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As the Vietnam War reached its tragic climax in the last days of April 1975, a task force of U.S. Navy ships cruised off South Vietnam's coast. Their mission was to support the evacuation of American embassy personnel and military advisers from Saigon as well as to secure the safety of the South Vietnamese whose lives were in endangered by the North Vietnamese victory. The Lucky Few recounts the role of the USS Kirk in the rescue of remnants of the South Vietnamese fleet and the refugees on board. The story of the Kirk reflects one of America's few shining moments at the end of the Vietnam War. Now in paperback in time for the 40th anniversary of the end of the war, The Lucky Few brings to life the heroism of Captain Paul Jacobs and the crew of the USS Kirk.
In the U.S. Navy ""Wheel Books"" were once found in the uniform pockets of every junior and many senior petty officers. Each small notebook was unique to the Sailor carrying it, but all had in common a collection of data and wisdom that the individual deemed useful in the effective execution of his or her duties. Often used as a substitute for experience among neophytes and as a portable library of reference information for more experienced personnel, those weathered pages contained everything from the time of the next tide, to leadership hints from a respected chief petty officer, to the color coding of the phone-and-distance line used in underway replenishments. In that same tradition, the new Naval Institute Wheel Books will provide supplemental information, pragmatic advice, and cogent analysis on topics important to modern naval professionals. Drawn from the U.S. Naval Institute's vast archives that has been accumulated for more than a century, the books will combine articles from the Institute's flagship publication Proceedings, selections from the oral history collection and from Naval Institute Press books to create unique guides on a wide array of relevant professional subjects. Naval tactics were described by Vice Adm. A. K. Cebrowski, a brilliant thinker on the subject of naval warfare, as "the sum of the art and science of the actual application of combat power." Renowned naval tactician Capt. Wayne Hughes called the study of naval tactics as striving "to bring whatever order and understanding is possible out of the chaos of battle." With those words of wisdom serving as the "commander's intent," this collection sheds a bright light on this sometimes dark and mysterious but questionably essential realm, illuminating the principles and concepts of tactics that serve the warrior at the most critical moments.
The imperial Austrian navy which fought and won the signal victory of Lissa on 20 July 1866, during the so-called Seven Weeks' War of 1866, has in recent years been subjected to more detailed scrutiny than has hitherto been its lot, and it is with an eye to following this trend that we present the following translation of part of the memoirs of one of its officers. Maximilian Rottauscher, the author of this account, was born in Vienna in 1844, the son of Karl Rottauscher (born 1812), an Austrian army officer who served in the Hungarian campaigns of 1848/49 and rose to the rank of major general before retiring. Max was destined for the fledgling navy, since after the lost 1859 war with France and Piedmont it was undergoing some expansion because of fears about designs in the Adriatic Sea by the new kingdom of Italy. In 1861, therefore, he was assigned to the frigate Novara as a cadet. After a brief instruction, he was transferred between a number of vessels and endured a period of enforced shore leave before being assigned to the schooner Saida, in which he made a voyage to Greece in 1863. Further service on training ships followed, before in 1864, as a midshipman, Rottauscher was sent to the North Sea as a replacement for a casualty on the frigate Radetzky. The Radetzky was one of a force of Austrian warships present during the Second Schleswig War, during which Austria and Prussia were allied against Denmark, and Max took part in the closing campaigns of this conflict, which he describes. But the greatest adventure of Max's life was two years later, when as a brand-new sub lieutenant and stationed on the frigate Adria, he was at the battle of Lissa. His description of this action, where the Austrians under Wilhelm von Tegetthoff trounced the Italians under Carlo di Persano, is extremely valuable not only because of its immediacy but also because relatively few personal accounts of Lissa have been published. Max's account is a very interesting picture of the Austrian navy in the early and mid 1860s, its comic and harrowing scenes and its depictions of foreign lands and the adventures he had there. As usual, the translator Stuart Sutherland has added explanatory notes to assist the reader. This is a fascinating and worthy contribution to 19th Century naval literature.
The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich houses the largest collection of scale ship models in the world, many of which are official, contemporary artefacts made by the craftsmen of the navy or the shipbuilders themselves, and ranging from the mid seventeenth century to the present day. As such they represent a three-dimensional archive of unique importance and authority. Treated as historical evidence, they offer more detail than even the best plans, and demonstrate exactly what the ships looked like in a way that even the finest marine painter could not achieve. The Ship of the Line is the second of a new series that takes selections of the best models to tell the story of specific ship types - in this case, the evolution of the ship of the line, the capital ship of its day, and the epitome of British seapower during its heyday from 1650-1850. This period too coincided with the golden age of ship modelling. Each volume depicts a wide range of models, all shown in full colour, including many close-up and detail views. These are captioned in depth, but many are also annotated to focus attention on interesting or unusual features, and the book weaves the pictures into an authoritative text, producing a unique form of technical history. The series is of particular interest to ship modellers, but all those with an enthusiasm for the ship design and development in the sailing era will attracted to the in-depth analysis of these beautifully presented books.
Having just turned eighteen and graduated from high school, and living in small-town Nebraska with nothing much to do, young Dick Schaefer joined the Navy on impulse, hoping that by choosing his branch of the military he would have some measure of control over his future. Not fully aware of the increasing military action in Vietnam, Schaefer found himself on a train bound for boot camp in San Diego in late summer, 1962. Schaefer's account of his time at boot camp is wry and rollicking. Upon graduation, he requested and received orders to report to the U.S. Naval Hospital Corps School in San Diego-and found that his choice of study suited him very well. Aftercompleting his studies, again on impulse Schaefer requested assignment to Hawai'i, assuming there must be a large naval hospital at Pearl Harbor. In fact, there was no such hospital-and Schaefer was assigned to the Fleet Marine Force. And thus this young naval medical corpsman became assigned to a Marine Corps unit for three years. "Marines and sailors didn't like each other very much. My new tattoo would go over well!" In Spring of 1965 Schaefer's unit boarded a large troop transport ship bound for a six-week stay in Okinawa. Then it was on to South Vietnam as part of the fi rst contingent of American combat forces. Schaefer recounts the terror of that fi rst beach landing, the hollow ache of homesickness, his professionalism in handling injuries both minor and devastating, the tragedy of friendly fi re, and his involvement in Operation Starlite. He also offers his refl ections on American involvement in the war, the reception of the troops as they returned stateside, and his own reintegration into civilian life.
The second volume of The Lion and The Eagle covers the months between the outbreak of war in 1914 and the conclusion of the 'Clearing of the Seas' in the Spring of 1915. This relatively short timespan encompassed a disproportionately large number of naval actions and campaigns that spanned every ocean of the globe and represented the most intensive, and extensive, period of naval warfare in the entire conflict. The account covers the disastrous, for the British, escape of the Goeben to Turkey, the Battle of the Heligoland Bight, and the subsequent East Coast raids that culminated in the Battle of the Dogger Bank. Outside the European sphere, it describes the prolonged operations involved in disposing of Germany's overseas detachments and countering their war against trade. The battles of Coronel and the Falkland Islands are fully related and re-assessed, as is the epic cruise of the Emden. Essentially, this is a history of the period when the two flawed titans, Churchill and Fisher, were at the helm of naval affairs in the British Admiralty, and when Germany had its greatest opportunities to dispute Britain's maritime supremacy.
This book covers the development of U.S. battleships, from the Maine and Texas of 1886, through the Montana class of World War II, up to the recommissioned Iowas. It examines the original designs as well as the many modifications and reconstructions these ships underwent during their long and active careers. Like the other books in Norman Friedman's design-history series, U.S. Battleships is based largely on formerly classified internal U.S. Navy records. But research for this book has also included a full survey of British files, both those compiled when American ships served with the Royal Navy in the two world wars and those supplied by British battleship designers attached to the U.S. Navy. In addition, the author consulted official battle damage reports to help evaluate various designs. Friedman, a leading authority of U.S. warships, explains the political and technical rationales for building battleships and recounts the evolution of each design. He shows clearly how battleship development reflects the interplay between police postures and technological capabilities, for perhaps more than any other category of warships in the pre-World War II American navy, the battleship was subject to political forces. Theodore Roosevelt's desire for a "big stick" to enforce his foreign policy, for example, gave rise to his Great White Fleet of 1907-09, the United States's first battle fleet. Franklin Roosevelt's fear of being branded as a militarist, on the other hand, constrained U.S. battleship construction and armament in the late 1930s. Battleship designs proposed but not built are described in detail. They include, among others, the pre-cursor of the Maine; a torpedo battleship of 1912; the "Tillman battleship" of 1916; a 66,000-ton "maximum battleship" of 1934; and the Montana of World War II. Freidman analyzes whether the design was a serious project or simply a ploy to test relations with foreign powers. A final chapter reveals the many abortive postwar projects for battleship conversion and shows the extensive modifications the New Jersey that were made in 1981-82. Friedman also indicates what future improvements may be in store for U.S. battleships. Appendixes include a full description of the first modern armored ship, the civil War monitor, and an account of the damage to U.S. battleships at Pearl Harbor. Alan Raven and A.D. Baker III have drawn detailed scale outboard and plan views of the each battleship class and of major modifications to many classes. The author has provided inboard profiles and sketches of abortive projects. Numerous photographs, many of them never before published, complement the text. Naval historians and architects alike will find U.S. Battleships to be the most comprehensive reference available on the subject. Battleships buffs, long enamored of this, the most elegant and glamorous of warships, will find the author's treatment of its development a fitting tribute to its decades of service to the U.S. Navy.
The Emergence of American Amphibious Warfare, 1898-1945 examines how the United States became a superpower through amphibious operations in order to project military power. While other major world powers pursued and embraced different weapons and technologies in order to create different means of waging war, the United States was one of the few countries that spent decades training, developing, and employing amphibious warfare to pursue its national interests. Commonly seen as dangerous and costly, amphibious warfare was carefully modernized, refined, and promoted within American political and military circles for years by a small motley group of military mavericks, intellectuals, innovators, and crackpots. This generational cast of underdogs and unlikely heroes were able to do the impossible by predicting and convincing America's leadership how the United States should fight the Second World War. From the United States' first tentative steps in landing troops from the sea in Cuba during the Spanish-American War to the iconic flag raising of U.S. Marines in Iwo Jima during the Second World War, Amphibious Warfare and U.S. Geopolitical Strategy, 1898-1945 is a historical journey of the United States' rise to greatness. Through amphibious warfare, the United States underwent an extraordinary transformation in such a short period from backwater republic to global superpower.The Emergence of American Amphibious Warfare 1898-1945 is an analytical study that focuses on the people, events, technologies, and conflicts that shaped and modernized amphibious warfare. In addition, we also see how the United States patiently pursued a deliberate and systematic approach in adopting a form of warfare that many rival powers saw as antiquated and impractical in an increasingly technological and industrialized world. As a result, the United States' unlikely and meteoric rise in the first half of the 20th century not only shocked the world, but dramatically transformed the balance of power in the international system. In conclusion, The Emergence of American Amphibious Warfare 1898-1945 reveals that despite new ways for states to project military power today as seen with airpower, nuclear weapons, cyber warfare, and special operators, amphibious warfare has proven to be the most important in transforming the United States and the world. In understanding how amphibious warfare allowed the United States to achieve geopolitical supremacy, competitor states are now looking at America's amphibious past as a potential option to challenge the United States' global leadership and expand its power and influence in the world.
Although best known for large liners and capital ships, between 1914 and the completion of the wartime programmes in 1920 the Clydebank shipyard of John Brown & Sons built a vast range of vessels - major warships down to destroyers and submarines, unusual designs like a seaplane carrier and submarine depot ship, and even a batch of war-standard merchant ships. This makes the yard a particularly good exemplar of the wartime shipbuilding effort. Like most shipyards of the time, Clydebank employed professional photographers to record the whole process of construction, using large-plate cameras that produced pictures of stunning clarity and detail; but unlike most shipyard photography, Clydebank's collection has survived, although relatively few of the images have ever been published. For this book some 200 of the most telling were carefully selected, and scanned to the highest standards, depicting in unprecedented detail every aspect of the yard's output, from the liner Aquitania in 1914 to the cruiser Enterprise, completed in 1920. Although ships are the main focus of the book, the photos also chronicle the impact of the war on working conditions in the yard and, perhaps most noticeable in the introduction of women in large numbers to the workforce. With lengthy and informative captions, and an authoritative introduction by Ian Johnston, this book is a vivid portrait of a lost industry at the height of its success.
A longtime professor at the Naval War College who once directed strategic and long-range planning for the Navy and Marine Corps in Europe considers the transformation of the U.S. Navy from a defensive-minded coastal defense force into an offensive risk-taking navy in the very early stages of World War II. Noting that none of the navy's most significant World War II leaders were commissioned before the Spanish-American War and none participated in any important offensive operations in World War I, Douglas Smith examines the premise that education, rather than experience in battle, accounts for that transformation. In this book, Smith evaluates his premise by focusing on the five carrier battles of the second world war to determine the extent to which the inter-war education of the major operational commanders translated into their decision processes, and the extent to which their interaction during their educational experiences transformed them from risk-adverse to risk-accepting in their operational concepts. His book will interest students of the Pacific War, naval aviation, education, and leadership.
Never-before- published, first-hand accounts of undersea action presented with a summary of torpedo tactics illustrate how a submarine's crew can hit a target that is determined to avoid being hit. Legendary figures in American submarine history come to life in actual logs of undersea warfare, and in accounts of sailors who were in the van of torpedo tactics development. The technology is explained in detail, offering insight into how American subs have been so successful in their hundred-year history. Outlandish gags and pranks of submarine skippers are included, showing just how brazen this elite group of super-competent sailors could be. The reader travels through World War II and the Cold War as submarines and torpedoes enter the nuclear age. Filled with diagrams and illustrations the narration carries the reader into the attack center as ""battle stations torpedo!"" resounds through a submarine's compartments.
Made famous by her final commanding officer, John F. Kennedy, PT-109 is one of the most celebrated warships in American history. However, a full chronicle of PT-109's wartime story has heretofore been lacking. Behind the familiar account of the future president and the boat's violent demise is the little-known record under two previous officers during the swirling battles around Guadalcanal. In these mainly nocturnal fights, when the Japanese navy was at its apex, America's small, fast-boat flotillas would sally out to probe enemy strength, vying with enemy destroyers, who were similarly roaming the waters and able to blast a PT-boat out of the water if main armament could be brought to bear. It was constant hit-and-run and dodging between searchlights across Iron Bottom Sound, as the PT-boats darted in among the enemy fleet, like a"barroom brawl with the lights turned out." Bryant Larson and Rollin Westholm preceded Kennedy as commanders of PT-109, and their fights with the brave ship and its crew hold second to none in the chronicles of US Navy daring. As the battles moved on across the Pacific the PT-boat flotillas gained confidence, even as the Japanese, too, learned lessons in how to destroy them. Under its third and final commander, Kennedy, PT-109 came a cropper as a Japanese destroyer suddenly emerged from a dark mist and rammed it in half. Two crewmen were killed immediately but Kennedy, formerly on the swim team at Harvard, was able to shepherd his wounded and others to refuge. His unsurpassed gallantry can not resist retelling, yet the courage of the book's previous commanders have not till now seen the light of day. This book provides the complete record of PT-109 in the Pacific, as well as a valuable glimpse of how the American Navy's daring and initiative found its full playing field in World War II.
The warships of the World War II era German Navy are among the most popular subject in naval history with an almost uncountable number of books devoted to them. However, for a concise but authoritative summary of the design history and careers of the major surface ships it is difficult to beat a series of six volumes written by Gerhard Koop and illustrated by Klaus-Peter Schmolke. Each contains an account of the development of a particular class, a detailed description of the ships, with full technical details, and an outline of their service, heavily illustrated with plans, battle maps and a substantial collection of photographs. These have been out of print for ten years or more and are now much sought after by enthusiasts and collectors, so this new modestly priced reprint of the series will be widely welcomed. The first volume, appropriately, is devoted to the Kriesmarine's largest and most powerful units, the battleships Bismarck and Tirpitz, whose careers stand in stark contrast to each other - one with a glorious but short life, while the other was to spend a hunted existence in Norwegian fjords, all the time posing a threat to Allied sea communications, while attacked by everything from midget submarines to heavy bombers.
The "Smelyi" type destroyer, Project 30 bis (Skoryi class, according to NATO classification), was the first destroyer designed and built after World War two with new shipbuilding technologies available in the USSR. World War Two demonstrated that all early-built Soviet destroyers had serious flaws. Poor seaworthiness, hull fragility, lack of displacement reserves for modernization. The technical design and working drawings of the new EM were developed under the leadership of the main designer A.L. Fisher. On 28 January 1947, by order of the Council of Ministers of the USSR N3 149-75 "On the construction of destroyers of the 30K and 30 bis Projects", the technical design developed in TsKB-53 was approved. The construction of ships of this series was to take place at four shipyards: No. 190 in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg), No. 200 in Mikolayov, No. 199 in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and No. 402 in Molotov (now the town of Severodvinsk).
The titles in Conway's highly acclaimed Anatomy of the Ship series are widely acknowledged as standard references in their field, providing accurate and comprehensive documentation of individual ships and classes. Selected titles are now available in a new paperback format, making the series accessible to a new generation of historians, scholars, enthusiasts and ship modelmakers. The Bismarck is probably the most famous warship in the world. The 45,000-ton German battleship was completed in early 1941 and went on to sink the 'Mighty Hood', pride of the Royal Navy, during one of the most sensational naval encounters ever. After a dramatic chase around the North Atlantic, involving many units of the Royal Navy, Bismarck was finally dispatched with gunfire and torpedoes on 27 May, less than five months after she was completed. Her wreck still lies where she sank, 4,800m down and 960km off the west coast of France. In this superb book Bismarck gets the comprehensive Anatomy of the Ship treatment, which includes a complete set of superbly executed line drawings with fully descriptive keys. These are supported by technical details, photographs and a record of the ship's service history. Complete with colour references on the book cover as well as large-scale plans on the interior flaps.
From unpromising beginnings in March 1942, the Allied submarine base at Fremantle on the west coast of Australia became a vital part of the Allied offensive against Japan. Pushed back from the Philippines and the Netherlands' East Indies, American submariners, accompanied by a small group of Dutch forces, retreated to Fremantle as a last resort. The location was chosen for its good harbor and the fact that it was outside the range of land-based Japanese aircraft. Unfortunately the base was also far from their patrol areas and supply lines, and it was difficult to reinforce should the enemy attack. Thanks largely to a welcoming civilian population, morale quickly improved. The hospitality and sense of belonging fostered by Western Australians became legendary among Allied submariners and remains central to their wartime memories. Perhaps as a result of such a positive experience, the Allied forces became much more successful in combat. Intertwining social and military history, Fremantle's Submarines relates how courage, cooperation, and community made Fremantle arguably the most successful military outpost of World War II from the standpoint of troop morale.
From first joining the Royal Navy in 1940 until the end of the campaign against Japan, Tony Ditcham was in the front line of the naval war. After brief service in the battlecruiser Renown off Norway and against the Italians, he went into destroyers and saw action in most European theatres - against S-boats and aircraft in 'bomb alley' off Britain's East Coast, on Arctic convoys to Russia, and eventually in a flotilla screening the Home Fleet. During the dramatic Battle of the North Cape in December 1943 he was probably the first man to actually see the Scharnhorst and from his position in the gun director of HMS Scorpion enjoyed a grandstand view of the sinking of the great German battleship (his account was so vivid that it formed the basis of the description in the official history). Later his ship operated off the American beaches during D-Day, where two of her sister ships were sunk with heavy loss of life, and he ended the war en route for the British Pacific Fleet and the invasion of Japan. This incident-packed career is recounted with restraint, plenty of humour and colourful descriptive power - his account of broaching and almost capsizing in an Arctic winter storm is as good as anything in the literature of the sea. The result makes enthralling reading, and as the surviving veterans rapidly decline in numbers, this may turn out to be one of the last great eyewitness narratives of the naval war.
Germany's navy, the Kriegsmarine, played a critical role in the Third Reich's attempt to restrict the flow of supplies, men and materiel from the United States to Britain in the early years of the war and from North America and Britain to the Soviet Union from 1941. Such was the success of the U-boats in particular, by the end of the war more than 3000 Allied ships with a combined gross tonnage 14.5 million had been sent to the bottom of the sea. The Kriegsmarine examines the workings of the German Navy through its organization, command structure, economic resources, production figures, recruitment, training and philosophy. Broken down by key campaigns and subject areas, the book includes exhaustive reference tables, diagrams, maps and charts, presenting all the core data in easy-to-follow formats. The Kriegsmarine is an essential reference guide for anyone interested in the history and structure of Germany's wartime navy.
Scapa Flow, a vast, natural harbour in the Orkney Islands, served as the Royal Navy's main base during the two world wars, from where ships sailed to the Battle of Jutland in the First and in convoy to northern Russia in the Second. Thousands of men and women saw service in and around this remote anchorage, including soldiers and sailors who crewed the ships and manned the lonely batteries, and Wrens, nurses and civilians who were posted there. Scapa Flow brings together their memories - the bleak isolation, its implacable winds and glorious sunsets, the camaraderie and good humour - forming a compelling portrait of a unique war station that left its mark on all who served there.
Appalling tactical risks were taken, of strategic necessity, during the Mediterranean convoy battles of 1941 1942. Surface ships of the Royal Navy and Allied merchant navies fought against overwhelming air attack, submarines, mines, fast torpedo craft and a powerful surface fleet to deliver vital supplies, but incurred harrowing losses: in 1942 only 30 per cent of the merchant ships that sailed arrived safely. The sacrifice of men and ships ensured that just enough supplies were delivered to ensure Malta s survival, but the margin between success and failure was wafer-thin. Despite the cost, Mediterranean convoys represent a victory of Allied sea power over the continental forces of their Axis enemies. Between Hostile Shores contains two Naval Staff History Battle Summaries.
The ancient world saw the expansion of Western Asian, Mediterranean and Polynesian civilizations as transport networks for trade were established. Later, imperial expansion reached far flung corners of the world. The Great Trade Routes examines the principal trade networks throughout history, encompassing coastal and trans-oceanic maritime trade, inland waterway traffic, and overland trade. Filled with fascinating historical detail, exotic locales, and a wealth of illustrations, the book analyzes the importance of trade to commercial and cultural exchange, focusing on great routes such as the Silk Road, the Grand Trunk, Via Maris, Hanseatic and Mediterranean sea-routes, tea and grain races and passages to the New World.
While the US Marine Corps was one of the smallest of American armed services in World War II (1939-1945), its contribution to the final victory cannot be overstated. The US Marine Corps may have only comprised 5 percent of America's armed forces, but it suffered 10 percent of all World War II combat casualties. Above all, the amphibious nature of the war in the Pacific imposed on the Marine Corps greater tasks than any it had ever before been called upon to perform. This title details the organization, weapons and equipment of the US Marines of World War II.
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