in knowledge of viral interactions with these systems. * The coverage of vaccines and antivirals has been expanded and separated into two new chapters to reflect the importance of these approaches to prevention and treatment. * Virus infections in humans are considered in more detail with new chapters on viral hepatitis, influenza, vector-borne diseases, and exotic and emerging viral infections, complementing an updated chapter on HIV. * The final section includes three new chapters on the broader aspects of the influence of viruses on our lives, focussing on the economic impact of virus infections, the ways we can use viruses in clinical and other spheres, and the impact that viruses have on the planet and almost every aspect of our lives. A good basic understanding of viruses is important for generalists and specialists alike. The aim of this book is to make such understanding as accessible as possible, allowing students across the biosciences spectrum to improve their knowledge of these fascinating entities.
A fundamental and groundbreaking reassessment of how we view and manage cancer When we think of the forces driving cancer, we don't necessarily think of evolution. But evolution and cancer are closely linked, for the historical processes that created life also created cancer. The Cheating Cell delves into this extraordinary relationship, and shows that by understanding cancer's evolutionary origins, researchers can come up with more effective, revolutionary treatments. Athena Aktipis goes back billions of years to explore when unicellular forms became multicellular organisms. Within these bodies of cooperating cells, cheating ones arose, overusing resources and replicating out of control, giving rise to cancer. Aktipis illustrates how evolution has paved the way for cancer's ubiquity, and why it will exist as long as multicellular life does. Even so, she argues, this doesn't mean we should give up on treating cancer-in fact, evolutionary approaches offer new and promising options for the disease's prevention and treatments that aim at long-term management rather than simple eradication. Looking across species-from sponges and cacti to dogs and elephants-we are discovering new mechanisms of tumor suppression and the many ways that multicellular life-forms have evolved to keep cancer under control. By accepting that cancer is a part of our biological past, present, and future-and that we cannot win a war against evolution-treatments can become smarter, more strategic, and more humane. Unifying the latest research from biology, ecology, medicine, and social science, The Cheating Cell challenges us to rethink cancer's fundamental nature and our relationship to it.
The past decade has seen mounting global concern regarding viral outbreaks such as SARS, avian influenza and West Nile virus. In 2004 and 2005, reports of bird-to-human, and possible human-to-human, transmissions of the H5N1 influenza viruses raised fears that these viruses could cause a pandemic on the scale of the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Previous to this, a novel coronavirus had been identified as the aetiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a new respiratory viral disease that emerged at the end of 2002 and caused profound disturbances in over 30 countries worldwide in 2003. It is not known whether the SARS coronavirus will re-emerge, especially since its origins and potential reservoir(s) are unresolved. However, these outbreaks have shown that these viruses can emerge in any part of the world at any time.
This book critically evaluates the latest scientific evidence on novel or re-emerging viral diseases and brings together contributions from world experts on this topic, explaining best practice in their area, and discussing lessons learned and how best to collaborate to prevent and control future outbreaks.
Topics covered include: the latest advances in virology, particularly in the area of epidemiology diagnostics animal models for viral infection, and antiviral and vaccine development.
"Novel and Re-emerging Respiratory Viral Diseases" offers a comprehensive and interdisciplinary account of all aspects of the topic, from basic molecular biology to public health issues, and is therefore essential reading for virologists, infectious disease specialists, public health managers, researchers and epidemiologists, as well as those working invaccine development, pharmaceutical medicine and drug discovery
In one handy book, this reference gathers all the necessary
information on 14 of the most commonly used dangerous groups of
pathogens in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories. All the chapters
are uniformly structured, with a brief overview of the
microbiology, pathology, epidemiology and detection methods for
each group. In addition, a whole chapter is devoted to the special
biosafety requirements, disinfection, decontamination protocols,
accident literature and accident procedures, as well as treatment
options for all the organisms. This chapter is clearly marked and
easy to find when opening the book.
The book focuses on the contagion nature of respiratory ailments, the ways a pulmonary disease is spread. Respiratory infections are surrounded by interrelated circumstances that act upon individual and community and eventually underlie morbidity. Patient's age, vulnerability to infections, immune function and responses, comorbidities, but also medical care and the agility in coping with stress, are just a few basic determinants of a diseased state. Modern medication, like newfangled antibiotics and their unrestrained use, may not guarantee the best solution to patient's condition. A valuable asset of this book is a blend of personal experience and expertise of contributors in pursuit of finding new solutions to old clinical problems. The book will be of interest to clinicians, researchers, health care providers, and other health care professionals, particularly those dealing with contagious diseases.
Unique coverage of proteomic and glycomic approaches to better
distinguish highly dangerous pathogens, as well as using these to
explore novel treatment and prevention options.
Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important food-borne illnesses and foetal maternal inflammatory syndromes. Currently, there is no safe and effective approved therapy against foetal maternal complication or persistent chronic infection. Toxoplasma is an intracellular organism. About 1.5 billion people world-wide are predicted to have toxoplasmosis, frequently with unknown lifelong health consequences. Toxoplasma is classified as "Category B pathogen" according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and National Institute of Health (NIH). The organisms reside in muscles and brain in cyst forms for the lifetime of the host awaiting reactivation. This book discusses several topics which include foetal and maternal toxoplasmosis; toxoplasma gondii and suicide and homicide; toxoplasmosis in several animals including cattle, goats, swine, dogs, and kittens; and molecular diagnosis in toxoplasmosis.
Endodontic Microbiology, Second Edition presents a comprehensive reference to the microbiology, pathogenesis, management, and healing of endodontic pathosis, emphasizing the importance of biological sciences in understanding and managing endodontic disease and its interaction with systemic health. * Provides a major revision to the first book to focus on the problems related to microbes in the root canal and periapical tissues * Updates current knowledge in endodontic pathosis, especially regarding next generation sequencing and microbial virulence * Presents useful diagrams, images, radiographs, and annotated histological images to illustrate the concepts * Emphasizes the importance of biological science in understanding and managing endodontic disease * Includes contributions from the leading researchers and educators in the field
Is cancer a contagious disease? In the late nineteenth century this idea, and attending efforts to identify a cancer "germ," inspired fear and ignited controversy. Yet speculation that cancer might be contagious also contained a kernel of hope that the strategies used against infectious diseases, especially vaccination, might be able to subdue this dread disease. Today, nearly one in six cancers are thought to have an infectious cause, but the path to that understanding was twisting and turbulent. A Contagious Cause is the first book to trace the century-long hunt for a human cancer virus in America, an effort whose scale exceeded that of the Human Genome Project. The government's campaign merged the worlds of molecular biology, public health, and military planning in the name of translating laboratory discoveries into useful medical therapies. However, its expansion into biomedical research sparked fierce conflict. Many biologists dismissed the suggestion that research should be planned and the idea of curing cancer by a vaccine or any other means as unrealistic, if not dangerous. Although the American hunt was ultimately fruitless, this effort nonetheless profoundly shaped our understanding of life at its most fundamental levels. A Contagious Cause links laboratory and legislature as has rarely been done before, creating a new chapter in the histories of science and American politics.
Now in striking full color, this 7th Edition of Koneman's gold standard text presents all the principles and practices readers need for a solid grounding in all aspects of clinical microbiology-bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology. Comprehensive, easy-to-understand, and filled with high quality images, the book covers cell and structure identification in more depth than any other book available. This fully updated 7th Edition is enhanced by new pedagogy, new clinical scenarios, new photos and illustrations, and all-new instructor and student resources. A new-full color design clarifies important concepts and engages students. Updated and expanded coverage of the mycology and molecular chapters reflect the latest advances in the field. New clinical scenarios demonstrate key applications of microbiology in the real world. Additional high quality images enhance visual understanding. Clinical correlations link microorganisms to specific disease states using references to the most current medical literature available. Practical guidelines for cost-effective, clinically relevant evaluation of clinical specimens include extent of workup and abbreviated identification schemes. In-depth chapters cover the increasingly important areas of immunologic and molecular diagnosis. Principles of biochemical tests are explained and illustrated to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Line drawings, photographs, and tables clarify more complex concepts. Display boxes highlight essential information on microbes. Techniques and procedure charts appear at the back of the book for immediate access. Extensive bibliographic documentation allows students to explore primary sources for information. Chapter Objectives and Review Questions help students master key concepts. To enhance the learning experience the book is now supported using chapter-by-chapter online resources for instructors and students. This includes an image bank, PowerPoint slides, and Weblinks. A Test Bank is available for instructors. All resources can be found at thePoint.lww.com
This book describes the issues of human health and healthcare from the point of view of hygiene monitoring and maintenance. Also, the perspectives on the effects of microbial cell structures, metabolism, communities and interactions on health and hygiene are included. Besides microbiological screening of patients, surfaces, air space etc. this book introduces some key bacteriological, virological and fungal risks in the clinical setting. It describes routes of contamination inside hospitals, and into our body. The means for prevention of the spreading of unwanted microbes are presented as well. Protection mechanisms of the bodily system and the balances of the human microbiome are discussed with respect to intrusions via the respiratory or digestive systems or damaged skin. The risks during operations or invasive treatments are highlighted, together with means for avoiding them. Examples of biofilm formation on the devices or on the body surfaces, latent infections, contagion mechanisms, as well as prevalent risks such as mycobacterial infections, antibiotic resistant strains, intracellular pathogens, nosocomial viruses, lowered host defences, Clostridium difficile, salmonellas, legionellas are included in the chapters of this book. Important developments such as personalized medicine, point-of-care diagnostics, arthroscopy, improved drug delivery, pre- and probiotic treatments, monitoring of the normal flora and its beneficial effects are also discussed.
Avian influenza (AI) is caused by Influenza A viruses, and are single stranded, segmented RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A viruses continue to pose a major threat to the poultry industry and to the public. Wild aquatic birds are considered the primary hosts of influenza A, in which the virus is enzootic. In these birds, influenza viruses usually replicate in the intestinal tract, cause no disease, and spread by fecal contamination of the water habitat. This book discusses the epidemiology, global patters, and clinical management of Avian Influenza. It also examines the symptoms, treatment and clinical outcomes of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by a SARS coronavirus.
This updated final volume in the best-selling series of reference works features descriptions of more than 200 genera in 49 families and includes a revised taxonomic outline for the Actinobacteria as well as many medically and industrially important taxa.
Biomedical scientists are the foundation of modern healthcare, from cancer screening to diagnosing HIV, from blood transfusion for surgery to food poisoning and infection control. Without biomedical scientists, the diagnosis of disease, the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment, and research into the causes and cures of disease would not be possible. The Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series has been written to reflect the challenges of practicing biomedical science today. It draws together essential basic science with insights into laboratory practice to show how an understanding of the biology of disease is coupled to the analytical approaches that lead to diagnosis. Assuming only a minimum of prior knowledge, the series reviews the full range of disciplines to which a Biomedical Scientist may be exposed - from microbiology to cytopathology to transfusion science. The series: * Understands the complex roles of Biomedical Scientists in the modern practice of medicine. * Understands the development needs of employers and the Profession. * Addresses the need for understanding of a range of fundamental sciences in the context of Biomedicine. * Places the theoretical aspects of Biomedical Science in their practical context via clinical case studies. Medical Microbiology covers a range of key laboratory techniques used in the diagnosis of important human diseases caused by microorganisms. From sample collection, through to analysis and laboratory investigation, the text covers a wide range of procedures and highlights how and why results are generated. The third edition has been expanded to cover a wider range of topics, including a new chapter on Whole Genome Sequencing and extended coverage of syphilis and MALDI.
Antibiotics are powerful drugs that can prevent and treat infections, but they are becoming less effective as a result of drug resistance. Resistance develops because the bacteria that antibiotics target can evolve ways to defend themselves against these drugs. When antibiotics fail, there is very little else to prevent an infection from spreading. Unnecessary use of antibiotics in both humans and animals accelerates the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria, with potentially catastrophic personal and global consequences. Our best defenses against infectious disease could cease to work, surgical procedures would become deadly, and we might return to a world where even small cuts are life-threatening. The problem of drug resistance already kills over one million people across the world every year and has huge economic costs. Without action, this problem will become significantly worse. Following from their work on the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, William Hall, Anthony McDonnell, and Jim O'Neill outline the major systematic failures that have led to this growing crisis. They also provide a set of solutions to tackle these global issues that governments, industry, and public health specialists can adopt. In addition to personal behavioral modifications, such as better handwashing regimens, Superbugs argues for mounting an offense against this threat through agricultural policy changes, an industrial research stimulus, and other broad-scale economic and social incentives.
Did You Just Eat That? provides the answers to perennial questions about food and germs, such as whether electric hand dryers spread fewer germs than paper towels or about picking a crisp off the ground within five seconds of dropping it. The authors show how they have determined everything from how much bacteria gets transferred from sharing utensils to how many microbes live on restaurant menus. They list their materials and methods, guide the reader through their results and offer explanations of food safety and microbiology. Written with humour, this fascinating book reveals surprising answers to the weirdest and most commonly debated questions about food and germs.
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