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Toxicological Effects of Veterinary Medicinal Products in Humans is the first definitive guide to discuss the adverse effects of veterinary medicinal products in humans. The chapters focus on occupational safety and consumer issues and examine the circumstances under which exposure is likely to occur. To be in context, it reviews this against the background of adverse health effects from other sources in the veterinary and farming professions. The book examines adverse drug effects reported to regulatory agencies (mainly the FDAAEs Center for Veterinary Medicine) and then considers a series of individual drugs, including antibiotics, anaesthetics and organophosphorus compounds. The chapters also discuss the fundamental aspects of regulatory issues relating to safety assessment, and examine the manner in which user safety is assessed prior to authorisation/approval and what measures can be taken after authorisation/approval in the light of findings from pharmacovigilance activities. There is growing concern over the issue of antimicrobial resistance and the contribution made by veterinary medicinal products. This too is addressed along with the significance to human health and measures that can be taken to mitigate the effects (if any) of the use of antibiotics in animals e.g. prudent use measures. The book will be an essential resource for medical practitioners in hospitals and general practice, pharmaceutical industry scientists, analysts, regulators and risk managers.
The tools for detecting false positives, false negatives, and interference in interactions when testing and monitoring therapeutic drug use For physicians monitoring a patient's progress, efficacy of treatment is often linked to a patient's response to medication. Determining whether a patient is taking the prescribed amount, the drug or dosage is effective, or the prescribed medication is interacting with other drugs can be determined through drug testing. Written as a guide for toxicologists, chemists, and health professionals involved in patient care, Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring provides an up-to-date introduction to the tests and methodologies used in a toxicology lab as well as the sources of testing error that can lead to false positives, false negatives, and unreliable conclusions of drug abuse or under use. Covering a host of common therapeutic drugs as well as specific types of interference in immunoassays used in drug testing, the book details a number of possible testing scenarios and problems as well as solutions: * False positive results in immunoassays for drugs in abuse testing * Interferences in immunoassays used for monitoring anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, and digoxin * False positive alcohol tests using breath analyzers and automated analyzers * When a toxicology report is negative in a suspected overdose patient: the world of designer drugs * Effects of drug-herb interactions on therapeutic drug monitoring * Pharmacogenomics and the general principles of genetic analysis * Approaches for eliminating interference/discordant specimen in therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs in abuse testing * What to do in case there is no readily available method for testing Complete with easy-to-read tables and flowcharts, this book helps toxicologists, clinical chemists, clinical pathologists, and forensic pathologists develop accurate, unbiased drug monitoring and toxicology reports. Health care professionals involved in patient care, especially of critically ill patients, will find this guide indispensable in making sure lab tests are reliable enough to provide high-quality care. An indispensable handbook to the entire suite of toxicology lab tests, as well as all the possible sources of testing error, Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring offers clear remedies for eliminating and preventing testing error.
Over 3 million U.S. military personnel were sent to Southeast Asia
to fight in the Vietnam War. Since the end of the Vietnam War,
veterans have reported numerous health effects. Herbicides used in
Vietnam, in particular Agent Orange have been associated with a
variety of cancers and other long term health problems from
Parkinson's disease and type 2 diabetes to heart disease. Prior to
1997 laws safeguarded all service men and women deployed to Vietnam
including members of the Blue Navy. Since then, the Department of
Veteran Affairs (VA) has established that Vietnam veterans are
automatically eligible for disability benefits should they develop
any disease associated with Agent Orange exposure, however,
veterans who served on deep sea vessels in Vietnam are not
included. These "Blue Water Navy" veterans must prove they were
exposed to Agent Orange before they can claim benefits. At the
request of the VA, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined whether
Blue Water Navy veterans had similar exposures to Agent Orange as
other Vietnam veterans.
A mycotoxin is a toxin produced by a fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. These fungi are aerobic and microscopic and, moreover, may colonize many kinds of food from the field to the table. Mycotoxins are not only a spoilage issue for food, but in high doses can be a serious health threat for humans. The book will be similar to Weidenborner's previous two books - "Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs" and "Mycotoxins in Foodstuffs" - in that it will be a review of the literature to create a comprehensive reference for mycotoxin levels. It will be his third (and last) book on the topic, this time focusing on the incidence of a mycotoxin in humans and/or animals (natural or artificial incidence). Each entry will include contamination, concentration rate, mean concentration of organs (humans and animals) with a mycotoxin, as well as sample constitution (where possible) and country of origin of the sample.
This volume reviews the potential carcinogenicity of 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and several occupational exposures involving coal-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. Environmental sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons include industrial air pollution, urban air pollution, tobacco smoke, and diet (which is commonly the main source of exposure in nonsmokers who are not exposed to such hydrocarbons through their occupations). High occupational exposure can arise during the conversion of coal to coke and coal tar, and during the processing and use of products derived from coal tar. In this volume, benzo a]pyrene, other PAHs and related occupational exposures were evaluated by an IARC Monographs Working Group, reviewing epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to their carcinogenic hazard to humans.
Nationally, toxicology programs have evolved from a traditional exploration of the chemistry and applied toxicity of chemicals and drugs to a more comprehensive study of toxicology and toxicology testing as independent entities. Consequently, the second edition of Principles of Toxicology Testing starts with basic toxicological principles, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of toxins, including chemicals and drugs. The book then continues with animal (in vivo) and in vitro toxicology testing methods associated with toxicological analysis and preclinical drug development. As in the first edition, the book begins with an introduction into the fundamentals of toxicology (Section I) to prepare readers for the subsequent topics and continues through with a discussion of toxicokinetics and human risk assessment. This introductory material is useful in understanding the applications of toxicology testing. Section II describes the fundamental principles of toxicology testing in animals in greater detail. This section describes acute toxicity studies as well as subchronic and chronic studies performed on animals. Special emphasis is placed on study design and determination of classical indicators for acute and chronic testing, such as the LD50. The book examines other short- and long-term animal toxicity testing methodologies, including dermal, ocular, and reproductive toxicity testing. In addition, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies are also discussed in separate chapters. Section III introduces and discusses in vitro alternatives to animal toxicology tests. This section emphasizes cell culture methodology and cellular methods for acute systemic toxicity, target organ toxicity, and local toxicity. The contributors present the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods. They also describe the use of high-throughput screening and its applications, the concepts of standardization and validation of in vitro techniques (especially large, organized validation efforts currently supported by US and EU regulatory agencies), and the theories supporting the development of in vitro methodologies. This second edition is a must-read for undergraduate and graduate toxicology students. Industrial and academic research centers will also find the text useful for establishing a toxicology testing laboratory.
This book addresses all the current, up-to-date developments in this scientific discipline. Liver is the chief metabolizing site in the body, and thus, it is a major target organ for drug and chemical toxicity. Therefore, hepatotoxicity is an important endpoint in the safety evaluation of drugs and chemicals.
Contributions from leading investigators in hepatotoxicity research address current developments in this scientific discipline and discuss use of current cutting edge technology such as microarrays in hepatotoxicity thus providing a better understanding of hepatotoxins, their interactions and mechanisms of action.
This valuable authoritative source of information is the first book to address this topic for nearly ten years, making it an essential resource for readers from a wide range of disciplines such as toxicology, pharmacology, hepatology, drug toxicity and food science.
The link between reproductive health and the environment has been strengthened by the findings of recent studies. It is becoming increasingly important to link results and data from such studies into a model that aids in the explanation of phenomena observed in the field and facilitates predictability. To this end, the aim of this book is to review recent trends and developments in the study of the impact that the environment has on human reproduction. These issues are thoroughly examined, using the most modern techniques and methods available, to analyze the manner in which both male and female fertility can be affected and assessed. Such diverse factors as toxic environmental contaminants, air pollution, and exposure to medical drugs are examined. The book includes both a historical overview and a look towards the future, aiming to integrate health concerns into policy-making and legislation.
This book will be of interest to researchers, health professionals, environmental scientists, and policy-makers.
The "ULLA" series is a new and innovative series of introductory textbooks for postgraduate students in the pharmaceutical sciences. This new series is produced by the ULLA Consortium (European University Consortium for Advanced Pharmaceutical Education and Research). The Consortium is a European academic collaboration in research and teaching of the pharmaceutical sciences that is constantly growing and expanding. Before a drug substance can be tested in man, a set of toxicology studies must be carried out in animals and in vitro to ensure, as far as possible, safety for the test subjects. Toxicity studies involve assessment of acute, repeated dose and chronic toxicities, evaluation of potential effects on vital organs, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, and carcinogenicity studies. This book covers a limited number of areas of drug toxicity which address the major issues including registration requirements of new drugs and pharmacovigilance. It also provides an overview of the methodology and requirements of pre-clinical safety assessment of new medicines. Mechanisms by which drugs cause toxic effects in living organisms, and problems in the toxicity of specific agents are covered, as are regulatory issues, pharmacovigilence, and clinical toxicology. There is no other textbook at this level dedicated to pharmaceutical toxicology, and this new title in the "ULLA" series fills a definite gap in the market.
Nutritional Epigenomics offers a comprehensive overview of nutritional epigenomics as a mode of study, along with nutrition's role in the epigenomic regulation of disease, health and developmental processes. Here, an expert team of international contributors introduces readers to nutritional epigenomic regulators of gene expression, our diet's role in epigenomic regulation of disease and disease inheritance, caloric restriction and exercise as they relate to recent epigenomic findings, and the influence of nutritional epigenomics over circadian rhythms, aging and longevity, and fetal health and development, among other processes. Disease specific chapters address metabolic disease (obesity and diabetes), cancer, and neurodegeneration, among other disorders. Diet-gut microbiome interactions in the epigenomic regulation of disease are also discussed, as is the role of micronutrients and milk miRNAs in epigenetic regulation. Finally, chapter authors examine ongoing discussions of race and ethnicity in the social-epigenomic regulation of health and disease.
Including the latest reviews of the most current issues related to food and nutrition toxicity, Reviews in Food and Nutrition Toxicity, Volume 3 distills a wide range of research on food safety and food technology. Put together by a strong team with a wealth of broad experience, the continuation of this important new series includes contributions from the fields of medicine, public health, and environmental science. Topics covered in Volume Three include: -MEG-related toxic, pathological, and etiological findings in the liver, stomach, blood, testes/uterus, kidneys, peritoneum, and skin -Current information on pharmacokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects of methyl mercury toxicity -The limits set by various agencies for, and the possible effects of, exposure to Uranium via ingestion and inhalation -Evidence that nutrition can modify PCB toxicity and its implications in numerous age-related diseases -The most recent findings on oxysterols' toxic and pro-atherosclerotic effects and the use of antioxidants supplements to prevent their generation in foods -Examples of published safety data, drug interactions, and problems with formulated products -Potential dangers and benefits of genetically modified foods, moral and ethical issues, and benefit risk ratios -Emerging issues in food contamination, recently-discovered contaminants, the increased use of genetically engineered crops, and their effects on children -New views on the onset of celiac disease, its symptoms outside the gastrointestinal tract, and its diagnosis and management A timely compilation, the book sheds light on the most important issues in food safety today. It is a valuable resource for anyone involved in the food industry oracademics researching food science and food technology.
Written by experts in the analytical chemistry of tobacco smoke, Tobacco Smoke Exposure Biomarkers summarizes the toxicology, metabolic pathway, and biomarkers of nicotine, TSNAs, PAHs, VOCs, AAs, Catechol and Hydroquinone, HCN, CO and NOx, and heavy metals, and the use of this biomarker in exposure assessment and/or cigarette smoke exposure environmental epidemiology. A convenient one-stop guide, the book brings together information on some exposure biomarkers and nicotine addiction in humans with regulatory implications and strategies. The authors also include discussions of how smoke exposure biomarkers may be used to shape regulation and health policy. Ethics guidelines, details of method development, and the validated relative bioanalytical method provided in the appendixes rounds out the coverage. The book gives you tools to further research biomarkers for tobacco carcinogens and to face emerging health challenges such as delivery of nicotine via electronic cigarettes.
The herbai medicine industry is growing at an astounding rate. Trade group estimates suggest that total sales exceeded $4 billion dollars in 1999. Herbai remedies are for sale not just in health food stores, but in supermar- kets, drug stores, and even discount warehouses. Along with the proliferation in sales has come a proliferation ofinformation sources. Not all ofthe sources are equally reliable, or even intelligible. Traditional herbalists c1assify thistle and mugwort as "cholagogues," substances used to make the gallbladder con- tract and release bile. Medical school graduates are unlikely to have ever heard the term, or even accept the notion that most right-sided abdominal pain is a result of diminished bile flow. Heroin and cocaine may not be the only drugs to come from plants, but a practicing physician or toxicologist might be forgiven for thinking so. In 1998, 1264 papers were published about cocaine and only 17 about kava kava, an abused herb that is not without toxic side effects. Unfortunately, the majority of the papers about kava kava were published in journals not found in ordi- nary hospitallibraries. In recognition ofthis fact, and ofthe obvious need for a reliable reference work on herbai toxicology, The Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology 0/ Herbal Products was an early addition to our new series in Forensie Science and Medicine. It is very badly needed.
Since Pasteur in 1846, scientists have been aware that many drugs are photoreactive, but until recently research in this area had been somewhat limited. However, since the introduction of acutely sensitive analytical methods, the realisation of the need to identify the photochemical properties of a potential drug as early in its development as possible and the increased attention to the phototoxic effect of drugs, more details are becoming available. Drugs: Photochemistry and Photostability presents the basic elements of the science, and serves as an excellent introduction to this emerging field of photochemistry. Detailed experimental conditions for photostability studies are given, along with a discussion of the recently implemented ICH Guidelines for drug photostability. With contributions from international experts in the field and including a comprehensive literature review, this book provides all the up-to-date information needed by researchers in many fields, especially medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry.
The Manual of Immunological Methods represents the collaboration of
the Canadian Network of Toxicology Centers, a non-profit network of
university-based scientists dedicated to research, training, risk
assessment, and communication. This manual provides detailed
immunological methods that can be utilized by researchers or
practitioners who want to enhance the successful application of
this science. It emphasizes the need for continuously improving the
quality of experiments performed and maintaining consistency in the
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