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Ever-changing environmental conditions and climatic transformations have affected each component of the environment. Increasing rates of soil, air and water pollution have altered the growth and production of vegetation to a greater extent and medicinal plants are also not spared from this. Medicinal plants form an important part of traditional and modern systems of medicine. The consumption of medicinal plants has increased over the last few decades. The present book provides detailed information on the topic with an emphasis on the effects of inorganic, organic (chemical), biological and other contaminants of medicinal plants. It provides a vast amount of information concerning the effects of various environmental factors on growth, productivity and secondary metabolite production in medicinal plants. The book also highlights the adverse effects of contaminants in plants and related toxicity of contaminated medicinal plants, with their possible effects on therapeutic efficiency and human health. The detailed information about the contamination and toxicity in medicinal plants will challenge the scientific community to find ways of countering many environmental adversities to protect, preserve and maintain many of the rare, highly valuable medicinal plants used in treating various diseases.
The first thorough review of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, including their toxicity mechanisms and toxicopathological risks Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are enzymes responsible for the formation of an important class of biological mediators called prostanoids. Prostanoids such as prostaglandins mediate inflammatory and anaphylactic reactions. For those suffering from inflammation and pain, the pharmacological inhibition of COXs, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, can provide relief. Yet the use of NSAIDs can trigger toxicological effects as well, leading to potential health risks. Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases provides a comprehensive overview of how COX inhibitors affect various bodily systems, specifically the toxicity mechanisms triggered when the COX enzyme is inhibited. The book provides an introduction to the discovery of cyclooxygenases, their use as therapeutic agents, as well as an historical perspective. Shedding light on the differences in expression, pathophysiology, and toxicology of COX inhibitors across species, the book offers a systematic examination of the effects and pathophysiology of COX inhibitors and their mechanisms of toxicity, beginning with the GI tract. Subsequent chapters cover: * The pathophysiology of COX inhibition on bone, tendon, and ligament healing * COX inhibitors and renal system pathophysiology and mechanisms of toxicity * The pathophysiologic role of COX inhibition in the ocular system * COX inhibition and the respiratory and cardiovascular systems The book also sheds light on the latest research devoted to developing COX inhibitors with no adverse side-effects. The first book to offer a thorough comparative look at the toxicological effects of COX inhibitors throughout the body, this invaluable resource will help advance the research and development of safer and more effective COX drugs.
Adverse drug reactions commonly affect the skin. In rare instances, they cause severe morbidity and possibly lead to drug-induced mortality. Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) represents the archetype of such conditions. This book summarises the recent advances in the field of TEN as a major life-threatening adverse drug reaction. Indeed, this dramatic condition remains a puzzling topic for both the clinician at the bedside and in the laboratory. This book is fully updated about the putative biomechanisms, the clinico-pathological correlations and recent treatment advances. The most damaging effects of TEN reside in the skin, eyes and oral mucosa. Physicians keen in intensive care medicine, dermatology and ophthalmology should find here stimulating concepts applicable to the patient with the hope of reducing the TEN fatalities.
This volume, Toxicology in Antiquity II, continues to tell the story of the roots of toxicology in ancient times. Readers learn that before scientific research methods were developed, toxicology thrived as a very practical discipline. Toxicologists are particularly proud of the rich and storied history of their field and there are few resources available that cover the discipline from a historical perspective. People living in ancient civilizations readily learned to distinguish safe from hazardous substances, how to avoid these hazardous substances and how to use them to inflict harm on enemies. Volume II explores the use of poison as weapons in war and assassinations, early instances of air pollution, the use of hallucinogens and entheogens, and the role of the snake in ancient toxicology.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product.Understand the essential principles of toxicology and how poisons affect the human body with this accessible and engaging summary A Doody's Core Title for 2017! Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology is an easy-to-absorb distillation of the major principles and concepts that were presented in depth in Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Eighth Edition, the field's gold-standard text. Presented in full color, the book concisely describes the science of toxicology, and includes important concepts from anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry to facilitate the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of toxicant action on specific organ systems. A summary of key points at the beginning and review questions at the end of each chapter help you study, understand, and memorize the material. Reflecting the expertise of more than sixty renowned contributors, Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology is logically divided into seven sections: Succinct and comprehensive, there is no better text for gaining an understanding of essential principles, toxicokinetics, how toxic effects are passed on to succeeding generations, how each body system responds to poisons, and the specific effects of a wide range of toxic agents than Casarett & Doull's Essentials of Toxicology.
This publication offers a comprehensive collection of 70 "building blocks," which are primary prevention strategies that merit consideration by state and local governments and others in position to reduce exposure to hazards in housing and thereby help meet the Healthy People 2010 goal of eliminating childhood lead poisoning. Exemplary strategies span a broad spectrum which includes targeting high-risk properties; widely instituting safe work practices; building community capacity to check for hazards and work safety; delivering hazard assessment, control and prevention services; motivating action; screening high-risk housing; expanding financial resources; strengthening enforcement; raising public awareness and support; and establishing valuable partnerships. A strategy has been considered for inclusion as a building block if it is sensitive to the economics of affordable housing, consistent with the principles of public health, holds the potential for broad-scale impact, stands a reasonable possibility of implementation, and offers promise for reducing lead and other environmental health hazards in high-risk housing. The summary of each building block is coupled with an illustration of how the strategy has been implemented and contact information for at least one individual who is knowledgeable about this activity. The purpose of disseminating Building Blocks for Primary Prevention: Protecting Children from Lead-Based Paint Hazards is to allow programs and policymakers easy access to information about innovative and promising strategies that span the spectrum of primary prevention, from which they may select one or several to pursue based on their jurisdiction's needs and political and economic realities.
This volume contains Raymond J. Carroll's research and commentary on its impact by leading statisticians. Each of the seven main parts focuses on a key research area: Measurement Error, Transformation and Weighting, Epidemiology, Nonparametric and Semiparametric Regression for Independent Data, Nonparametric and Semiparametric Regression for Dependent Data, Robustness, and other work. The seven subject areas reviewed in this book were chosen by Ray himself, as were the articles representing each area. The commentaries not only review Ray's work, but are also filled with history and anecdotes. Raymond J. Carroll's impact on statistics and numerous other fields of science is far-reaching. His vast catalog of work spans from fundamental contributions to statistical theory to innovative methodological development and new insights in disciplinary science. From the outset of his career, rather than taking the "safe" route of pursuing incremental advances, Ray has focused on tackling the most important challenges. In doing so, it is fair to say that he has defined a host of statistics areas, including weighting and transformation in regression, measurement error modeling, quantitative methods for nutritional epidemiology and non- and semiparametric regression.
"Toxicology in Antiquity" is the first in a series of short format
works covering key accomplishments, scientists, and events in the
broad field of toxicology, including environmental health and
chemical safety. This first volume sets the tone for the series and
starts at the very beginning, historically speaking, with a look at
toxicology in ancient times. The book explains that before
scientific research methods were developed, toxicology thrived as a
very practical discipline. People living in ancient civilizations
readily learned to distinguish safe substances from hazardous ones,
how to avoid these hazardous substances, and how to use them to
inflict harm on enemies.It also describes scholars who compiled
compendia of toxic agents.
This volume explores the latest techniques used to investigate nanotoxicity. The protocols covered in this book range from routine nanotoxicity assays to genomic and proteomic approaches in vivo and in vitro. The chapters discuss specific topics such as preparation and utilization of 3D human liver microtissue models; assessment of ovarian granulosa cells with exposure to nanoparticles; DNA methylation analysis; evaluation of genotoxicity of nanoparticles in mouse models; and studying nanotoxicity using embryonic zebrafish. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and practical, Nanotoxicity: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for researchers and postgraduate students in the fields of toxicology, environmental science, pharmacological sciences, and clinical medicine. This volume also serves as a starting point for researchers interested in learning more about this developing field.
"Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications" provides a concise overview of the field of exposure science, from its origins in sanitation and occupational health, to its exciting involvement with emerging scientific concepts. Written by world-leading experts in the field of exposure science, this book provides all the basic understanding you need to employ the best tools and methods for measurement, analysis, and modeling of exposure.
"Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications" is an
invaluable introduction to exposure science for anyone working in
the fields of environmental health, risk assessment, toxicology, or
Toxicology Because what you don't know can kill you is about everyday people and their encounters with the clinical laboratory. This collection of stories is a behind-the-scenes look at the intricate workings of a toxicology lab. Many of these cases ended with legal consequences. All stories are based on my involvement with real cases as a toxicologist. Because of patient privacy laws, the names and places have been changed. We all wish we had more power. The power to turn back time, to re-write history and make better decisions, but most importantly, the power to save a life. However, the dream of being someone's hero or even saving yourself from certain death or misfortune is a plight that no average person can seemingly muster. Without super strength or extrasensory perceptions, it may appear that we are on our own to battle uncertain destiny. But what if I were to tell you there's more? There's a way to change your fate, to hold more cards, and take not only your own life, but the lives of those you love into your hands. No, we cannot go back in time, but we can set forth ripples of change into the future that can alter our coexistence forever. Toxicology and clinical laboratory testing may be one of those portals.
This book explains the chemistry of Organophosphorus compounds (OPs), their mechanism of toxicity and the history of OPs from their initial discovery to the development of new compounds such as Novichoks. It details the harmful effects to human health both as a result of acute and chronic OP exposure and the necessary clinical management of affected patients to reduce their toxic side effects. The book also explains the detrimental effect that OPs have had on the environment and the efforts being made to prevent this in the future. Finally, the book looks at the incidents where OPs have been used as chemical warfare agents. "Basic and Clinical Toxicology of Organophosphorus Compounds "aims to act as a comprehensive guide to all aspects of OPs and is a key resource for clinical toxicologists and related health professionals involved in the prevention, diagnosis and clinical management of OP patients, toxicologists and other scientists involved in research on OPs including regulatory issues and postgraduate students in Toxicology and related fields.
"Provides both historical information and the latest toxicological data on various classes of food additives--examining the production, application, and safety of numerous compounds used to enhance and preserve the quality of foods."
Interest and information in the field of medical toxicology has grown rapidly, but there has never been a concise, authoritative reference focused on the subjects of natural substances, chemical and physical toxins, drugs of abuse, and pharmaceutical overdoses. "Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances" finally gives you an easily accessible resource for vital toxicological information on foods, plants, and animals in key areas in the natural environment.
Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease delivers a comprehensive review of nitrite and nitrate biology, from basic biochemistry to the complex physiology and metabolism of these two naturally occurring molecules in the human body. Well-organized and well referenced chapters cover the rich history of nitrite and nitrate, sources of exposure, and the physiological effects when consumed through foods containing nitrite and nitrate. The chapters are written by leading experts, all of whom share their research and perspectives in order to help define the context for benefits vs. any potential risks associated with nitrite and nitrate use, either through dietary ingestion or therapeutic dosing. This diverse collection of authors includes vascular biologists, physiologists, physicians, epidemiologists, cancer biologists, registered dieticians, chemists, and public health experts from five countries in both academia and government. Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Health and Disease provides a balanced view of nitric oxide biochemistry, and nitrite and nitrate biochemistry in physiology and in the food sciences.
Toxicology in Antiquity provides an authoritative and fascinating exploration into the use of toxins and poisons in antiquity. It brings together the two previously published shorter volumes on the topic, as well as adding considerable new information. Part of the History of Toxicology and Environmental Health series, it covers key accomplishments, scientists, and events in the broad field of toxicology, including environmental health and chemical safety. This first volume sets the tone for the series and starts at the very beginning, historically speaking, with a look at toxicology in ancient times. The book explains that before scientific research methods were developed, toxicology thrived as a very practical discipline. People living in ancient civilizations readily learned to distinguish safe substances from hazardous ones, how to avoid these hazardous substances, and how to use them to inflict harm on enemies. It also describes scholars who compiled compendia of toxic agents. New chapters in this edition focus chiefly on evidence for the use of toxic agents derived from religious texts.
Formaldehyde is a building block in the synthesis of many other compounds of specialised and industrial significance. It exhibits most of the chemical properties of other aldehydes but is more reactive. In this book, the authors discuss the chemistry, applications and role in polymerisation of formaldehyde. Topics discussed include the properties of urea-formaldehyde resins for wood-based composites; electronic spectra of formaldehyde in aqueous solution; decontamination of indoor air pollutants of formaldehyde through catalytic oxidation over oxide supported noble metal nanocatalysts; indoor air monitoring using newly developed formaldehyde sensor elements and portable monitoring devices; unusual behaviour during the electrochemical oxidation of formaldehyde; and an algebraic approach to estimate the PES of formaldehyde through the study of vibrational excitations.
These proceedings focus on the latest research in molecular mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. The conference promoted a multidisciplinary investigative approach and included presentations from international experts on state-of-the-art information in this field.
The discipline of developmental toxicology is an integration of concepts, models, and methodologies based heavily on the superimposition of toxicology principles upon the science of developmental biology. The science of developmental toxicology also borrows from other research areas that are concerned with regulation of cell growth, migration, differentiation and cell death, as such are central to the study of stem cells, cancer, and chronic diseases. In Developmental Toxicology: Methods and Protocols expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used to study developmental toxicology highlighting the evolution of methods from classical teratology approaches to the dynamic, state-of-the-art molecular methods, systems biology, and next generation models and procedures. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Developmental Toxicology: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource to those planning experiments to investigate consequences of environmental, nutritional, or chemical effects caused during development.
The introduction of aspartame into the food supply of the United States began in the summer of 1981. Since that time, the incidence of Alzheimer's deaths has increased 100 fold (10,000%). Autism has, with no explanation, increased 25 times (2500%). Autoimmune diseases have reached epidemic proportions, with Lupus (SLE) up 300%, and Multiple Sclerosis, Type II Diabetes and Rheumatoid Arthritis headed out of control. Cancers, the hallmark of formaldehyde exposure, have exploded. Skin cancer has shot up over 400%, liver cancer has tripled, kidney cancer has doubled, and breast cancer is up 50%. The list goes on..... This 250 page, full color book uses over 100 colorful illustrations, photographs, tables and graphs to explain to the average person the fascinating process by which methanol, a poison hidden in aspartame and some other foods, is converted to formaldehyde at the very locations in the human body where these diseases originate, revealing, for the first time, the exact details of the probable cause of each. It is a cautionary tale of the legacy of the danger of a poisonous food additive and the failure of a government, corrupted by greed, to safeguard the health and welfare of its people. This is a handbook that teaches the tools you will need to protect those you love and inform them about the causes of a number of diseases that have, until now, proven inexplicably elusive to a medical community beholden to Big Pharma ...While Science Sleeps. Woodrow C. Monte PhD, Emeritus Professor of Nutrition, Arizona State University The only thing necessary for evil to flourish is for good men to do nothing. Edmund Burke.
Explores the latest science on dioxins and other POPs, and their impact on human health
Now in its third edition, "Dioxins and Health" is the most respected reference of its kind, presenting the latest scientific findings on dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds, and their impact on human health. The book fully examines the many toxicological effects--including immunological, neurological, developmental, dermatological, and cardiological--these chemicals have on health.
This "Third Edition" has been greatly expanded with the latest research findings on dioxins and related compounds. Moreover, it now includes coverage of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and endocrine disruptors, including:
Brominated flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane
Perfluorinated chemicals such as perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid
Other endocrine disrupting chemicals similar to POPs such as bisphenol A
Readers will also learn about the latest findings on the long-term impacts caused by the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam. Other chapters review the Seveso disaster in Italy and the Yusho and Yucheng rice oil poisoning incidents in Japan and Taiwan. In addition, there is a full chapter dedicated to the dioxin poisoning of former Ukraine President Victor Yushchenko.
All the chapters in the book have been written by leading international experts. References at the end of each chapter guide readers to the primary literature in the field.
Expertly organized in one volume, "Dioxins and Health" offers readers quick access to essential information about dioxins and related compounds written in clear, simple language that is accessible to not only scientists, clinicians and public health professionals, but also general readers.
Organophosphate compounds, first synthesized in the 1800s, have
been used for insecticides, pesticides, and in war and terrorism,
such as the 1995 Tokyo subway poisoning. This book provides an
in-depth examination of the effects of organophosphates and nerve
agents and offers therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures.
Beginning with an overview of milestones in the use of toxic
chemicals and chemical warfare agents, the formulae and toxicities
of compounds are given, along with tables outlining animal
toxicities. Data on various compounds inhibitions and subsequent
accumulations are also provided. Along with data on
organophosphates and nerve agents, possible first aid and medical
responses are compared among potential responses in the United
States and other countries in the east and west. Using clear
schematics and tables, this book provides a detailed account of the
most common organophosphates and nerve agents, ideas of how to
countermeasure their effects, and offers detailed suggestions for
where research needs to proceed in the future. This book will prove
useful to students, researchers, and military personnel needing to
know more about how to deal with nerve agents.
Dedicated to organophosphates/nerve agent, this book contains tables on toxicities in animals and simple figures useable for brief orientation and education."
Interest in the field of medical toxicology has grown rapidly, but the medical literature lacks an authoritative toxicology reference work dedicated to natural substances and drugs of abuse. This two-volume set combines "Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances" and "Medical Toxicology of Drugs Abuse" to deliver an in-depth, sub-specialty, readily accessible reference on these topics. Professionals in diverse fields, who typically do not need most of the information in a general medical toxicology book, can quickly apply the contents of these volumes to searchable databases and other electronic venues.
Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem
Resistance genes are everywhere in nature--in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health.
Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts:
Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes
Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment
Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment
Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health
Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants.
Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field.
Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.
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