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The German light cruiser Leipzig was the lead ship of her class, built in Wilhelmshaven and launched in 1929. Following service during the Spanish Civil War, and a conversion to a training ship, Leipzig was re-commissioned and entered World War II in 1940. This monograph includes description of cruiser's combat service and technical data. The book is rich in illustrations and includes over 100 photos, as well as many detailed colour profiles including a complete record of the ship's camouflage schemes - previously unpublished. Inserts include detailed drawings of a cruiser and its appearance during the ship's whole period of service before it was surrendered to the British at the end of World War II and scuttled in the North Sea. About Encyclopaedia of Warships The series covering the most distinguished and interesting warships of the 20th century. The books describe the development and service history of individual ships or entire classes, starting with initial design requirements and ending with crossing off from fleet roster or destroying. The development chapter focuses on the history of the ship starting with the designing phase, through her construction to all the modernizations and refits carried out. The ships'service is described in the form of a timeline. Special focus is on the notable events like the naval battles. The technical descriptions contain hull structure, armament, propulsion system and consecutive modernizations. The books are illustrated with multiple photographs, maps, tables and detailed plans printed on large formats. Most of the publications contain A1 format insets with plans, camouflaging schemes and - in case of the newer releases - also 3D graphics. The newer books of this series are fully bilingual - Polish/English. The older ones contain English captions for the illustrations.
Before America entered World War II, twenty-two U.S. citizens went to England and volunteered with the Royal Navy. Commissioned between September 1939 and November 1941, they stood side by side with their British compatriots, enduring all the hardships during Britain's darkest hours of WWII, fighting with great bravery during the Battle of the Atlantic and on other fronts. They won great admiration from the British people. While the history of Americans serving in the Royal Air Force is well known, the story of these naval volunteers has not been previously told. Most trained at the Royal Naval College in Greenwich, thus initiating what was to become the famous`over here' phenomenon as the two different cultures learned to adapt to each other's ways. The faculty commemorated the arrival of the first two men with a plaque in the Painted Hall; however, mindful of the possible legal consequences, since foreign military service is against US law and could have resulted in loss of citizenship, their names were omitted. Now, after more than 30 years of research, their identities and the details of their contributions can be made known. What makes this tale compelling is that the men actually had a significant impact on the war effort. Showing up was just the start; some achieved remarkable accomplishments. This is their story; who they were, what they did and why and what became of them.
Taken for granted as the natural order of things, peace at sea is in fact an immense and recent achievement -- but also an enormous strategic challenge if it is to be maintained in the future. In Maritime Strategy and Global Order, an international roster of top scholars offers historical perspectives and contemporary analysis to explore the role of naval power and maritime trade in creating the international system. The book begins in the early days of the industrial revolution with the foundational role of maritime strategy in building the British Empire. It continues into the era of naval disorder surrounding the two world wars, through the passing of the Pax Britannica and the rise of the Pax Americana, and then examines present-day regional security in hot spots like the South China Sea and Arctic Ocean. Additional chapters engage with important related topics such as maritime law, resource competition, warship evolution since the end of the Cold War, and naval intelligence. A first-of-its-kind collection, Maritime Strategy and Global Order offers scholars, practitioners, students, and others with an interest in maritime history and strategic issues an absorbing long view of the role of the sea in creating the world we know.
On a quiet Sunday morning in 1941, a ship designed to keep the peace was suddenly attacked. This book tells the remarkable story of a battleship, its brave crew, and how their lives were intertwined.
Jeff Phister and his coauthors have written the comprehensive history of the USS "Oklahoma" from its christening in 1914 to its final loss in 1947. Phister tells how the "Oklahoma" served in World War I, participated in the Great Cruise of 1925, and evacuated refugees from Spain in 1936. But the most memorable event of the ship's history occurred on December 7, 1941.
Phister weaves the personal narratives of surviving crewmen with the necessary technical information to recreate the attack and demonstrate the full scope of its devastation. Captured Japanese photographs and dozens of historic U.S. Navy photographs deepen our understanding of this monumental event.
Raised after the attack, the "Oklahoma" sank again while being towed stateside and now rests on the ocean floor, 540 miles northeast of Oahu. "Battleship" Oklahoma" BB-37" tells the complete story of a proud ship and her fall through the eyes of those who survived her loss.
An illustrated history of battleships, their origins and evolution, this meticulously researched book begins with a history of the battleship, from the first ironclad wooden-hulled ships of the 19th century to the revolutionary Dreadnoughts of World War I and the mighty battleships and battle cruisers of World War II. It includes a country-by-country directory of battleships, with details about each vessel's history, construction, appearance and function. Featuring more than 150 ships - including Dreadnought, Hood, New Jersey, Bismarck and Nagato - specification boxes provide at-a-glance information about each ship's country of origin, launch date, size, weight, armament, power, performance and complement, and includes facts and anecdotes about the famous battles and naval operations in which these ships played a role. Featuring over 550 photographs from naval and military sources worldwide, many rarely seen before, this is a must-have reference book for everyone interested in the battleships that have helped to make history.
"Aircraft Carriers" is the definitive history of world aircraft carrier development and operations. Norman Polmar's revised and updated, two-volume classic describes the political and technological factors that influenced aircraft carrier design and construction, meticulously records their operations, and explains their impact on modern warfare. Volume I provides a comprehensive analysis of carrier developments and warfare in the first half of the twentieth century, and examines the advances that allowed the carrier to replace the battleship as the dominant naval weapons system. Polmar gives particular emphasis to carrier operations from World War I, through the Japanese strikes against China in the 1930s, to World War II in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Arctic, and Pacific theatres. It begins with French inventor Clement Ader's remarkably prescient 1909 description of an aircraft carrier. The book then explains how Britain led the world in the development of aircraft-carrying ships, soon to be followed by the United States and Japan. While ship-based aircraft operations in World War I had limited impact, they foreshadowed the aircraft carriers built in the 1920s and 1930s. The volume also describes the aircraft operating from those ships as well as the commanders who pioneered carrier aviation. "Aircraft Carriers"has benefited from the technical collaboration of senior carrier experts Captain Eric M. Brown and General Minoru Genda as well as noted historians Robert M. Langdon and Peter B. Mersky. "Aircraft Carriers" is heavily illustrated with more than 400 photographs-some never before published-and maps. Volume II, which is forthcoming from Potomac Books in the winter 2006-2007 (ISBN 978-1-57488-665-8), will cover the period 1946 to the present.
In modern history, China has been primarily a land power, dominating smaller states along its massive continental flanks. But China's turn toward the sea is now very much a reality, as evident in its stunning rise in global shipbuilding markets, its vast and expanding merchant marine, the wide offshore reach of its energy and minerals exploration companies, its growing fishing fleet, and indeed its increasingly modern navy. Yet, for all these achievements, there is still profound skepticism regarding China's potential as a genuine maritime power. Beijing must still import the most vital subcomponents for its shipyards, maritime governance remains severely bureaucratically challenged, and the navy evinces, at least as of yet, little enthusiasm for significant blue water power projection capabilities. This volume provides a truly comprehensive assessment of prospects for China's maritime development by situating these important geostrategic phenomena within a larger world historical context. China is hardly the only land power in history to attempt transformation by fostering sea power. Many continental powers have elected or been impelled to transform themselves into significant maritime powers in order to safeguard their strategic position or advance their interests. We examine cases of attempted transformation from the Persian Empire to the Soviet Union, and determine the reasons for their success or failure. Too many works on China view the nation in isolation. Of course, China's history and culture are to some extent exceptional, but building intellectual fences actually hinders the effort to understand China's current development trajectory. Without underestimating the enduring pull of China's past as it relates to threats to the country's internal stability and its landward borders, this comparative study provides reason to believe that China has turned the corner on a genuine maritime transformation. If that proves indeed to be the case, it would be a remarkable if not singular event in the history of the last two millennia.
This book focuses on the theory and practice of maritime strategy and operations by the weaker powers at sea. Illustrated by examples from naval and military history, the book explains and analyzes the strategies of the weaker side at sea in both peacetime and wartime; in defense versus offense; the main prerequisites for disputing control of the sea; and the conceptual framework of disputing control of the sea. It also explains and analyzes in some detail the main methods of disputing sea control - avoiding/seeking decisive encounters, weakening enemy naval forces over time, counter-containment of enemy naval forces, destroying the enemy's military-economic potential at sea, attacks on the enemy coast, defense of the coast, defense/capturing important positions/basing areas, and defense/capturing of a choke point. A majority of the world's navies are currently of small or medium-size. In the case of a war with a much stronger opponent, they would be strategically on the defensive, and their main objective then would be to dispute control of the sea by a stronger side at sea. This book provides a practical guide to such a strategy. This book would be of much interest to students of naval power, maritime security, strategic studies and military/naval history.
When Ronald Reagan took office in 1981, the United States and NATO were losing the Cold War. The USSR had superiority in conventional weapons and manpower in Europe, and had embarked on a construction programme to gain naval pre-eminence. But Reagan had a plan. Reagan pushed Congress to build the navy back to its 1945 strength. He gathered a circle of experienced naval planners, including the author, to devise an aggressive strategy. New radars, sensors and emissions technology would make ghosts of US submarines and surface fleets. They would operate aircraft carriers in Arctic waters which no navy had attempted. The Soviets, surrounded by their forward naval strategy, bankrupted their economy trying to keep pace. It wasn't long before the Berlin Wall fell and the USSR was disbanded.
False Flags tells the epic untold story of German raider voyages to the South Seas during the early years of World War II. In 1940 the raiders Orion, Komet, Pinguin, and Kormoran left Germany and waged a "pirate war" in the South Seas as part of Germany's strategy to attack the British Empire's maritime trade on a global scale. Their extraordinary voyages spanned the globe and are maritime sagas in the finest tradition of seafaring. The four raiders voyaged across the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans as well as the Arctic and Antarctic. They sank or captured 62 ships in a forgotten naval war that is now being told in its entirety for the first time. The Orion and Komet terrorised the South Pacific and New Zealand waters before Pearl Harbor when the war was supposed to be far away. The Pinguin sank numerous Allied merchant ships in the Indian Ocean before mining the approaches to Australian ports and capturing the Norwegian whaling fleet in Antarctica. The Kormoran raided the Atlantic but will always be remembered for sinking the Australian cruiser Sydney off Western Australia, killing all 645 sailors on board in tragic circumstances. False Flags is also the story of the Allied sailors who encountered these raiders and fought suicidal battles against a superior foe as well as the men, women and children who endured captivity on board the raiders as prisoners of the Third Reich. False Flags is an engrossing tale that will appeal to not only military experts, but also to anyone interested in Maritime History.
During the War of 1812, most clashes on the high seas involved privately owned merchant ships, not official naval vessels. Licensed by their home governments and considered key weapons of maritime warfare, these ships were authorized to attack and seize enemy traders. Once the prizes were legally condemned by a prize court, the privateers could sell off ships and cargo and pocket the proceeds. Because only a handful of ship-to-ship engagements occurred between the Royal Navy and the United States Navy, it was really the privateers who fought-and won-the war at sea. In Privateering, Faye M. Kert introduces readers to U.S. and Atlantic Canadian privateers who sailed those skirmishing ships, describing both the rare captains who made money and the more common ones who lost it. Some privateers survived numerous engagements and returned to their pre-war lives; others perished under violent circumstances. Kert demonstrates how the romantic image of pirates and privateers came to obscure the dangerous and bloody reality of private armed warfare. Building on two decades of research, Privateering places the story of private armed warfare within the overall context of the War of 1812. Kert highlights the economic, strategic, social, and political impact of privateering on both sides and explains why its toll on normal shipping helped convince the British that the war had grown too costly. Fascinating, unfamiliar, and full of surprises, this book will appeal to historians and general readers alike.
Cruisers probably vary more in their characteristics than any other warship type and have certainly been subject to the most convoluted development. There was always a basic tension between quantity and quality, between numbers and unit size, but at a more detailed level every one of the naval powers made different demands of their cruiser designers. This makes the story of cruiser evolution in the world's major navies fascinating but complex. This book sets out to provide a coherent history of the fortunes of this ship-type in the twentieth century, beginning with a brief summary of development before the First World War and an account of a few notable cruiser actions during that conflict that helped define what cruisers would look like in the post-war world. The core of the book is devoted to the impact of the naval disarmament treaty process, which concentrated to a great extent on attempting to define limits to the numbers and size of cruisers that could be built, in the process creating the treaty cruiser' as a type that had never existed before and that existed solely because of the treaty process. How the cruisers of the treaty era performed in the Second world War forms the final focus of the book, which concludes with a look at the fate of the cruiser-type since 1945. The result is probably the best single-volume account of the subject to date.
Utilising eye-witness accounts of those who participated in them, Destroyer Actions focuses on the human side of naval operations during the first eight months of the Second World War. Harry Plevy draws upon primary sources of both naval and civilian provenance, many of which are previously unpublished and therefore have never been available to the general reader. Extensively researched through comparison of British and German operational logs, and including first-hand evidence from Polish, French and Norwegian sources which reveal the true impact of the conflict at sea upon the lives of the people of all nations caught up in it, this book gives a comprehensive picture of destroyer actions at the beginning of the Second World War.
Patrick O' Brian, C.S. Forester and Captain Marryat all based their literary heroes on Thomas Cochrane, but Cochrane's exploits were far more daring and exciting than those of his fictional counterparts. He was a man of action, whose bold and impulsive nature meant he was often his own worst enemy. Writing with gripping narrative skill and drawing on his own travels and original research, Cordingly tells the rip-roaring story of a flawed Romantic hero who helped define his age.
During World War II hostilities in the Baltic Sea commenced on 1 September 1939 when the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Polish fortress of Westerplatte and ended on 9 May 1945 with the final evacuation of German refugees from the Hela peninsula. In the intervening years battles raged back and forth between the confines of this cold cruel sea. The Soviets attacked the Finnish island of Russaro on 30 November 1939 with an air and naval bombardment. The Russian naval blockade of Finland began and their submarines attacked merchant vessels in the Gulf of Bothnia and their ships engaged shore batteries and coastal towns. The German fleet then turned on their former allies and attacked the Soviet Union, each side's submarines stalked the others and the Russians encountered disaster in a minefield. Finally the Russians retreated under heavy sea and air attack. The siege of Leningrad began in September 1941 and was not broken until 1943. In 1944 the Russian's reached Riga, leaving pockets of stranded German troops on the Courland Peninsula. Then the Russian navy broke out - the race for East Prussia was on, sparking the biggest seaborne evacuation in history.
Ottoman naval technology underwent a transformation under the rule of Sultan Selim III. New types of sailing warships such as two- and three-decked galleons, frigates and corvettes began to dominate the Ottoman fleet, rendering the galley-type oared ships obsolete. This period saw technological innovations such as the adoption of the systematic copper sheathing of the hulls and bottoms of Ottoman warships from 1792-93 onwards and the construction of the first dry dock in the Golden Horn.
The changing face of the Ottoman Navy was facilitated by the influence of the British, Swedish and French in modernizing both the shipbuilding sector and the conduct of naval warfare. Through such measures as training Ottoman shipbuilders, heavy reliance on help from foreign powers gave way to a new trajectory of modernization. Using this evidence, Zorlu argues that although the Ottoman Empire was a major and modern independent power in this period, some technological dependence on Europe remained.
The Portuguese missionary Gabriel Magaillans noted some 300 years ago that . . . there are more vessels in China than in all the rest of the known world.' In a country so dependent on water transportation for thousands of years, this was almost certainly true. In the twentieth century the rivers and harbours of China still teemed with junks and sampans, and almost as amazing as their numbers was the huge variety of types, evolved over the centuries to meet the needs of all kinds of waterborne commerce. In this fascinating and brilliant account, the author, who for thirty years was a River Inspector for the Marine Department of the Chinese Maritime Customs service, described in detail the lives of the junkmen and the craft they sailed, a task made easier after he was released from his official duties in order that he might spend all his time on Chinese nautical research. This enabled him to travel in places not usually accessible to foreigners in China, and to sketch and write about the boats, the people, and their customs. His eight years of field research were carried out during one of the most disturbed periods of China's eventful history - amidst almost continual fighting, bandit raids, enemy occupation, floods and droughts - culminating, for himself and his wife, in a three-year internment in a Japanese prison camp. Five definitive works on the seagoing and riverine junks of China were the result of the author's research, travel, curiosity, and enthusiasm. Within the pages of this wonderful book, which has now acquired classic status, the reader is offered the chance to let an old China hand take him to one of the great rivers of the world for a last look at a timeless land just before modernity swept away a whole maritime culture. Stunningly illustrated with more than 900 drawings and photographs, this new edition will captivate historian, traveller, modelmaker and sailor alike. This unique book is a comprehensive and authoritative record of the vessels which for centuries provided practically the sole means of communication and transportation in the vast area drained by one of the world's greatest waterways,' _L K Little, former Inspector General of the Chinese Customs Service_ There is really nothing to compare it with, and it is unlikely that it will be superseded in the foreseeable future.' _The New York Times_
John Blake has drawn on his extensive knowledge of some of the most impressive collections in the world, such as the UKHO in Britain, the Library of Congress in the USA, the Scheepvaart Museum in the Netherlands and the Biblioteca Maritima in Spain, together with his experience in the Royal Navy, to produce a fascinating illustrated account of the role that charts have played in planning, preventing, conducting and recording war at sea. Chapters are divided as follows. * Chapter I: The Ancient Chart; * Chapter II: The Renaissance Chart; * Chapter III: American Gold; * Chapter IV: The Ancien Regime; * Chapter V: Birth of a Nation; * Chapter VI; Charts of Global War; * Chapter VII: Brother Against Brother; * Chapter VIII: The Modern Chart of War. Each chapter opens with an overview of of the main actions and developments of the period and is followed by a plate section of charts with extended captions that explain their relevance. They not only include charts of major battles, amphibious attacks and single-ship duels, but also those that were drawn up for strategic and espionage purposes. Throughout, major themes are discussed with regard to changing tactics in naval warfare and developing techniques in chartmaking and surveying.
The navies of China, India and to a lesser extent Japan are expanding rapidly at present. This has the potential to alter the US-dominated naval balance in Asia-Pacific but it also raises a question: are the region's powers involved in a naval arms race? Naval development is and always has been a crucial indicator of economic and political development. It shows the emergence of a significant shift in strategic weight from West to East. But within the Asia-Pacific Region, alongside growing economic and institutional integration, there are geo-political tensions that threaten the regions stability and peace. The balance between the two determines the form that naval development in that region is taking. Some aspects of this suggest the beginnings of a naval arms race that would have profound consequences for the region and the world.
THE WAR BENEATH THE WAVES
Battleships conjure a golden age of naval history, when these floating powerhouses ruled the waves, carrying the military might of their respective countries around the globe. The battleship was the ultimate embodiment of naval power during the latter stages of the British Empire, with the Royal Navy the first to build the dreadnought battleship in 1906. The new design, with a uniform main battery and steam turbines making it faster and more accurate than ever before, sparked a naval race with the German navy which culminated in the Battle of Jutland in 1916, the only fleet-to-fleet naval battle during the First World War. With major losses on both sides, and several treaties during the inter-war years banning the construction of new battleships, a new generation emerged only in the Second World War, with Japan secretly creating Yamato and Musashi, two of the most powerful battleships ever built. World War Two saw the zenith of the battleship, with many pivotal battles such as the battle of Denmark Strait during which the iconic battleships HMS Hood was sunk, the second battle of Guadacanal and the battle of Leyte Gulf to name but a few. The Germans, the Japanese, the Royal Navy and the US Navy were locked in a titanic struggle across vast distances, in which battleships for a time played a decisive role, until the development of new aircraft carriers and growing use of torpedoes began to make them obsolete. Since the 1990's, no battleship has seen active service. This accessible short history gives an expert overview of the history of the battleship, looking at its origins, the role played by battleships in both World Wars, famous ships and their stories, as well as the weaponry and technology they employed.
Naval action in World War I conjures up images of enormous dreadnoughts slugging it out in vast oceans. Yet the truth is that more sailors were killed serving on gunboats and monitors operating far from the naval epicentre of the war than were ever killed at Jutland. Gunboat engagements during this war were bloody and hard fought, if small in scale. Austrian gunboats on the Danube fired the first shots of the war, whilst German, British and Belgian gunboats fought one of the strangest, most intriguing naval campaigns in history in far-flung Lake Tanganyika. From the Mediterranean to the Black Sea, from the Balkans to Mesopotamia, gunboats played an influential part in the story of World War I. This detailed technical guide to the gunboats of all the major navies of the war means that, for the first time, the story can be told.
From the stunning victory at Pearl Harbor to its dramatic reversal
at Midway, the Imperial Japanese Navy swept all before it in its
numerous victories in the Pacific and Far Eastern waters. "The
Imperial Japanese Navy in the Pacific War "pulls from many of
Osprey's bestselling books on the subject in addition to the most
recent research on the subject, including many sources from Japan,
and is the most recent and accurate book on this fascinating force.
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