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This volume provides documentations for the established MAK values (maximum workplace concentrations) of selected occupational toxicants, including an authoritative review of the available toxicological studies and data. For each substance, the toxic effects, mechanisms and modes of action, toxicogenetics and metabolism, effects in man and animals are described. In addition, the carcinogenic, germ-cell mutagenic, sensitizing or skin-resorptive effects as well as their toxicity to the reproductive system are evaluated, plus basic physico-chemical data are provided. The documentations are thus not only essential for the application of MAK values but also provide a concise toxicological overview for each substance.
A wide-ranging compilation of techniques, Extrapolation Practice for Ecotoxicological Effect Characterization of Chemicals describes methods of extrapolation in the framework of ecological risk assessment. The book, informally known as EXPECT, identifies data needs and situations where these extrapolations can be most usefully applied, making it a practical guide to the application of extrapolation procedures. It focuses on the extrapolation of chemical effects and covers the extrapolation of exposures in the context of interactions between toxicants and the matrix.
This current edition explores new tests for genotoxicity testing, along with other well-known techniques. This will further help in our understanding of the genotoxic effects of chemicals. The book has different sections dealing with various assays for gene mutation, chromosomal abnormalities, primary DNA damage, etc. It also delves into plant models, animals and their alternates, as well as in silico approaches for genetic toxicology. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and up-to-date, Genotoxicity Assessment: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition serves as a highly useful and ready resource for research students and scientists working in regulatory toxicology as well as biomedical, biochemical, and pharmaceutical sciences.
Neurotoxicity of Nanomaterials and Nanomedicine presents an overview of the exciting research in neurotoxicity and nanomaterials. Nanomaterials have been extensively used in medicine, including diagnosis probes, drug carriers, and embedded materials. While some have been approved for clinical use, most nanomaterials are waiting to be transferred from lab to clinic. However, the toxicity is a main barrier that restricts the translation. This comprehensive book includes chapters on the most commonly used individual nanoparticles, with information on the applications, neurotoxicity, and related mechanisms of each, providing the most in-depth and current information available. The book examines the pathways that nanomaterials enter into, and eliminate, from the brain, along with the strategies that could reduce the neurotoxicity of nanomaterials. Providing a background to the subject, detailed information, and ideas for future directions in research, the book is essential for students and researchers in toxicology, and for those in medicine, neurology, pharmacology, pharmaceutical science, and materials science who are researching nanomaterials.
Explores the benefits and limitations of the latest high-throughput screening methods
With its expert coverage of high-throughput "in vitro" screening methods for toxicity testing, this book makes it possible for researchers to accelerate and streamline the evaluation and risk assessment of chemicals and drugs for toxicity. Moreover, it enables them to comply with the latest standards set forth by the U.S. National Research Council's "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy" and the E.U.'s REACH legislation. Readers will discover a variety of state-of-the-science, high-throughput screening methods presented by a group of leading authorities in toxicology and toxicity testing.
"High-Throughput Screening Methods in Toxicity Testing" is divided into five parts: General aspects, including predicting the toxicity potential of chemicals and drugs via high-throughput bioactivity profilingAssessing different cytotoxicity endpointsAssessing DNA damage and carcinogenesisAssessing reproductive toxicity, cardiotoxicity, and haematotoxicityAssessing drug metabolism and receptor-related toxicity
Each chapter describes method principles and includes detailed information about data generation, data analysis, and applications in risk assessment. The authors not only enumerate the advantages of each high-throughput method over comparable conventional methods, but also point out the high-throughput method's limitations and potential pitfalls. In addition, the authors describe current research efforts to make high-throughput toxicity screening even more cost effective and streamlined.
Throughout the book, readers will find plenty of figures and illustrations to help them understand and perform the latest high-throughput toxicity screening methods.
This book is ideal for toxicologists and other researchers who need to implement high-throughput screening methods for toxicity testing in their laboratories as well as for researchers who need to evaluate the data generated by these methods.
The "ULLA" series is a new and innovative series of introductory textbooks for postgraduate students in the pharmaceutical sciences. This new series is produced by the ULLA Consortium (European University Consortium for Advanced Pharmaceutical Education and Research). The Consortium is a European academic collaboration in research and teaching of the pharmaceutical sciences that is constantly growing and expanding. Before a drug substance can be tested in man, a set of toxicology studies must be carried out in animals and in vitro to ensure, as far as possible, safety for the test subjects. Toxicity studies involve assessment of acute, repeated dose and chronic toxicities, evaluation of potential effects on vital organs, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, and carcinogenicity studies. This book covers a limited number of areas of drug toxicity which address the major issues including registration requirements of new drugs and pharmacovigilance. It also provides an overview of the methodology and requirements of pre-clinical safety assessment of new medicines. Mechanisms by which drugs cause toxic effects in living organisms, and problems in the toxicity of specific agents are covered, as are regulatory issues, pharmacovigilence, and clinical toxicology. There is no other textbook at this level dedicated to pharmaceutical toxicology, and this new title in the "ULLA" series fills a definite gap in the market.
The knowledge of metal ion speciation is essential for predicting the exact toxicities of metal ion species in the environment. Metal ions can exist in various oxidation states, each of which possesses different physical and chemical properties as well as exhibit varying toxicities. Often, toxicity data is unreliable because it is based on metal ion concentration measurements that fail to identify a dominant species either more or less harmful than the average. Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation provides analytical techniques and experimental methodologies for determining the concentration of the different physicochemical forms of metal ions in environmental and biological samples, leading to more accurate measurements of actual toxicity.
The authors introduce the principles of metal ion speciation and discuss important analytical techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and both electrochemical and radiochemical methods used to determine concentration and composition. They present a range of liquid chromatographic approaches, including capillary electrochromatography and high-performance, ion, ion pair, micellar electrokinetic, size exclusion, chiral, and supercritical fluid chromatographies for all metal ion species. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers the sources, distribution, toxicity, biotransformation, and biodegradation of each metal ions species as well as extraction methods, sample preparation, and experimental optimization techniques that can be useful in designing future experiments.
Instrumental Methods in Metal Ion Speciation is a unique and valuable source of reference for scientists, academics, and researchersinvolved in analytical, biological, pharmaceutical, and environmental chemistries, as well as material industries, geochemistry, agriculture, biotechnology, and occupational safety and regulations.
This volume explores the latest techniques used to investigate nanotoxicity. The protocols covered in this book range from routine nanotoxicity assays to genomic and proteomic approaches in vivo and in vitro. The chapters discuss specific topics such as preparation and utilization of 3D human liver microtissue models; assessment of ovarian granulosa cells with exposure to nanoparticles; DNA methylation analysis; evaluation of genotoxicity of nanoparticles in mouse models; and studying nanotoxicity using embryonic zebrafish. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and practical, Nanotoxicity: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of toxicology, environmental science, pharmacological sciences, and clinical medicine. This volume also serves as a starting point for researchers interested in learning more about this developing field.
This book re-evaluates epidemiological and occupational health studies, experimental studies in animals and in vitro experiments relating to the toxicity of 27 metal and metalloid elements for which evidence of carcinogenicity has been presented. Human carcinogenic risk is substantiated in relation to arsenic, beryllium, thorium, chromium, radioactive elements, probably lead, and some nickel and cobalt compounds, and respirable silica particles, but the carcinogenicity of iron, aluminium, titanium, tungsten, antimony, bismuth, mercury, precious metals, and certain related compounds in humans is unresolved. The toxicity and carcinogenicity of each element is specific but correlates poorly with its position in the Periodic Table. Carcinogenicity differs according to the valency of the ion and its ability to interact with and penetrate membranes in target cells and to bind, denature or induce mutations by genotoxic or epigenetic mechanisms. This important text comprehensively examines each of the elements providing detailed information on the carcinogenicity and toxicity and detailing the most up-to-date research in this area. The book will be an essential tool for toxicologists, medicinal and biochemists, and environmental scientists working in both industry and academia.
A comprehensive overview of techniques and systems currently utilized in predictive toxicology, this reference presents an in-depth survey of strategies to characterize chemical structures and biological systemsa "covering prediction methods and algorithms, sources of high-quality toxicity data, the most important commercial and noncommercial predictive toxicology programs, and advanced technologies in computational chemistry and biology, statistics, and data mining.
This definitive reference work describes in detail the enzyme systems that participate in the metabolism of xenobiotics, particularly medicinal drugs. Each chapter focuses on a specific enzyme system, emphasising its role in the activation and detoxication of chemicals. Aspects discussed critically include:
The Hazmat medical life support basic provider course book aims to equip medical responders to a hazmat incident - chemical, radiological or biological - with essential skills and knowledge to safely manage casualties. It includes basic information about hazmat agents and provides easy to remember algorithmic approaches for the on-scene management of a hazmat event. Essential information on setting up medical operations, triaging and approach to hazmat event, personal protective equipment, decontamination, wound management, life support as well as paediatric-specific issues are discussed in this book.
This book focuses on human Cytochrome P450s and drug metabolism in Man. It describes the structures of the P450s, and reviews the methodology available to determine their nature, including molecular modelling, X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, and molecular biology.
Botulinism toxins are widely used for the treatment of medical and aesthetic disorders. They are considered the gold standard for the treatment of muscular spasticity and facial dynamics wrinkles. The authors' of this book discuss botulinum toxin resistance in medical and aesthetic arenas; recommendations of dilutions for treatment applications (general recommendations were to inject the toxin diluted, because highly concentrated toxins were believed to be more toxic and dangerous); a novel methodology of transdermal delivery of botulinum toxin with the aid of a dermic pen for hyperhidrosis; emerging treatment options for lower urinary tract symptoms that involve a bladder neck injection of a botulinum toxin; and a discussion on the cases of botulism that arise from consuming certain foods particularly in the Arctic regions.
T Lymphocyte Subpopulations in Immunotoxicology Edited by Ian Kimber ZENECA Pharmaceuticals, Central Toxicology Laboratory, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK and Mary Jane K. Selgrade US Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, NC, USA Immunotoxicology is a diverse discipline that embraces the investigation of the adverse health effects that may result from the interaction of xenobiotics with the immune system. T lymphocytes orchestrate adaptive immune responses and are of central importance in the consideration of immunotoxicity. These cells and/or the tissue responsible for their functional maturation (the thymus) have been implicated as the primary or secondary targets for chemical insult. Moreover, T lymphocytes play pivotal roles in the induction and elicitation of chemical and protein allergy and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Classically, T lymphocytes have been divided into two main populations: CD4 helper T cells and CD8 suppressor/cytotoxic T cells. It is now apparent that there exists within both populations considerable functional heterogeneity, characterized usually by variable cytokine secretion patterns. Two major subpopulations of T helper (Th) cells have been identified and designated Th1 and Th2, with similar, but less well characterized, sub-types of cytotoxic (Tc) cells having been described also. The discovery of functional subpopulations of Th (and Tc) cells has profoundly influenced our view of the immune response and, in particular, our appreciation of the way in which the immune system can tailor responses to meet challenges of different types. This has also translated into a much more detailed understanding of certain immunopathologic processes and the role of T lymphocytes in the development of allergic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This book explores the role of T lymphocyte subpopulations in the development and expression of immunotoxic effects. Constituent chapters reveal that a consideration of the impact of chemicals on these diverse T cell populations and the polarization of T cell responses has already contributed greatly to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immunotoxicity, including immune suppression and allergic and autoimmune responses.
This updated text explains how the advances on mammalian and plant genetics contribute to better therapeutics agents and more wholesome foods. It addresses such topics as new pharmaceutical agents, agribiotechnology, safety evaluation of biotechnology-derived drugs, food safety, nutritional science, and regulatory and environmental aspects of genetically-modified organisms. New to this edition are chapters on biotherapeutics and herbicide-resistant crops. It should be of interest to biotechnology, toxicologists, pharmaceutical scientists, environmental scientists and agriculturalists.
"A Textbook of Modern Toxicology" is a unique resource that provides both students and practitioners with a wide-ranging, accessible overview of the discipline. Suitable for courses in environmental, pharmacological, medical, and veterinary toxicology, this essential text features chapters written by experts who address a range of key topics.
The Fourth Edition includes additional chapters on new approaches to toxicology - molecular methods (-omics: toxicogenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), bioinformatics, and systems biology - and continues the legacy of its predecessors to provide up-to-date insights into acute toxicity and chemical carcinogenesis, organ toxicity, in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing, ecological risk assessment, and many other areas of toxicology that help foster a solid comprehension of the field.
Also featured in the Fourth Edition are end-of-chapter questions and a Solutions Manual available separately for academic adopters.
This book explains the chemistry of Organophosphorus compounds (OPs), their mechanism of toxicity and the history of OPs from their initial discovery to the development of new compounds such as Novichoks. It details the harmful effects to human health both as a result of acute and chronic OP exposure and the necessary clinical management of affected patients to reduce their toxic side effects. The book also explains the detrimental effect that OPs have had on the environment and the efforts being made to prevent this in the future. Finally, the book looks at the incidents where OPs have been used as chemical warfare agents. "Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds "aims to act as a comprehensive guide to all aspects of OPs and is a key resource for clinical toxicologists and related health professionals involved in the prevention, diagnosis and clinical management of OP patients, toxicologists and other scientists involved in research on OPs including regulatory issues and postgraduate students in Toxicology and related fields.
Climate Change and Mycotoxins highlights the importance of the continuous study of climate change impacts on mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins in food and feed crops. Changing climate conditions across every geographical zone greatly affect rainfall, temperature and concentration of greenhouse gases leading to loss in yield and quality of food crops. In outstanding contributions, the authors compile current evidence on the influence of climate change on mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food crops pre- and postharvest and during storage of food and animal feed. The chemistry and biology of toxin production is revised and an outlook on control and prevention of the toxin's impact on food and animal feed is given. The editors recommend this book to mycologists, mycotoxicologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, toxicologists, physicians, veterinarians, nutritionists, the food and feed industries, legislators, analytical chemists, microbiologists, or students of these fields. *Unique compilation on the impact of climate change on mycotoxins based on observed trends over the last 10 years. *Special focus on the implications for food and feed safety. *Latest advances on prediction and prevention of mycotoxin threats to human and animal health. About the Editors Luis M. Botana Is a full Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Santiago, from 2004-2012 director of the Department of Pharmacology and former Fogarty Fellow at the School of Medicine of the Johns Hopkins University. He has been director of the European Reference Laboratory for Marine Toxins from 2004 to 2009. He is author of 25 international patents, over 300 scientific papers and editor of 10 international books. Maria J. Sainz Is an associate Professor of Agriculture and Forage Production and Conservation at the University of Santiago de Compostela. She has been a visiting scientist at the Rothamsted Experimental Station and for ten years head of the department of Plant Production. Her research interests focus on fungal pathogen detection and diagnostics, mycorrhizal fungi in crop protection and production, and mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins on forage crops and animal feed.
This book offers readers an overview of the field of toxicology while incorporating historical context with present day advances. The chapters, written in a style that facilitates the reader's connection of past developments with the present state-of-the-art practices in specific fields of toxicology, provide a detailed coverage of diverse areas in toxicology. The areas of chapters chosen for detailed discussion are characteristic of the overall field and helps to reinforce the basic principles of toxicology. As such, this book will be a valuable resource not only for those scientists in the field of toxicology, but also for those in related fields (e.g., pharmacology, physiology, microbiology, biochemistry, immunology and others). Additionally, this book will be a valuable resource for teaching graduate students in not only toxicology, but also in the related fields above. While this book is not primarily intended as an introductory text for undergraduate students' first exposure to the field of toxicology, it would serve very useful as a text for an advanced undergraduate level biology or chemistry course. The chapters are filled with appropriate tables and figures which help illustrate and reinforce the information in each chapter. The referencing of material cited is carefully prepared and provides links to additional information that will aid the reader in understanding and appreciating the information within the text. The reader will find this book to be of significant depth and breadth so as to meet the needs of many groups of students and established scientists.
This book presents a review of the existing literature on natural mycotoxins to create a comprehensive reference for mycotoxin levels. Each entry includes contamination, concentration rate, mostly mean mycotoxin concentration of organs (human and animal) and country of origin of the sample. Due to the serious spoilage and health issues the presence of mycotoxins can cause, it is imperative that corresponding scientists, health institutions and the food and feed industries have a more qualified understanding of mycotoxins in living things. To this end, Natural Mycotoxin Contamination in Humans and Animals provides an excellent resource. The present book complements the series of the author's previous books, Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs and Mycotoxins in Foodstuffs, in that it is a review of the literature to create a comprehensive reference for mycotoxin levels. As with Mycotoxins and their Metabolites in Humans and Animals, the focus remains the same, but the scope now covers natural mycotoxins only. Comprehensive reference of natural mycotoxin levels in humans and animals Easy-to-use database of mycotoxins Each entry is comprehensive
With recent technological advances, fields such as forensic odontology, forensic biology, forensic serology, forensic psychiatry and forensic pathology have been recognized as major subspecialities. Recent Advances in Forensic Medicine and Toxicology provides all the recent updates on medical jurisprudence, clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology to help forensic specialists, as well as medical professionals who need to seek the opinion of a forensic specialist in medicolegal cases. The book is divided into 3 sections; medical jurisprudence, medical ethics, forensic pathology or toxicology. The book includes detailed debate on medicolegal examination and certification of a case of injury, medicolegal aspects of injuries, how to approach a case of poisoning, alcohol intoxication, head and neck injury, attempted strangulation, and emerging issues in sex verification and victim identification in mass disasters. Recent Advances in Forensic Medicine and Toxicology is an important and highly relevant book for residents and fellows in forensic medicine, forensic medicine specialists and medical officers. Key Points Features discussion on the legal, social and humanitarian aspects of euthanasia Up-to-date debates on expert medical evidence, legal and medical issues of medical records Over 160 full colour and black and white illustrations, images and tables
The discipline of developmental toxicology is an integration of concepts, models, and methodologies based heavily on the superimposition of toxicology principles upon the science of developmental biology. The science of developmental toxicology also borrows from other research areas that are concerned with regulation of cell growth, migration, differentiation and cell death, as such are central to the study of stem cells, cancer, and chronic diseases. In Developmental Toxicology: Methods and Protocols expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used to study developmental toxicology highlighting the evolution of methods from classical teratology approaches to the dynamic, state-of-the-art molecular methods, systems biology, and next generation models and procedures. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Developmental Toxicology: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource to those planning experiments to investigate consequences of environmental, nutritional, or chemical effects caused during development.
The evaluation of potential mutagenic activity is a critical step in the assessment of the safety of both new and pre-existing chemical types. In Genetic Toxicology: Principles and Methods, expert contributors help to satisfy the demand for education in this tremendously important area of study. The volume covers three basic areas: the scientific basis of the discipline, the methodologies of the main test assays, and the application of the methods, all aimed primarily at scientists in the safety departments of the industries working with both natural and synthetic chemicals. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Intuitive and cutting-edge, Genetic Toxicology: Principles and Methods provides crucial support to both laboratory workers in providing quality information on the appropriate application of techniques and to study directors in their assay selection and protocol design in this vital field.
Advances in Molecular Toxicology, Volume Thirteen, features the latest advances in the subspecialties of the broad area of molecular toxicology. This series details the study of the molecular basis of toxicology by which a vast array of agents encountered in the human environment, and produced by the human body, manifest themselves as toxins. The work not only documents these examples, but also covers the complex web of chemical and biological events that give rise to toxin-induced symptoms and disease. The new technologies that are being harnessed to analyze and understand these events are also reviewed by leading experts in the field.
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