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This book sheds new light on the origins and nature of modern military thinking. The ideas of Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) - which remain at the heart of strategic analysis today - have hitherto been examined largely in isolation from their cultural and philosophical roots in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Azar Gat now demonstrates the extent to which culture affects military theory. Dr Gat relates a series of military thinkers to their cultural background, demonstrating how the major currents of modern military thought have evolved from the world-view of the Enlightenment on the one hand and Romanticism on the other. Tracing the development of Clausewitz's ideas, he provides a provocative critique of Clausewitz's classic work, On War. In the process, he offers an illuminating insight into a great period of European culture and into warfare in the age of Napoleon.
Building on Goldman's Words of Intelligence and Maret's On Their Own Terms, this is a one-stop reference tool for those who study and work in intelligence, security and information policy. This comprehensive resource defines key terms of the theoretical, conceptual and organizational aspects of intelligence and national security information policy.
This new book explores the relationship between intelligence and command at the operational level of war, and the extent to which it nourished operational performance on the battlefield. It does so through the medium of a fresh case study of the British Eighth Army's performance, under three different commanders, at several key points during the campaign in Italy. These comprise operations Husky and Baytown (the invasion of Sicily and Italy respectively), under Montgomery; the Eighth Army's part in the fourth battle of Cassino and the Gothic Line offensive, under Oliver Leese; and the final offensive in Italy, under Richard McCreery. This book will be of much interest to students of the Second World War, intelligence studies, operational military history and strategic history.
Traditionally the military community held the intelligence profession in low esteem, spying was seen as dirty work and information was all to often ignored if it conflicted with a commander's own view. Handel examines the ways in which this situation has improved and argues that co-operation between the intelligence adviser and the military decision maker is vital.
If you thought The Manchurian Candidate was the stuff of an over-heated imagination, you were sorely mistaken. For ten years the CIA ran Star Gate, a secret psychic research programme - even after the 1970s Church Committee tried to outlaw all such operations. Major Paul Smith helped run that operation. The most frightening aspect of the programme is that it works. Operatives trained by Major Smith became shockingly uncanny at remote viewing: the extra-sensory ability to locate objects or people over incredible distances using only the power of the mind. These specially trained intelligence agents helped discover the whereabouts of downed aircraft, missing soldiers, and, most important, secret nuclear and biological weapons facilities. The program was eventually shut down. Major Smith, a veteran of the Gulf War, retired from the service after twenty years and is here to tell his story.
This volume, which is arranged by agency and period, provides a comprehensive examination of the literature concerning the history of the world famous British Secret Services from their Elizabethan origins to the present. Special attention is paid to the roles and activities of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), the Security Service (MIS) and the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).
The goal of the volume thirteenth in this series on international organizations, is to provide a map of the literature about the British Secret Services, identifying sources of information--and occasionally disinformation. Davies evaluates unsound as well as sound sources of the literature about United Kingdom intelligence. The annotations will give the reader a guide to the most reliable and informative sources in the field, as well as identifying the weaker sources. Davies includes a glossary of British intelligence terms and abbreviations.
There are no comparable volumes on British intelligence. A small number of books concerned with the U.S. Secret Services do deal in passing with British intelligence, but these are limited and frequently inadequate. "British Secret Services "includes popular, professional, and scholarly sources and will provide a starting point for anyone doing research on British intelligence. It will also be an essential reference tool for those interested in the history of intelligence agencies and national security in general, and in the development of the British secret services in particular. Historians, political scientists, and strategy defense professionals will find this useful in then- work.
A drastic reform of intelligence activities is long overdue. The Cold War has been over for ten years. No country threatens this nation's existence. Yet we still spend billions of dollars on covert action and espionage.
In National Insecurity ten prominent experts describe, from an insider perspective, what went wrong with U.S. intelligence and what will be necessary to fix it. Drawing on their experience in government administration, research, and the foreign service, they propose a radical rethinking of the United States' intelligence needs in the post -- Cold War world. In addition, they offer a coherent and unified plan for reform that can simultaneously protect U.S. security and uphold the values of our democratic system.
As we now know, even during the Cold War, when intelligence was seen as a matter of life and death, our system served us badly. It provided unreliable information, which led to a grossly inflated military budget, as it wreaked havoc around the world, supporting corrupt regimes, promoting the drug trade, and repeatedly violating foreign and domestic laws. Protected by a shroud of secrecy, it paid no price for its mistakes. Instead it grew larger and more insulated every year.
Taking into consideration our strategic interests abroad as well as the price of covert operations in dollars, in reliability, and in good will, every American taxpayer can be informed by and will want to read this book. National Insecurity is essential for readers interested in contemporary political issues, international relations, U.S. history, public policy issues, foreign policy, intelligence reform, and political science.
This volume discusses the challenges the future holds for different aspects of the intelligence process and for organisations working in the field. The main focus of Western intelligence services is no longer on the intentions and capabilities of the Soviet Union and its allies. Instead, at present, there is a plethora of threats and problems that deserve attention. Some of these problems are short-term and potentially acute, such as terrorism. Others, such as the exhaustion of natural resources, are longer-term and by nature often more difficult to foresee in their implications. This book analyses the different activities that make up the intelligence process, or the `intelligence cycle', with a focus on changes brought about by external developments in the international arena, such as technology and security threats. Drawing together a range of key thinkers in the field, The Future of Intelligence examines possible scenarios for future developments, including estimations about their plausibility, and the possible consequences for the functioning of intelligence and security services. This book will be of much interest to students of intelligence studies, strategic studies, foreign policy, security studies and IR in general.
During the decade that preceded Mikhail Gorbachev's era of glasnost
and perestroika, the KGB headquarters in Moscow was putting out a
constant stream of instructions to its Residencies abroad. These
top secret documents were principally concerned with agent
recruitment, infiltration of key foreign organizations,
intelligence collection and interpretation, and influence
operations, while endeavouring at all times to promote and protect
the interests of the Soviet Union against countries seen as
In a bold and penetrating study, Gregory Treverton, former Vice Chair of the National Intelligence Council and Senate investigator, offers his insider's views on how intelligence gathering and analysis must change. Treverton suggests why intelligence needs to be contrarian and attentive to the longer term. Believing that it is important to tap expertise outside government to solve intelligence problems, he argues that involving colleagues in the academy, think tanks, and Wall Street befits the changed role of government from doer to convener, mediator, and coalition-builder. Hb ISBN (2001): 0-521-58096-X
Richard Sorge was a spy, a Russian spy and an extraordinarily successful one. Two quotes illustrate this. The first is by Larry Collins, 'Richard Sorge's brilliant espionage work saved Stalin and the Soviet Union from defeat in the fall of 1941, probably prevented a Nazi victory in World War Two and thereby assured the dimensions of the world we live in today.' The second is by Frederick Forsyth, 'The spies in history who can say from their graves, the information I supplied to my masters, for better or worse, altered the history of our planet, can be counted on the fingers of one hand. Richard Sorge was in that group.' Masquerading as a Nazi journalist, Richard Sorge worked undetected as head of a Red Army spy ring until he was arrested and executed in Japan during the Second World War. Such an astonishing story as Sorge's is bound to attract attention but not only was this the first book to offer an authoritative account, it has, in many ways, not least in the quality of its writing, never been superseded. The authors rejected legend and found facts that were even stranger. They provide an account as reliable as it is enthralling of possibly the most successful spy who ever operated; a man who for eight years transmitted from Japan a continuous stream of the most valuable information, often derived from the highest quarters, culminating in precise advance information of Hitler's invasion of Russia, of Japan's decision not to attack Russia in 1941, and of the near certainty of war against America that October or November instead. Jointly written books sometimes jar, but not this one. The authors had complementary skills, F. W. Deakin being an authority on twentieth-century European history and G. R Storry no less of an authority on twentieth-century Japan. Together they do justice to 'the man whom I regard as the most formidable spy in history,' (Ian Fleming).
This unique book presents an accurate and reliable assessment of the Special Operations Executive (SOE). It brings together leading authors to examine the organization from a range of key angles. This study shows how historians have built on the first international conference on the SOE at the Imperial War Museum in 1998. The release of many records then allowed historians to develop the first authoritative analyses of the organization's activities and several of its agents and staff officers were able to participate. Since this groundbreaking conference, fresh research has continued and its original papers are here amended to take account of the full range of SOE documents that have been released to the National Archives. The fascinating stories they tell range from overviews of work in a single country to particular operations and the impact of key personalities. SOE was a remarkably innovative organization. It played a significant part in the Allied victory while its theories of clandestine warfare and specialised equipment had a major impact upon the post-war world. SOE proved that war need not be fought by conventional methods and by soldiers in uniform. The organization laid much of the groundwork for the development of irregular warfare that characterized the second half of the twentieth century and that is still here, more potent than ever, at the beginning of the twenty-first. This book will be of great interest to students of World War II history, intelligence studies and special operations, as well as general readers with an interest in SOE and World War II.
DESCRIBED BY THE FBI AS 'THE MOST COMPLETE AND EXTENSIVE INTELLIGENCE EVER RECEIVED FROM ANY SOURCE'
FOR TWELVE YEARS, AT ENORMOUS PERSONAL RISK, VASILI MITROKHIN SMUGGLED MATERIAL FROM ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST SECRET ARCHIVES
REVEALS THE IDENTITIES OF THE KGB'S TOP BRITISH FEMALE AGENT, MELITA NORWOOD, AND THE CORRUPT SCOTLAND YARD OFFICER WHO BECAME A 'ROMEO SPY' ON FOUR CONTINENTS AMONG MANY OTHERS
ITS ASTONISHING REVELATIONS SENT SHOCKWAVES THROUGH WHITEHALL AND LED TO THE BIGGEST REVIEW OF BRITISH SECURITY SERVICES SINCE SPYCATCHER
Numerous allegations of abuse of power have been made against the domestic security intelligence agencies in the United Kingdom - police special branches and MI5. These include the improper surveillance of trade unionists and peace activists, campaigns of disinformation against elected politicians and, most serious of all, the summary shooting of people believed to be engaged in political violence. Although in recent years far-reaching inquiries have been conducted into similar agencies in other liberal democracies, and the end of the Cold War has brought dramatic change to security agencies in Eastern Europe, the UK agencies have remained aloof from anything more than marginal organisational change. Drawing on extensive foreign material and making use of the social science concepts of information, power and law, this book develops a framework for the comparative analysis of these agencies. This provides, first, a systematic discussion of what is known about the operations of security intelligence agencies in liberal democracies and, second, an agenda for research into the UK agencies, including: the ambiguous nature of their mandate regarding 'national security', 'subversion' and 'terrorism'; the ways in which the agencies penetrate society and what they do with the information they gather; internal organisational questions such as recruitment and culture; the extent to which the agencies are controlled by ministers; and how the agencies' activities might be overseen by outside political bodies such as parliamentary committees, and by citizens in general. Concluding that not enough is known about how these agencies operate in the UK, the book argues the need for a thorough inquiry toinvestigate the disturbing allegations that have been made, and to make proposals for a more democratic system of security intelligence.
This is the story of the CIA's early days, told through the careers of four men who ran covert operations for the government from the end of World War II to Vietnam. This was the high age of the CIA, when its job was to find a way to contain the Soviet threat in a nuclear age. It was the president's personal action arm - overthrowing governments, bribing heads of state, and plotting assassinations in a global secret war against communism. Four men risked everything to keep the US out of war. They were Frank Wisner, Richard Bissell, Tracy Barnes and Desmond FitzGerald. Within the inner circles of Washington, at the high point of American power in the world, they were regarded as the best and brightest. They planned and acted to contain the Soviet threat, by political action and cunning that armies could not be allowed to be part of. The fall of each of these men is examined in this book, which draws on the CIA's own secret histories, and interviews.
The vital ingredient in the formulation and execution of a successful foreign policy is intelligence. For the USA, as the Bay of Pigs incident and the Iran-Contra affair have shown, controlling intelligence is a problem which policy-makers and concerned citizens have rarely examined and imperfectly understood. Of the seven contributors, five have direct experience of working with or in intelligence, and all have written extensively on the subject.
A highly valuable resource for students of intelligence studies, strategy and security, and foreign policy, this volume provides readers with an accessible and comprehensive exploration of U.S. espionage activities that addresses both the practical and ethical implications that attend the art and science of spying. * Provides a comprehensive, up-to-date examination of all aspects of intelligence by experts in the field, from collection-and-analysis and counterintelligence to covert action and accountability * Probes into how the United States' intelligence agencies attempt to protect the nation from cyberattacks by foreign nations and terrorist groups-and documents the successes and failures * Documents the involvement of the National Security Agency (NSA) in bulk "metadata" collection of information on the telephone records and social media communications of American citizens * Examines the effects that have resulted from major leaks in the U.S. government, from Wikileaks to the NSA Snowden leaks
Follow the 3rd Fighter Aviation Corps along its Combat Path during the Liberation of the Motherland through the experiences of one of its units - the 812th
This ground breaking book examines the colourful history of the Intelligence Corps from its formation in 1940 up to the present day. Even accepting that there are aspects of the Corps' activities that cannot be revealed, there is a great wealth of fascinating material here for those interested in intelligence gathering. During WW2 over 400 members served with SOE, Field Security Sections carried out counter-intelligence tasks at home and overseas, liaising with foreign services where appropriate. Intelligence gathering for commanders at all levels has been a key role using Sigint, human sources, interrogation and other covert ops. The Corps captured many key German and Japanese war criminals. During the Cold War Intelligence Sections were a vital part of all HQs above Brigade level and worked regularly with the SAS, SBS, RM Commandos, GCHQ and M15. Air photography working in close cooperation with the RAF is a vital source of intelligence and plays a crucial role in Afghanistan using satellite and drone imagery, a far cry from the days of balloons. This officially supported history reveals much fascinating material about the activities of this highly specialist and often top-secret Corps. It will be mandatory reading for intelligence experts and enthusiasts.
Seizing the Enigma tells the story of one of the great dramas of World War II. A multinational corps of cryptologists struggled to break the German U-boat codes that were helping Nazi submarine wolfpacks tear at the lifeline between America and Britain. But these codebreakers realised that German messages could not be read without obtaining the encryption keys from the ships that held them. Several daring captures at sea of critical documents and encryption machines by the Royal Navy finally led to mastering the U-boat codes. Kahn begins his narrative with the creation of the Enigma machine in 1918 and its refinement during the two decades leading up to World War II. He introduces key figures on both sides of the battle including: Arthur Scherbius, who gave the Germans a boost in the race between codemaker and codebreaker and Polish mathematician Marian Rejewski, who reconstructed the Enigma keys. Since its original publication in 1961, Seizing the Enigma has remained a vital source of information about Enigma and the art of codebreaking.
'Fascinating.' "Daily Telegraph"
Audley End House in Essex - or Station 43 as it was known during the Second World War - was used as the principal training school for SOE's Polish Section between 1942 and 1944. Polish agents at the stately home undertook a series of arduous training courses in guerilla warfare before being parachuted into occupied Europe. In 1943, Audley End was placed exclusively under polish control, a situation unique within SOE. The training was tough and the success rate low, but a total of 527 agents passed through Audley End between 1942 and 1944. Ian Valentine has consulted a wide range of primary sources and interviewed Polish instructors and former agents who trained at Audley End to write the definitive account of this Essex country house and the vital but secret part it played in defeating Hitler. He examines the comprehensive training agents at Audley End and describes the work undertaken by Station 43's agents in Europe, set against the background of Polish wartime history. He also covers the vital link with the RAF's Special Duties squadrons, whose crews risked their lives dropping agents into occupied Europe. Station 43 breaks new ground in telling the hitherto until story of Audley End house and its role as a vital SOE training school.
Low Intensity Operations is an important, controversial and prophetic book that has had a major influence on the conduct of modern warfare. First published in 1971, it was the result of an academic year Frank Kitson spent at University College, Oxford, under the auspices of the Ministry of Defence, to write a paper on the way in which the army should be prepared to deal with future insurgency and peacekeeping operations.
In his foreword, General Sir Michael Carver wrote with percipience 'The necessity for the integration of intelligence and operations is his most important lesson and the one least appreciated by the conventional soldier. Frank Kitson's great virtue is that his above all a realist, in spite of being both an idealist and enthusiast. The reader will not finding these pages a purely academic theoretical exercise. He will, however, find something stimulating and original suggestions about the tasks which confront the Army in the field of ''low intensity operations'' and about the methods which should be used both to prepare for and execute them.'
For too long unavailable in the U. K. this ground-breaking work is as pertinent now as it was when first published; one only has to think of Afghanistan and Iraq to appreciate the sad truth of that.
'To understand the nature of revolutionary warfare, one cannot do better than read "Low Intensity Operations" . . . The author has had unrivalled experience of such operations in many parts of the world.' "Daily Telegraph"
'A highly practical analysis of subversion, insurgency and peacekeeping operations . . . Frank Kitson's book is not merely timely but important.' "The Economist"
"MI6 and the Machinery of Spying "traces the development of the
agency's internal structure from its inception until the end of the
Cold War. The analysis examines how its management structure has
been driven by its operational environment on the one hand and its
position within the machinery of British central government on the
other. Close attention is paid to the agency's institutional links
to its consumers in Whitehall and Downing Street, as well as to the
causes and consequences of its operational organization and
provisions for counter-espionage and security.
With the establishment of a Swiss legation in Tokyo in 1920,
neutral Switzerland became uniquely placed to gather first-class
intelligence on Japan and the region Japan dominated before and
during World War II. The documents from the Swiss Federal archives
reveal intelligence collected on Japan, China, Russia and the other
parts of East Asia. Based on the communications between the Swiss
government in Berne and its diplomats and agents in Tokyo, the
documents cover a huge area from Arctic Siberia to the north of
Australia. The documents give insight into international politics
during a very turbulent period of modern history and demonstrate
that Switzerland's need for first-class intelligence created for it
the role of an extraordinary "thinking post" in world politics. The
author sets the context and provides notes and commentary on the
The book is a study of the shooting of suspected civilian informers by the Cork city IRA in 1920-1921. During a one-year period, at least twenty-four Cork civilians died at the hands of the IRA, including a two-week span that saw eight civilians shot. IRA sources claim some of the civilians were members of an Anti-Sinn Fein Society, a pro-British intelligence network operating in the city. The book analyses the existence of such a network, alleged IRA persecution of ex-soldiers, and the strength of the IRA intelligence efforts in Cork city. It places these trends in the context of both the British reprisal campaign in Cork city, and the IRA's guerrilla struggle. The book contains significant original research that focuses on events in Cork city in 1920-1921. Chapters on the British reprisal campaign, the IRA intelligence network, and the trends of the conflict, provide unique evidence and conclusions regarding the situation in Cork city, which have not been published in any other work and directly contradicts some conclusions made in Peter Hart's The IRA and its Enemies.
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