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Why do elephants have sturdier thigh bones than humans? Why can't ostriches fly? How do bacteria swim through fluids? With each chapter structured around relevant biological case studies and examples, this engaging, full-colour book introduces fundamental physical concepts essential in the study of biological phenomena. Optics is introduced within the context of butterfly wing colouration, electricity is explained through the propagation of nerve signals, and accelerated motion is conveniently illustrated using the example of the jumping armadillo. Other key physical concepts covered include waves, mechanical forces, thermodynamics and magnetism, and important biological techniques are also discussed within this context, such as gel electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy. A detailed appendix provides further discussion of the mathematical concepts utilised within the book, and numerous exercises and quizzes allow readers to test their understanding of key concepts. This book is invaluable to students aiming to improve their quantitative and analytical skills and understand the deeper nature of biological phenomena.
How does the chemical description of a protein relate to its three-dimensional structure? How does the three-dimensional structure relate to the machinery that brings about a chemical reaction? How does the sequence of a gene encode not only the sequence of a protein but, more importantly, the architecture and function of that protein? Protein Structure and Function provides a clear and critical survey of our current understanding of the structure and function of proteins to answer questions such as these. Opening with a consideration of the link between protein sequence and structure, it goes on to explore the structural basis of protein function and how this function is controlled. Finally, it examines a range of case studies that illuminate the range of roles performed by proteins, and the diverse structures these proteins exhibit. Protein Structure and Function combines articulate prose with striking full colour illustrations, while the unique Primers in Biology modular structure integrates text, illustrations, definitions, and literature references for each topic into one double-page spread, bringing to the student's fingertips all the tools that they need to master that topic. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre features figures from the book available to download, for registered adopters of the book.
The mysterious world of fungi is once again unearthed in this expansive second edition. This textbook provides readers with an all-embracing view of the kingdom fungi, ranging in scope from ecology and evolution, diversity and taxonomy, cell biology and biochemistry, to genetics and genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Adopting a unique systems biology approach - and using explanatory figures and colour illustrations - the authors emphasise the diverse interactions between fungi and other organisms. They outline how recent advances in molecular techniques and computational biology have fundamentally changed our understanding of fungal biology, and have updated chapters and references throughout the book in light of this. This is a fascinating and accessible guide, which will appeal to a broad readership - from aspiring mycologists at undergraduate and graduate level to those studying related disciplines. Online resources are hosted on a complementary website.
From breakfast toast to evening wine, yeast is the microscopic thing that we cannot live without. We knew what yeast did as an invisible brewer and baker long before we had a clue about the existence of microorganisms. Ten thousand years ago, our ancestors abandoned bush meat and wild fruit in favor of farming animals and cultivating grain. Leaving the forests and grasslands, our desire for beer and wine produced by the fungus was a major stimulus for agricultural settlement. It takes a village to run a brewery or tend a vineyard. We domesticated wild yeast and yeast domesticated us. With the inevitable escape of the fungus from beer vats into bread dough, our marriage with yeast was secured by an appetite for fresh loaves of leavened bread. Over the millennia, we have adapted the technologies of brewing, winemaking, and baking and have come to rely on yeast more and more. Yeast produces corn ethanol and other biofuels and has become the genetically-modified darling of the pharmaceutical business as a source of human insulin and a range of life-saving medicines. These practical uses of yeast have been made possible by advances in our understanding of its biology, and the power of genetic engineering has been used to modify the fungus to do just about anything we wish. We know more about yeast than any other organism built from complex cells like our own. To understand yeast is to understand life. In this book Nicholas P. Money offers a celebration of our favorite microorganism.
Current techniques for studying biological macromolecules and their interactions are based on the application of physical methods, ranging from classical thermodynamics to more recently developed techniques for the detection and manipulation of single molecules. Reflecting the advances made in biophysics research over the past decade, and now including a new section on medical imaging, this new edition describes the physical methods used in modern biology. All key techniques are covered, including mass spectrometry, hydrodynamics, microscopy and imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance. Each method is explained in detail using examples of real-world applications. Short asides are provided throughout to ensure that explanations are accessible to life scientists, physicists and those with medical backgrounds. The book remains an unparalleled and comprehensive resource for graduate students of biophysics and medical physics in science and medical schools, as well as for research scientists looking for an introduction to techniques from across this interdisciplinary field.
Bringing this best-selling textbook right up to date, the new edition uniquely integrates the theories and methods that drive the fields of biology, biotechnology and medicine, comprehensively covering both the techniques students will encounter in lab classes and those that underpin current key advances and discoveries. The contents have been updated to include both traditional and cutting-edge techniques most commonly used in current life science research. Emphasis is placed on understanding the theory behind the techniques, as well as analysis of the resulting data. New chapters cover proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics, as well as data analysis and visualisation. Using accessible language to describe concepts and methods, and with a wealth of new in-text worked examples to challenge students' understanding, this textbook provides an essential guide to the key techniques used in current bioscience research.
Living systems are dynamic and extremely complex and their behaviour is often hard to predict by studying their individual parts. Systems biology promises to reveal and analyse these highly connected, regulated and adaptable systems, using mathematical modelling and computational analysis. This new systems approach is already having a broad impact on biological research and has potentially far-reaching implications for our understanding of life. Written in an informal and non-technical style, this book provides an accessible introduction to systems biology. Self-contained vignettes each convey a key theme and are intended to enlighten, provoke and interest readers of different academic disciplines, but also to offer new insight to those working in the field. Using a minimum amount of jargon and no mathematics, Voit manages to convey complex ideas and give the reader a genuine sense of the excitement that systems biology brings with it, as well as the current challenges and opportunities.
From Nobel Prize winner Venki Ramakrishnan 'Beyond superb' Bill Bryson 'A wonderful book' Ian McEwan Everyone knows about DNA, the essence of our being, the molecule where our genes reside. But DNA by itself is useless without a machine to decode the genetic information it contains. The ribosome is that machine. Venki Ramakrishnan tells the story of the race to uncover its enormously complex structure, a fundamental breakthrough that resolves an ancient mystery of life itself.
This innovative reference provides a coherent and critical view on the potential benefits of a transition from batch to continuous processes in the biopharmaceutical industry, with the main focus on chromatography. It also covers the key topics of protein stability and protein conjugation, addressing the chemical reaction and purification aspects together with their integration. This book offers a fine balance between theoretical modelling and illustrative case studies, between fundamental concepts and applied examples from the academic and industrial literature. Scientists interested in the design of biopharmaceutical processes will find useful practical methodologies, in particular for single-column and multi-column chromatographic processes.
In 2001 the Human Genome Project succeeded in mapping the DNA of humans. This landmark accomplishment launched the field of genomics, the integrated study of all the genes in the human body and the related biomedical interventions that can be tailored to benefit a person's health. Today genomics, part of a larger movement toward personalized medicine, is poised to revolutionize health care. By cross-referencing an individual's genetic sequence - their genome - against known elements of "Big Data," elements of genomics are already being incorporated on a widespread basis, including prenatal disease screening and targeted cancer treatments. With more innovations soon to arrive at the bedside, the promise of the genomics revolution is limitless. This entry in the What Everyone Needs to Know series offers an authoritative resource on the prospects and realities of genomics and personalized medicine. As this science continues to alter traditional medical paradigms, consumers are faced with additional options and more complicated decisions regarding their health care. This book provides the essential information everyone needs.
An essential guide to biomolecular and bioanalytical techniques and their applications Biomolecular and Bioanalytical Techniques offers an introduction to, and a basic understanding of, a wide range of biophysical techniques. The text takes an interdisciplinary approach with contributions from a panel of distinguished experts. With a focus on research, the text comprehensively covers a broad selection of topics drawn from contemporary research in the fields of chemistry and biology. Each of the internationally reputed authors has contributed a single chapter on a specific technique. The chapters cover the specific technique's background, theory, principles, technique, methodology, protocol and applications. The text explores the use of a variety of analytical tools to characterise biological samples. The contributors explain how to identify and quantify biochemically important molecules, including small molecules as well as biological macromolecules such as enzymes, antibodies, proteins, peptides and nucleic acids. This book is filled with essential knowledge and explores the skills needed to carry out the research and development roles in academic and industrial laboratories. A technique-focused book that bridges the gap between an introductory text and a book on advanced research methods Provides the necessary background and skills needed to advance the research methods Features a structured approach within each chapter Demonstrates an interdisciplinary approach that serves to develop independent thinking Written for students in chemistry, biological, medical, pharmaceutical, forensic and biophysical sciences, Biomolecular and Bioanalytical Techniques is an in-depth review of the most current biomolecular and bioanalytical techniques in the field.
Cancer, which has become the second-most prevalent health issue globally, is essentially a malfunction of cell signaling. Understanding how the intricate signaling networks of cells and tissues allow cancer to thrive - and how they can be turned into potent weapons against it - is the key to managing cancer in the clinic and improving the outcome of cancer therapies. In their ground-breaking textbook, the authors provide a compelling story of how cancer works on the molecular level, and how targeted therapies using kinase inhibitors and other modulators of signaling pathways can contain and eventually cure it. The first part of the book gives an introduction into the cell and molecular biology of cancer, focusing on the key mechanisms of cancer formation. The second part of the book introduces the main signaling transduction mechanisms responsible for carcinogenesis and compares their function in healthy versus cancer cells. In contrast to the complexity of its topic, the text is easy to read. 32 specially prepared teaching videos on key concepts and pathways in cancer signaling are available online.
Chemical Biology of Natural Products This unique, long-awaited volume is designed to address contemporary aspects of natural product chemistry and its influence on biological systems, not solely on human interactions. The subjects covered include discovery, isolation and characterization, biosynthesis, biosynthetic engineering, pharmaceutical, and other applications of these compounds. Each chapter begins with a brief and simple introduction to the subject matter, and then proceeds to guide the reader towards the more contemporary, cutting-edge research in the field, with the contributing authors presenting current examples from their own work in order to exemplify key themes. Topics covered in the text include genome mining, heterologous expression, natural product synthesis, biosynthesis, glycosylation, chemical ecology, and therapeutic applications of natural products, both current and potential.
This book provides readers with a detailed orientation to healthcare simulation research, aiming to provide descriptive and illustrative accounts of healthcare simulation research (HSR). Written by leaders in the field, chapter discussions draw on the experiences of the editors and their international network of research colleagues. This seven-section practical guide begins with an introduction to the field by relaying the key components of HSR. Sections two, three, four, and five then cover various topics relating to research literature, methods for data integration, and qualitative and quantitative approaches. Finally, the book closes with discussions of professional practices in HSR, as well as helpful tips and case studies.Healthcare Simulation Research: A Practical Guide is an indispensable reference for scholars, medical professionals and anyone interested in undertaking HSR.
This concise overview of the fundamental concepts of cancer biology is ideal for those with little or no background in the field. A summary of global cancer patterns introduces students to the general principles of how cancers arise and the risk factors involved. By focusing on fundamental examples of the signalling pathways within cells, the functional effects of DNA damage are explained. Later chapters then build on this foundation to provide a comprehensive summary of the major signalling pathways that affect tumour development. Current therapeutic strategies are reviewed, along with a discussion of methods for tumour detection and biomarker identification. Finally, the impact of whole genome sequencing is discussed, bringing students up to date with key recent developments in the field. From basic principles to insights into cutting-edge research, this book will enable the reader to move into the cancer field with confidence.
An essential guide that puts the focus on method developments and applications in aptamers In recent years, aptamer-based systems have been developed for a wide-range of analytical and medical applications. Aptamers for Analytical Applications offers an introduction to the topic, outlines the common protocols for aptamer synthesis, as well as providing information on the different optimization strategies that can obtain higher affinities to target molecules. The contributors?noted experts on the topic?provide an in-depth review of the characterization of aptamer-target molecule interaction and immobilization strategies and discuss the developments of methods for all the relevant applications. The book outlines different schemes to efficiently immobilize aptamers on substrates as well as summarizing the characterization methods for aptamer-ligand complexes. In addition, aptamer-based colorimetric, enzyme-linked, fluorescent, electrochemical, lateral flow and non-labeling analytical methods are presented. The book also reflects state-of-the-art and emerging applications of aptamer-based methods. This important resource: -Provides a guide to aptamers which provide highly specific and sensitive molecular recognition, with affinities in the range of antibodies and are much cheaper to produce -Offers a discussion of the analytical method developments and improvements with established systems and beyond -Offers a comprehensive guide to all the relevant application areas -Presents an authoritative book from contributors who are noted experts in the field Written for analytical chemists, biochemists, analytical researchers, Aptamers for Analytical Applications is a comprehensive book that adopts a methodological point of view to the important aspects of aptamer generation and modification with a strong emphasis on method developments for relevant applications.
Recent technological advances have enabled comprehensive determination of the molecular composition of living cells. The chemical interactions between many of these molecules are known, giving rise to genome-scale reconstructed biochemical reaction networks underlying cellular functions. Mathematical descriptions of the totality of these chemical interactions lead to genome-scale models that allow the computation of physiological functions. Reflecting these recent developments, this textbook explains how such quantitative and computable genotype-phenotype relationships are built using a genome-wide basis of information about the gene portfolio of a target organism. It describes how biological knowledge is assembled to reconstruct biochemical reaction networks, the formulation of computational models of biological functions, and how these models can be used to address key biological questions and enable predictive biology. Developed through extensive classroom use, the book is designed to provide students with a solid conceptual framework and an invaluable set of modeling tools and computational approaches.
The Problems Book helps students appreciate the ways in which experiments and simple calculations can lead to an understanding of how cells work by introducing the experimental foundation of cell and molecular biology. Each chapter reviews key terms, tests for understanding basic concepts, and poses research-based problems. The Problems Book has been designed to correspond with the first twenty chapters of Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition.
How genes are not the only basis of heredity-and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes-can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance-involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors-could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.
The explosion in clinical testing has been especially rapid in virology, where emerging viruses and growing numbers of viral infections are driving advances. The Guide to Clinical and Diagnostic Virology offers a digestible view of the breadth and depth of information related to clinical virology, providing a practical, working knowledge of the wide array of viruses that cause human disease.
Addresses measurements in new fields such as cellular and molecular biology.
Today's science tells us that our bodies are filled with molecular machinery that orchestrates all sorts of life processes. When we think, microscopic "channels" open and close in our brain cell membranes; when we run, tiny "motors" spin in our muscle cell membranes; and when we see, light operates "molecular switches" in our eyes and nerves. A molecular-mechanical vision of life has become commonplace in both the halls of philosophy and the offices of drug companies, where researchers are developing "proton pump inhibitors" or medicines similar to Prozac. Membranes to Molecular Machines explores just how late twentieth-century science came to think of our cells and bodies this way. This story is told through the lens of membrane research, an unwritten history at the crossroads of molecular biology, biochemistry, physiology, and the neurosciences, that directly feeds into today's synthetic biology as well as nano- and biotechnology. Mathias Grote shows how these sciences not only have made us think differently about life, they have, by reworking what membranes and proteins represent in laboratories, allowed us to manipulate life as "active matter" in new ways. Covering the science of biological membranes in the United States and Europe from the mid-1960s to the 1990s, this book connects that history to contemporary work with optogenetics, a method for stimulating individual neurons using light, and will enlighten and provoke anyone interested in the intersection of chemical research and the life sciences--from practitioner to historian to philosopher.
RNA Methodologies, Fifth Edition continues its tradition of excellence in providing the most up-to-date ribonucleic acid lab techniques for seasoned scientists and graduate students alike. This edition features new material on the exploding field of microRNA as well as the methods for the profiling of gene expression, both which have changed considerably in recent years. As a leader in the field, Dr. Farrell provides a wealth of knowledge on the topic of RNA while also giving readers helpful hints from his own personal experience in this subject area. Beginning with the most contemporary, RNA Methodologies, Fifth Edition, presents the essential techniques to use when working with RNA for the experienced practitioner while at the same time providing images and examples to aid the beginner in fully understanding this important branch of molecular biology. The next generation of scientists can look to this work as a guide for ensuring high productivity and highly representative data, as well as best practices in troubleshooting laboratory problems when they arise.
Microbial transmission, the processes by which microbes transit to new environments, is a significant and broad-reaching concept with applications throughout the biological sciences. This collection of reviews, edited by an international team of experts studying and working across a range of disciplines, explores transmission not just as an idea in disease but as a fundamental biological process that acts in all domains of nature and exerts its force on disparate size scales, from the micro to the macro, and across units of time as divergent as a single bacterial replication cycle and the entire course of evolution. In five sections, this overview defines the concept of transmission and covers basic processes of transmission, including causality, control strategies, fitness costs, virulence, and selection. Anyone studying or working in microbial colonization, evolution, pathogenicity, antimicrobial resistance, or public health will benefit from a deeper understanding of Microbial Transmission.
Data in the genomics field is booming. In just a few years, organizations such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will host 50+ petabytes-or over 50 million gigabytes-of genomic data, and they're turning to cloud infrastructure to make that data available to the research community. How do you adapt analysis tools and protocols to access and analyze that volume of data in the cloud? With this practical book, researchers will learn how to work with genomics algorithms using open source tools including the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), Docker, WDL, and Terra. With this practical book, researchers will learn how to work with genomics algorithms using open source tools including the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), Docker, WDL, and Terra. Geraldine Van der Auwera, longtime custodian of the GATK user community, and Brian O'Connor of the UC Santa Cruz Genomics Institute, guide you through the process. You'll learn by working with real data and genomics algorithms from the field. This book covers: Essential genomics and computing technology background Basic cloud computing operations Getting started with GATK, plus three major GATK Best Practices pipelines Automating analysis with scripted workflows using WDL and Cromwell Scaling up workflow execution in the cloud, including parallelization and cost optimization Interactive analysis in the cloud using Jupyter notebooks Secure collaboration and computational reproducibility using Terra
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