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Required reading in many medical and healthcare institutions, How to Read a Paper is a clear and wide-ranging introduction to evidence-based medicine and healthcare, helping readers to understand its central principles, critically evaluate published data, and implement the results in practical settings. Author Trisha Greenhalgh guides readers through each fundamental step of inquiry, from searching the literature to assessing methodological quality and appraising statistics.
Thalidomide: patented in Germany as a non-toxic cure-all for sleeplessness and morning sickness; a wonder drug with no side effects. The devastation this drug caused is boundless, the unborn victims of its neurotoxins left with deformities and without limbs, sometimes never to be born at all. In the UK, it took hundreds of foetal deaths and abnormalities to lead to the drug's withdrawal, but in the US one woman stood in the way of Big Phrama and prevented catastrophe. bn Here James Essinger and Sandra Koutzenko explore the devastating world history of thalidomide, its development, proliferation and its victims' stories. Above all, they reveal the fascinating battle between Frances Kelley, newcomer to the FDA, and Big Pharma's Richardson-Merrell, as she sought to block the drug's introduction. A medical officer and scientist, Frankie was a hero who saved thousands, if not millions, of lives.
The authoritative guide for Data Monitoring Committees--fully revised and updated The number of clinical trials sponsored by government agencies and pharmaceutical companies has grown in recent years, prompting an increased need for interim monitoring of data on safety and efficacy. Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) are an essential component of many clinical trials, safeguarding trial participants and protecting the credibility and validity of the study. Data Monitoring Committees in Clinical Trials: A Practical Perspective, 2nd Edition offers practical advice for those managing and conducting clinical trials and serving on Data Monitoring Committees, providing a practical overview of the establishment, purpose, and responsibilities of these committees. Examination of topics such as the composition and independence of DMCs, statistical, philosophical and ethical considerations, and determining when a DMC is needed, presents readers with a comprehensive foundational knowledge of clinical trial oversight. Providing recent examples to illustrate DMC principles, this fully-updated guide reflects current developments and practices in clinical trial oversight and offers expanded coverage of emerging issues and challenges in the field. This new second edition covers the most current information on DMC policies, issues in monitoring trials using new designs, and recent trial publications relevant to DMC decision-making. - Presents practical advice for those managing and conducting clinical trials and serving on Data Monitoring Committees - Illustrates the types of challenging issues Data Monitoring Committees face in practical situations - Provides updated and expanded coverage of topics including regulatory and funding agency guidelines and trial designs and their associated demands and limitations - Includes a new chapter addressing legal issues that affect DMC members and discusses general litigation concerns relevant to clinical research - Expands treatment of current journal publications addressing DMC issues Data Monitoring Committees in Clinical Trials: A Practical Perspective, 2nd Edition is a must-have text for anyone engaged in DMC activities as well as trial sponsors, clinical trial researchers, regulatory and bioethics professionals, and those associated with clinical trials in academic, government and industry settings.
This book is a brief introductory text of the fundamental electrochemistry that is essential for important biomedical areas including electrophysiology, biosensors and even gene technology. The book targets readers who generally lack a substantial background knowledge in physical chemistry or the basic concepts in electricity for understanding most of the electrochemical textbooks, monographs or research articles. The contents are expressed in a concise and concept-by-concept manner with basic material such as math or optional applications appended in the appendices. Hopefully, it will be a quick and efficient solution for those who are eager to understand, handle and even develop an electrochemical method or tool by themselves.Co-publish with National Taiwan University. Distributed worldwide by World Scientific Publishing Co. except Taiwan.
This is a new edition of a well-established textbook which demonstrates the theory and practice of one of the most popular models used in both university and clinical practice settings. Fully updated throughout, Karen Holland, Jane Jenkins and their colleagues explain how the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model can help today's student learn how to care for patients in a variety of health care contexts and use it as a framework for their nursing practice. Helpfully presented in two parts, the book initially shows how the model can be used to identify the factors which affect the human lifespan and how health and illness work to influence the dependence-independence continuum. The second part then examines each of the 'activities of living', clearly demonstrating their interconnectivity and how they are influenced, in turn, by biological, psychological, sociocultural, environmental and politico-economic influences. Discussion and 'real-life' examples throughout show how this helpful framework can be used as a basis for nursing assessment, planning, delivery and evaluation of care. Rich with thought provoking exercises, Applying the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model in Practice, third edition, retains its helpful problem solving approach which strongly encourages further learning and reflection. The volume will be ideal for all pre-registration nursing students, as well as others such as Nursing Associates, who wish to improve their knowledge and understanding of evidence-based nursing care. New edition of a successful textbook which explains the theory and practice of one of the most popular models of nursing Structured approach to a core range of 'activities of living' clearly illustrate how they interconnect and may be promoted, or compromised, by health and illness, and influenced by external factors Explains the theory to show how it can be applied in practice to assess, plan, deliver and evaluate individualised nursing care A helpful case study approach enables readers see how the model works in 'real life' Written by experts who actively encourage a problem-solving approach to nursing care and practice Additional exercises are designed to encourage further learning and reflective practice, as well as develop skills in literature searching and evidence-based care Helpful appendices include a range of reference material such as the Care Plan Documentation and Audit Tool, Laboratory Reference Values, the Roper-Logan Tierney Assessment Schedule and other commonly used nursing documentation Ideal for use in a variety of contemporary health care delivery environments including the acute and community-based settings Presents the latest evidence-base for safe and effective nursing practice Ideal for use in a variety of contemporary Health Care Delivery settings, both in the UK and overseas
Includes a revised taxonomic outline for the phyla Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochetes, Fibrobacters, Fusobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Dictyoglomi, and Gemmatomonadetes based upon the SILVA project as well as a description of more than 153 genera in 29 families. Includes many medically important taxa.
With an introduction by author of The Tidal Zone, Sarah Moss
The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is the true story behind the HBO film starring Oprah Winfrey and Rose Byrne.
Her name was Henrietta Lacks, but scientists know her as HeLa. Born a poor black tobacco farmer, her cancer cells – taken without her knowledge – became a multimillion-dollar industry and one of the most important tools in medicine. Yet Henrietta’s family did not learn of her ‘immortality’ until more than twenty years after her death, with devastating consequences . . .
Rebecca Skloot’s fascinating account is the story of the life, and afterlife, of one woman who changed the medical world for ever. Balancing the beauty and drama of scientific discovery with dark questions about who owns the stuff our bodies are made of, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks is an extraordinary journey in search of the soul and story of a real woman, whose cells live on today in all four corners of the world.
Nursing and Healthcare Research at a Glance is perfect for nursing and healthcare students, as well as newly qualified practitioners and anyone looking for a refresher or introduction to research. Covering a broad range of topics gathered under key sections, this essential book combines informative diagrams and images to provide memorable information for students on one page, and accessible, clearly written text on the facing page. It includes information on a range of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the process of gaining ethical permission, conducting research with special groups including children, and successfully conducting reviews of the literature. Key features include: * Clear and informative full colour illustrations throughout * An emphasis on need-to-know research information for busy students and healthcare staff * A wide range of research methods, currently used in modern healthcare research * An impressive line-up of specialist and well-known experts in the field of health and nursing research This book provides quick access to the principles and reality of research and its implementation within the education and practice environment. It is essential reading for anyone in health service education and service settings with limited time who need to draw on research evidence.
This book guides medical researchers through all stages of transforming their scientific data and ideas into a published paper. Many researchers in medicine, including the life sciences and health sciences, struggle to get their research written and published. Manuscripts are typically rejected and/or sent back for revisions several times before ever being published. One reason for this is that researchers have not received much instruction in the specific subjects and skills needed to write and publish scientific medical papers: research methodology, ethics, statistics, data visualization, writing, revising, and the practicalities of publishing. Instead of wasting the reader's time discussing trivialities of punctuation, spelling, etc., this book tackles all the major scientific issues that routinely lead to manuscripts getting rejected from the journals. The section "Preparing" covers the range of methodological, ethical, and practical aspects that researchers need to address before starting to write their paper. The section "Analyzing" reviews commonplace problems in the statistical analysis and presentation, and how to resolve those problems. The section "Drafting" describes what to write in all the various parts of a paper (the Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Abstract, etc.) The section "Revising" explains and illustrates how to improve the writing style of any manuscript. The section "Publishing" discusses how to navigate the peer review process and all other practical aspects of the publishing phase. This book draws on the author's decade of experience as an independent medical writer and research consultant, but it is not written merely as the personal opinion of yet another expert. The entire book is grounded in the existing scientific and scholarly literature, with extensive references and a lengthy annotated bibliography, so readers can quickly obtain more information on any aspect they want. Thus this book provides a more evidence-based, scholarly account of how medical scientific papers should be written, in order to improve medical communication and accelerate scientific progress. After reading this entire book cover to cover, medical researchers will know how to write better quality medical papers, and they will be able to publish their work in better journals with less time and struggle. This book is essential reading for anyone conducting research in clinical medicine, life sciences, or health sciences.
Drug Utilization Research (DUR) is an eclectic scientific discipline, integrating descriptive and analytical methods for the quantification, understanding and evaluation of the processes of prescribing, dispensing and consumption of medicines and for the testing of interventions to enhance the quality of these processes. The discipline is closely related and linked mainly to the broader field of pharmacoepidemiology, but also to health outcomes research, pharmacovigilance and health economics. Drug Utilization Research is a unique, practical guide to the assessment and evaluation of prescribing practices and to interventions to improve the use of medicines in populations. Edited by an international expert team from the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE), DUR is the only title to cover both the methodology and applications of drug utilization research and covers areas such as health policy, specific populations, therapeutics and adherence.
In the past decade, we have experienced an explosion of new information about cancer therapeutic targets. Many of the targets have been validated by the discovery and approval of new medicines which have been approved for the treatment of cancer. On the heels of these successes, innumerable new targets and new potential therapeutics are being developed by many different groups including government agencies, pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, academic institutions, and individual investigators. Understanding the expanding "universe" of cancer therapies is therefore becoming impossible and no single source exists which serves as a reference for the involved parties. Further, the interested parties have vastly different areas of expertise, from focused laboratory based science, to clinical research, to corporate and regulatory oversight. The text would be updated every two years, more often depending on pace of change, interest and sales. While useful online, this reference book would likely be kept in hard copy as well.
Although anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has a high success rate, a substantial number of patients are left with unsatisfactory results. "Revision ACL Reconstruction: Indications and Technique" provides detailed strategies for planning and executing revision ACL reconstructions. Concise chapters by a leading group of international orthopedic surgeons cover the diagnosis of failed ACL reconstruction, patient evaluation, preoperative planning for revision ACL surgery and complex technical considerations.
`Bad Science' hilariously exposed the tricks that quacks and journalists use to distort science, becoming a 400,000 copy bestseller. Now Ben Goldacre puts the $600bn global pharmaceutical industry under the microscope. What he reveals is a fascinating, terrifying mess. Doctors and patients need good scientific evidence to make informed decisions. But instead, companies run bad trials on their own drugs, which distort and exaggerate the benefits by design. When these trials produce unflattering results, the data is simply buried. All of this is perfectly legal. In fact, even government regulators withhold vitally important data from the people who need it most. Doctors and patient groups have stood by too, and failed to protect us. Instead, they take money and favours, in a world so fractured that medics and nurses are now educated by the drugs industry. The result: patients are harmed in huge numbers. Ben Goldacre is Britain's finest writer on the science behind medicine, and `Bad Pharma' is the book that finally prompted Parliament to ask why all trial results aren't made publicly available - this edition has been updated with the latest news from the select committee hearings. Let the witty and indefatigable Goldacre show you how medicine went wrong, and what you can do to mend it.
Packed with practical advice and research quick tips, this book is the perfect companion to your health research project. It not only explains the theory of qualitative health research so you can interpret the studies of others, but also showcases how to approach, start, maintain, and disseminate your own research. It will help you: Understand the role of the researcher Develop an effective research proposal Seek ethical approval Conduct interviews, observational studies, mixed methods, and web-based designs Use secondary and digital sources Code, manage, and analyse data Write up your results Whether you are studying public health, sports medicine, occupational therapy, nursing, midwifery, or another health discipline, the authors will be your surrogate supervisors and guide you through evaluating or undertaking any type of health research. Judith Green is Professor of Sociology of Health at King's College London. Nicki Thorogood is Programme Director, DrPH, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
What is research and how does it work in the context of nursing, health and social care? Now in its 6th edition, this easy to read guide keeps on providing a concise overview of the different research methods and terminology and helps readers understand how research is implemented in practice. The new edition includes: o Case examples of real research from a variety of settings and countries o Updates in light of the new NMC standards, more on critical appraisal tools and service improvement o Chapter learning outcomes and key points o A companion website featuring an interactive glossary, reflective exercises and free access to SAGE journal articles for students, as well as SAGE videos and seminar notes for lecturers and more This is essential reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of nursing and health in the UK and internationally.
By the time you've read this book, you'll be ready to design your own research project
Not everyone in clinical research is a scientific investigator. In fact, a large proportion of health professionals undertaking a research project are working in clinical care, as junior doctors, nurses or allied health professionals. For them a book that begins with the basics of study design and takes them through all the stages to data collection, analysis, and submission for publication is vital. "Getting Started in Health Research" is the answer. It provides fundamental information on: Framing the research question Performing the literature search Choosing the study design Collecting data Getting funding Recruiting participants Writing your paper
Lively case studies provide a continuous narrative, addressing the pitfalls and problems that can occur.
Calling upon their vast experience of teaching health research methodology, these authors have turned a seemingly daunting task into a challenging and enjoyable prospect.
"The companion of Understanding Clinical Papers ""www.wiley.com/buy/"9780470091302
Reviews of "Understanding Clinical Papers"
..".an excellent basis for all who intend to write scientific texts as well as those reading, evaluating, and trying to understand the results...""Clinical Chemistry," May 2007
"What makes this book unique is that each point presented is illustrated with excerpts from actual papers, often three or four per chapter...this is a very effective teaching device.""Journal of the American Medical Association," December 26, 2006
"What strikes the reader ... straight away is clarity ... promises to become a recommended text for undergraduate and postgraduate courses.""Journal of Tropical Pediatrics," September 2006
"This book should be an essential addition to the personal libraries of all health care workers . . . ""Oncology," 2002
Saks and Allsop's Researching Health offers a comprehensive introduction to research methods for healthcare students. The new third edition includes important theoretical updates, and further international content, with contributors covering a number of specialisms and providing perspectives on core topics from the UK, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Portugal, Canada, and Spain. There are also 6 new chapters on: Principles of Health Research Methods of Sampling in Qualitative Health Research Qualitative Data Analysis Using secondary data in health research Online research in health Evaluating health research The book is supported by case studies, end-of-chapter exercises, annotated further reading, and access to online resources for both students and lecturers, consisting of SAGE journal articles, web links, PowerPoint slides, and teaching notes for each chapter.
This short memoir mixes science with human interest. It charts the author's journey working at the forefront of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF), test tube baby research. It recounts the challenges that went into establishing IVF in the wake of Steptoe and Edwards and provides a cautionary tale of how necessary it is to pay attention to what's going on in your own family. There are no other published books that detail the development of IVF in the UK from the perspective of someone who was at the cutting edge, but it is told from a very human and personal view point to appeal to a wide variety of readers. The author started as a homeless teenager from Grimsby and later became one of the founding fathers of IVF. Throughout the 1980s and 90s and for years after that, he played a key part in its scientific progress. The dedication to bring children into the lives of thousands of infertile families, came at a cost of losing his own family.
Understanding Clinical Papers is a popular and well established introduction to reading clinical papers. It unravels the process of evidence-based practice, using real papers to illustrate how to understand and evaluate published research, and provides clear explanations of important research-related topics. .
This textbook describes recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics and provides numerous examples of genome data analysis that illustrate its relevance to real world problems and will improve the reader's bioinformatics skills. Basic data preprocessing with normalization and filtering, primary pattern analysis, and machine learning algorithms using R and Python are demonstrated for gene-expression microarrays, genotyping microarrays, next-generation sequencing data, epigenomic data, and biological network and semantic analyses. In addition, detailed attention is devoted to integrative genomic data analysis, including multivariate data projection, gene-metabolic pathway mapping, automated biomolecular annotation, text mining of factual and literature databases, and integrated management of biomolecular databases. The textbook is primarily intended for life scientists, medical scientists, statisticians, data processing researchers, engineers, and other beginners in bioinformatics who are experiencing difficulty in approaching the field. However, it will also serve as a simple guideline for experts unfamiliar with the new, developing subfield of genomic analysis within bioinformatics.
A practical guide to network meta-analysis with examples and code In the evaluation of healthcare, rigorous methods of quantitative assessment are necessary to establish which interventions are effective and cost-effective. Often a single study will not provide the answers and it is desirable to synthesise evidence from multiple sources, usually randomised controlled trials. This book takes an approach to evidence synthesis that is specifically intended for decision making when there are two or more treatment alternatives being evaluated, and assumes that the purpose of every synthesis is to answer the question for this pre-identified population of patients, which treatment is best ? A comprehensive, coherent framework for network meta-analysis (mixed treatment comparisons) is adopted and estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in the freely available software WinBUGS. Each chapter contains worked examples, exercises, solutions and code that may be adapted by readers to apply to their own analyses. This book can be used as an introduction to evidence synthesis and network meta-analysis, its key properties and policy implications. Examples and advanced methods are also presented for the more experienced reader. Methods used throughout this book can be applied consistently: model critique and checking for evidence consistency are emphasised. Methods are based on technical support documents produced for NICE Decision Support Unit, which support the NICE Methods of Technology Appraisal. Code presented is also the basis for the code used by the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Comparisons. Includes extensive carefully worked examples, with thorough explanations of how to set out data for use in WinBUGS and how to interpret the output. N etwork Meta-Analysis for Decision Making will be of interest to decision makers, medical statisticians, health economists, and anyone involved in Health Technology Assessment including the pharmaceutical industry.
This book provides a modern, hands-on guide to the essential concepts and ideas for analyzing data with missing observations in the field of biostatistics. It acknowledges the limitations of established techniques and provides concrete applications of newly developed methods. It covers traditional techniques for missing data inference including likelihood-based, weighted GEE, multiple imputation, and Bayesian methods and applies the methodology to rapidly developing areas of research. The book is ideal for courses on biostatistics at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels and for health science researchers and applied statisticians.
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