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Books > Philosophy > Topics in philosophy > Metaphysics & ontology

Garcian Meditations - The Dialectics of Persistence in Form and Object (Paperback): Jon Cogburn Garcian Meditations - The Dialectics of Persistence in Form and Object (Paperback)
Jon Cogburn
R509 Discovery Miles 5 090 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

The publication of Form and Object: A Treatise on Things by Tristan Garcia, Prix de Flore-winning novelist, philosopher, essayist and screenwriter, is a genuine event in the history of philosophy. Situating this event within classical, modern and contemporary dialectical space, Jon Cogburn evaluates Garcia's metaphysics, differential ontology and militant anti-reductionism through a series of seemingly incompatible oppositions: substance/process, analysis/dialectic, simple/whole and discovery/creation. Cogburn also includes a critical assessment of the consequences of Garcia's philosophy, the various unresolved problems in his treatise and the future prospects of speculative metaphysics.

Peter van Inwagen - Materialism, Free Will and God (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2018): Ludger Jansen, Paul M. Nager Peter van Inwagen - Materialism, Free Will and God (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2018)
Ludger Jansen, Paul M. Nager
R1,523 R1,292 Discovery Miles 12 920 Save R231 (15%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This book discusses the philosophy of influential contemporary philosopher Peter van Inwagen. Looking at perennial philosophical problems from a modern point of view, Peter van Inwagen's philosophy masterfully combines positions that have been considered irreconcilable: incompatibilism concerning free will, materialism, organicism, theism and realism concerning fictional entities. As readers will discover, his arguments are witty, surprising and deep. The book includes Peter van Inwagen's Munster Lecture of 2015 on free will, as well as eleven papers from the Munster colloquium discussing central themes of his philosophy, and a reply to each paper by Peter van Inwagen himself. Introducing his philosophy and relating his work to other contemporary views, this book is of interest to graduate students and professionals in philosophy alike.

Proclus' Commentary on Plato's Parmenides (Paperback): Proclus Proclus' Commentary on Plato's Parmenides (Paperback)
Proclus; Translated by Glenn R. Morrow, John M Dillon
R1,797 R1,421 Discovery Miles 14 210 Save R376 (21%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This is the first English translation of Proclus' commentary on Plato's Parmenides. Glenn Morrow's death occurred while he was less than halfway through the translation, which was completed by John Dillon. A major work of the great Neoplatonist philosopher, the commentary is an intellectual tour de force that greatly influenced later medieval and Renaissance thought. As the notes and introductory summaries explain, it comprises a full account of Proclus' own metaphysical system, disguised, as is so much Neoplatonic philosophy, in the form of a commentary.

Process, Action, and Experience (Hardcover): Rowland Stout Process, Action, and Experience (Hardcover)
Rowland Stout
R1,464 Discovery Miles 14 640 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

There has been a philosophical upheaval recently in our understanding of the metaphysics of the mind. The philosophy of mind and action has traditionally treated its subject matter as consisting of states and events, and completely ignored the category of ongoing process. So the mental things that happen - experiences and actions - have been taken to be completed events and not ongoing processes. But events by their very nature as completed wholes are never present to the agent or subject; only ongoing processes can be present to a subject in the way required for conscious experience and practical self-knowledge. This suggests that a proper understanding of processes is required to understand subjective experience and agency. This volume explores the possibility and advantages of taking processes to be the subject matter of the philosophy of mind and action. The central defining feature of the process argument is its use of the progressive (as opposed to perfective) aspect. But beyond this, philosophers working on the metaphysics of processes do not agree. The contributors to this volume take up this argument in the metaphysics of processes. Are processes continuants? Are they particulars at all, or should we rather be thinking of process activity as a kind of stuff? Process, Action, and Experience considers whether practical reasoning and practical self-knowledge require thinking of action in process terms, and it considers arguments for the processive nature of conscious experience.

Macroscopic Metaphysics - Middle-Sized Objects and Longish Processes (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017): Paul Needham Macroscopic Metaphysics - Middle-Sized Objects and Longish Processes (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017)
Paul Needham
R2,261 R1,881 Discovery Miles 18 810 Save R380 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This book is about our ordinary concept of matter in the form of enduring continuants and the processes in which they are involved in the macroscopic realm. It emphasises what science rather than philosophical intuition tells us about the world, and chemistry rather than the physics that is more usually encountered in philosophical discussions. The central chapters dealing with the nature of matter pursue key steps in the historical development of scientific conceptions of chemical substance. Like many contemporary discussions of material objects, it relies heavily on mereology. The classical principles are applied to the mereological structure of regions of space, intervals of time, processes and quantities of matter. Quantities of matter, which don't gain or lose parts over time, are distinguished from individuals, which are typically constituted of different quantities of matter at different times. The proper treatment of the temporal aspect of the features of material objects is a central issue in this book, which is addressed by investigating the conditions governing the application of predicates relating time and other entities. Of particular interest here are relations between quantities of matter and times expressing substance kind, phase and mixture. Modal aspects of these features are taken up in the final chapter.

Inspirations in a Moment - A Way to Live Life At Ease (Paperback): Valerie Hackshaw Inspirations in a Moment - A Way to Live Life At Ease (Paperback)
Valerie Hackshaw
R533 R462 Discovery Miles 4 620 Save R71 (13%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days
A Lexical Semantic Study of Chinese Opposites (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2018): Jing Ding A Lexical Semantic Study of Chinese Opposites (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2018)
Jing Ding
R2,347 Discovery Miles 23 470 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This book studies Chinese opposites. It uses a large corpus (GigaWord) to trace the behavior of opposite pairings' co-occurrence, focusing on the following questions: In what types of constructions, from window-size restricted and bi-syllabic to quad-syllabic, will the opposite pairings appear together? And, on a larger scale, i.e. in constrained-free contexts, in which syntactic frames will the opposite pairings appear together? The data suggests aspects that have been ignored by previous theoretical studies, such as the ordering rules in co-occurrent pairings, the differences between the three main sub-types of opposites (that is, antonym, complementary, converse) in discourse function distributions. The author also considers the features of this Chinese study and compares it to similar studies of English and Japanese. In all, it offers a practical view of how opposites are used in a certain language as a response to the puzzles lingering in theoretical fields. This study appeals to linguists, computational linguists and language-lovers. With numerous tables, illustrations and examples, it is easy to read but also encourages readers to link their personal instincts with the results from a large corpus to experience the beauty of language as a shared human resource.

Quantum Physics - an overview of a weird world: A primer on the conceptual foundations of quantum physics (Paperback): Marco... Quantum Physics - an overview of a weird world: A primer on the conceptual foundations of quantum physics (Paperback)
Marco Masi
R422 Discovery Miles 4 220 Ships in 7 - 11 working days
Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, Volume 8 (Paperback, New): Karen Bennett, Dean W. Zimmerman Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, Volume 8 (Paperback, New)
Karen Bennett, Dean W. Zimmerman
R876 Discovery Miles 8 760 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is a forum for the best new work in this flourishing field. OSM offers a broad view of the subject, featuring not only the traditionally central topics such as existence, identity, modality, time, and causation, but also the rich clusters of metaphysical questions in neighbouring fields, such as philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. Besides independent essays, volumes will often contain a critical essay on a recent book, or a symposium that allows participants to respond to one another's criticisms and questions. Anyone who wants to know what's happening in metaphysics can start here.

Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1 - Metaphysics and Epistemology (Hardcover): Michael Brownstein, Jennifer Saul Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1 - Metaphysics and Epistemology (Hardcover)
Michael Brownstein, Jennifer Saul
R1,310 Discovery Miles 13 100 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

There is abundant evidence that most people, often in spite of their conscious beliefs, values and attitudes, have implicit biases. 'Implicit bias' is a term of art referring to evaluations of social groups that are largely outside conscious awareness or control. These evaluations are typically thought to involve associations between social groups and concepts or roles like 'violent,' 'lazy,' 'nurturing,' 'assertive,' 'scientist,' and so on. Such associations result at least in part from common stereotypes found in contemporary liberal societies about members of these groups. Implicit Bias and Philosophy brings the work of leading philosophers and psychologists together to explore core areas of psychological research on implicit (or unconscious) bias, as well as the ramifications of implicit bias for core areas of philosophy. Volume I: Metaphysics and Epistemology is comprised of two sections: 'The Nature of Implicit Attitudes, Implicit Bias, and Stereotype Threat,' and 'Skepticism, Social Knowledge, and Rationality.' The first section contains chapters examining the relationship between implicit attitudes and 'dual process' models of the mind; the role of affect in the formation and change of implicit associations; the unity (or disunity) of implicit attitudes; whether implicit biases are mental states at all; and whether performances on stereotype-relevant tasks are automatic and unconscious or intentional and strategic. The second section contains chapters examining implicit bias and skepticism; the effects of implicit bias on scientific research; the accessibility of social stereotypes in epistemic environments; the effects of implicit bias on the self-perception of members of stigmatized social groups as rational agents; the role of gender stereotypes in philosophy; and the role of heuristics in biased reasoning. This volume can be read independently of, or in conjunction with, a second volume of essays, Volume II: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics, which explores the themes of moral responsibility in implicit bias, structural injustice in society, and strategies for implicit attitude change.

Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime (Paperback, Twenty-Third an): Jean-Francois Lyotard Lessons on the Analytic of the Sublime (Paperback, Twenty-Third an)
Jean-Francois Lyotard; Translated by Elizabeth Rottenberg
R589 R526 Discovery Miles 5 260 Save R63 (11%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Philosophical aesthetics has seen an amazing revival over the past decade, as a radical questioning of the very grounds of Western epistemology has revealed that some antinomies of aesthetic experience-and in particular of the limits of the aesthetical-can be viewed as a general, yet necessarily open model for human understanding. In this revival, no text in the classical corpus of Western philosophy has been more frequently discussed than the complex paragraphs modestly inserted into Kant's Critique of Judgment as sections 23-29: the Analytic of the Sublime. This book is a rigorous explication de texte, a close reading of these sections. First, Lyotard reconstitutes, following the letter of Kant's analysis, the philosophical context of his critical writings and of the European Enlightenment. Second, because the analytic of the sublime reveals the inability of aesthetic experience to bridge the separate realms of theoretical and practical reason, Lyotard can connect his reconstitution of Kant's critical project with today's debates about the very conditions-and limits-of presentation in general. Lyotard enables us to see the sublime as a model for reflexive thinking generally via his concept of the "differend," which emphasizes the inevitability of conflicts and incompatibilities between different notions and "phrases." The Analytic of the Sublime, he points out, tries to argue that human thought is always constituted through a similar incompatibility between different intellectual and affective faculties. These lessons thus highlight the analysis of a "differend of feeling" in Kant's text, which is also the analysis of a "feeling of differend," and connect this feeling with the transport that leads all thought (critical thought included) to its limits.

Political Ontology and International Political Thought - Voiding a Pluralist World (Paperback, 1st ed. 2017): Vassilios Paipais Political Ontology and International Political Thought - Voiding a Pluralist World (Paperback, 1st ed. 2017)
Vassilios Paipais
R1,630 R1,409 Discovery Miles 14 090 Save R221 (14%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This book challenges received notions of ontology in political theory and international relations by offering a psychoanalytically informed critique of depoliticisation in prominent liberal, post-liberal, dialogic and agonistic approaches to pluralism in world politics. Paipais locates the temptation of depoliticisation in their labouring under the fundamental fantasy of various guises of foundationalism (in the form of either political anthropology or ontology as 'in the last instance' ground) or, conversely, anti-foundationalism (the denial of all grounds, yet still operating within a foundationalist imaginary). He argues, instead, for a formal political ontology of the void (against historicism) shot through an 'incarnate' messianic nihilism (against ethicism and teleological forms of politics). In so doing, the author offers critical readings of the messianic nihilism of Benjamin, Agamben, Taubes and Zizek by problematising the antinomian tendencies in their respective political theologies. The book argues for a version of Zizek's Badiouian politics of militancy supplemented by a proper participatory understanding of St Paul's messianic meontology and incarnational Christology as a means to reconceptualise the nexus between subjectivity, universality and political action in world politics. It will be of interest to students and scholars of International Relations theory, political theory, critical social theory and political theology.

Normativity and Praxis - Remarks on Controversies (Paperback): Angeles Perona Normativity and Praxis - Remarks on Controversies (Paperback)
Angeles Perona
R333 Discovery Miles 3 330 Ships in 10 - 15 working days
Incompatible Ballerina and Other Essays (Paperback): Charles William Johns Incompatible Ballerina and Other Essays (Paperback)
Charles William Johns
R411 Discovery Miles 4 110 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

An ontological and epistemological framework and foundation for the psychological symptom 'neurosis'.

A Higher Conversation (Paperback): Neil David Chan A Higher Conversation (Paperback)
Neil David Chan
R237 R197 Discovery Miles 1 970 Save R40 (17%) Ships in 7 - 11 working days
Death and the Afterlife (Paperback): Samuel Scheffler Death and the Afterlife (Paperback)
Samuel Scheffler; Edited by Niko Kolodny
R550 Discovery Miles 5 500 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Suppose you knew that, though you yourself would live your life to its natural end, the earth and all its inhabitants would be destroyed thirty days after your death. To what extent would you remain committed to your current projects and plans? Would scientists still search for a cure for cancer? Would couples still want children? In Death and the Afterlife, philosopher Samuel Scheffler poses this thought experiment in order to show that the continued life of the human race after our deaths-the "afterlife" of the title-matters to us to an astonishing and previously neglected degree. Indeed, Scheffler shows that, in certain important respects, the future existence of people who are as yet unborn matters more to us than our own continued existence and the continued existence of those we love. Without the expectation that humanity has a future, many of the things that now matter to us would cease to do so. By contrast, the prospect of our own deaths does little to undermine our confidence in the value of our activities. Despite the terror we may feel when contemplating our deaths, the prospect of humanity's imminent extinction would pose a far greater threat to our ability to lead lives of wholehearted engagement. Scheffler further demonstrates that, although we are not unreasonable to fear death, personal immortality, like the imminent extinction of humanity, would also undermine our confidence in the values we hold dear. His arresting conclusion is that, in order for us to lead value-laden lives, what is necessary is that we ourselves should die and that others should live. Death and the Afterlife concludes with commentary by four distinguished philosophers-Harry Frankfurt, Niko Kolodny, Seana Shiffrin, and Susan Wolf-who discuss Scheffler's ideas with insight and imagination. Scheffler adds a final reply.

The Union of Chemistry and Physics - Linkages, Reduction, Theory Nets and Ontology (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017): Hinne Hettema The Union of Chemistry and Physics - Linkages, Reduction, Theory Nets and Ontology (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017)
Hinne Hettema
R2,868 R2,440 Discovery Miles 24 400 Save R428 (15%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This monograph deals with the interrelationship between chemistry and physics, and especially the role played by quantum chemistry as a theory in between these two disciplines. The author uses structuralist approach to explore the overlap between the two sciences, looking at their theoretical and ontological borrowings as well as their continuity. The starting point of this book is that there is at least a form of unity between chemistry and physics, where the reduction relation is conceived as a special case of this unity. However, matters are never concluded so simply within philosophy of chemistry, as significant problems exist around a number of core chemical ideas. Specifically, one cannot take the obvious success of quantum theories as outright support for a reductive relationship. Instead, in the context of a suitably adapted Nagelian framework for reduction, modern chemistry's relationship to physics is constitutive. The results provided by quantum chemistry, in partic ular, have significant consequences for chemical ontology. This book is ideal for students, scholars and academics from the field of Philosophy of Science, and particularly for those with an interest in Philosophy of Chemistry and Physics.

Principles of Interpretation (Hardcover): Edward Goodwin Ballard Principles of Interpretation (Hardcover)
Edward Goodwin Ballard
R1,768 R1,501 Discovery Miles 15 010 Save R267 (15%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This is a major phenomenological work in which real learning works in graceful tandem with genuine and important insight. Yet this is not a work of scholarship; it is a work of philosophy, a work that succeeds both in the careful, descriptive massing of detail and in the power of its analysis of the conditions that underlie the possibility of such things as description, interpretation, perception, and meaning.
"Principles of Interpretation" formulates answers to these questions: How does the interpretative process proceed? What are its fundamentals? What assurance have we that our interpretations are in principal faithful to that which is to be interpreted? What conclusions are indicated concerning the past phases of our history and its present tendencies?

The Palgrave Handbook of the Afterlife (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017): Yujin Nagasawa, Benjamin Matheson The Palgrave Handbook of the Afterlife (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2017)
Yujin Nagasawa, Benjamin Matheson
R4,756 R3,880 Discovery Miles 38 800 Save R876 (18%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This unique Handbook provides a sophisticated, scholarly overview of the most advanced thought regarding the idea of life after death. Its comprehensive coverage encompasses historical, religious, philosophical and scientific thinking. Starting with an overview of ancient thought on the topic, The Palgrave Handbook of the Afterlife examines in detail the philosophical coherence of the main traditional notions of the nature of the afterlife including heaven, hell, purgatory and rebirth. In addition (and breaking with traditional conceptions) it also explores the most recent exciting advance - digital models. Later sections include analysis of various possible metaphysical accounts that might make sense of the afterlife (including substance dualism, emergent dualism and materialism) and the science of near death experiences as well as the links between human psychology and our attitude to the afterlife. Key features: * Grounded in the most advanced philosophical, theological and scientific thinking * Contributions by eminent scholars from the world's top universities * Balanced treatment of fundamental issues that are relevant to everyone * Diverse approaches ranging from the religious to the scientific, from the optimistic to the pessimistic * A major section on the meaning of the afterlife which includes chapters on fear, purpose, evil, and issues regarding identity The Palgrave Handbook of the Afterlife is essential reading for scholars, researchers and advanced students researching attitudes to and effects of beliefs about death and life after death from philosophical, historical, religious, psychological and scientific perspectives.

Cosmological and Psychological Time (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2016): Yuval Dolev, Michael Roubach Cosmological and Psychological Time (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2016)
Yuval Dolev, Michael Roubach
R2,886 R2,446 Discovery Miles 24 460 Save R440 (15%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

This book examines the many faces of philosophy of time, including the metaphysical aspects, natural science issues, and the consciousness of time. It brings together the different methodologies of investigating the philosophy of time. It does so to counter the growing fragmentation of the field with regard to discussions, and the existing cleavage between analytic and continental traditions in philosophy. The book's multidirectional approach to the notion of time contributes to a better understanding of time's metaphysical, physical and phenomenological aspects. It helps clarify the presuppositions underpinning the analytic and continental traditions in the philosophy of time and offers ways in which the differences between them can be bridged.

On Human Nature - With a new Preface, Revised Edition (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition): Edward O. Wilson On Human Nature - With a new Preface, Revised Edition (Paperback, 2nd Revised edition)
Edward O. Wilson
R688 R602 Discovery Miles 6 020 Save R86 (13%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

In his new Preface E.O. Wilson reflects on how he came to write this book: how "The Insect Societies" led him to write "Sociobiology," and how the political and religious uproar that engulfed that book persuaded him to write another book that would better explain the relevance of biology to the understanding of human behavior.

Gesammelte Werke in deutscher Sprache - Band 5: Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde. Band I: Der Zauber Platons (German,... Gesammelte Werke in deutscher Sprache - Band 5: Die offene Gesellschaft und ihre Feinde. Band I: Der Zauber Platons (German, Paperback, 8. Auflage)
Karl R. Popper; Edited by Hubert Kiesewetter
R711 Discovery Miles 7 110 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

English summary: In this two-volume work, Karl Popper deals mainly with the development of historicism, which is the idea there are laws of historical development that describe the stages we must pass through, as it is found in the works of Plato (Volume I) and of Hegel, Marx and their successors (Volume II). In addition, it contains a wide variety of discussions about epistemological, philosophical, ethical and political questions which are of continuing relevance. The fact that this book has been translated into 23 languages since 1945 demonstrates that Popper's 'war effort' is much more than a novel analysis of philosophical systems from antiquity to the present. German description: Das sozialphilosophische Hauptwerk von Karl Popper behandelt vor allem die Geschichte des Historizismus, das heisst, die Idee eines gesetzmassigen historischen Ablaufs, bei Platon (Band I) sowie bei Hegel, Marx und deren Nachfolgern (Band II). Es enthalt ausserdem eine Vielzahl von Erorterungen uber erkenntnistheoretische, philosophische, ethische und politische Fragen, die bis heute von brennender Aktualitat sind. Dass dieses Buch seit 1945 in 23 Sprachen ubersetzt wurde, macht deutlich, dass Poppers 'Kriegsbeitrag' weit mehr ist als eine originelle Auseinandersetzung mit den philosophischen Systemen von der Antike bis heute. Die Theorie der offenen Gesellschaft, also die standige schrittweise Verbesserung von Institutionen in parlamentarisch-demokratischen Gesellschaften, ist in diesen beiden Banden so grundlich entwickelt, dass alle an der Begrundung und Weiterentwicklung von Zivilgesellschaften interessierten Personen sich mit ihr auseinandersetzen sollten.

Butler and Ethics (Hardcover): Moya Lloyd Butler and Ethics (Hardcover)
Moya Lloyd
R2,259 R2,048 Discovery Miles 20 480 Save R211 (9%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Judith Butler is best known for Gender Trouble (1990), the book that introduced the idea of gender performativity. However, with the publication of Giving an Account of Oneself in 2005, it appeared as if her work had taken a different turn, away from considerations of sex, gender, sexuality and politics and towards ethics. This collection of 10 essays offers the first sustained evaluation of that alleged ethical turn. Bringing together a group of internationally renowned theorists, the volume will explore issues such as whether there has been an 'ethical turn' in Butler's work or whether, in fact, the increasing emphasis on ethics is merely the culmination of ideas inherent in her earlier work: how ethics relates to politics and how both connect to her increasing concern with violence, war and conflict. Butler and Ethics will break new ground in scholarship on Butler and will also advance on going debates about materiality and the body, biopolitics, affect theory, precariousness and subjectification. It explores the relation between politics and ethics in Butler's writings. It explores Butler's understanding of the body in relation to both politics and ethics, feminist and non feminist. It looks at work from the full span of Butler's career right up to her most recent book, Frames of War.

The Philosophy of Freedom - A Modern Philosophy of Life Developed by Scientific Methods (Paperback): Rudolf Steiner The Philosophy of Freedom - A Modern Philosophy of Life Developed by Scientific Methods (Paperback)
Rudolf Steiner
R162 Discovery Miles 1 620 Ships in 7 - 11 working days
A Biosemiotic Ontology - The Philosophy of Giorgio Prodi (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2018): Felice Cimatti A Biosemiotic Ontology - The Philosophy of Giorgio Prodi (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2018)
Felice Cimatti
R2,134 R1,875 Discovery Miles 18 750 Save R259 (12%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Giorgio Prodi (1928-1987) was an important Italian scientist who developed an original philosophy based on two basic assumptions: 1. life is mainly a semiotic phenomenon; 2. matter is somewhat a semiotic phenomenon. Prodi applies Peirce's cenopythagorean categories to all phenomena of life and matter: Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness. They are interconnected meaning that the very ontology of the world, according to Prodi, is somewhat semiotic. In fact, when one describes matter as "made of" Firstness and Secondness, this means that matter 'intrinsically' implies semiotics (with Thirdness also being present in the world). At the very heart of Prodi's theory lies a metaphysical hypothesis which is an ambitious theoretical gesture that places Prodi in an awkward position with respect to the customary philosophical tradition. In fact, his own ontology is neither dualistic nor monistic. Such a conclusion is unusual and weird, but much less unusual in present time than it was when it was first introduced. The actual resurgence of various "realisms" make Prodi's semiotic realism much more interesting than when he first proposed his philosophical approach. What is uncommon, in Prodi perspective, is that he never separated semiotics from the materiality of the world. Prodi does not agree with the "standard" structuralist view of semiosis as an artificial and unnatural activity. On the contrary, Prodi believed semiosis (that is, the interconnection between Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness) lies at the very bottom of life. On one hand, Prodi maintains a strong realist stance; on the other, a realism that includes semiosis as 'natural' phenomena. This last view is very unusual because all forms, more or less, of realism exclude semiosis from nature but they frequently "reduce" semiosis to non-semiotic elements. According to Prodi, semiosis is a completely natural phenomenon.

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