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The Brandenburg class battleships were the first blue water warships of the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy), in the end of 19th century, and can be categorized as the first German pre-dreadnought ships. Imperial German Navy was founded in 1871 under the auspices of Kaiser Wilhem I. The German Navy was created around the small Prussian Navy. Initially the Germans ordered several obsolete ironclads. However, the new German Navy was only capable for coastal defense operations and could not be considered as an instrument for the WeltPolitik and for the projection of German power worldwide. In 1888 the most modern ships of the German fleet were the six Siegfried class (3.400 tons) and two Odin class coastal defense ships. The new Kaiser Wilhem II the architect of the German Naval expansion, decided to challenge England's hegemony in the seas. As first step he established in 1888 the Imperial Naval Office (Reichmarineamt) a governmental agency monitoring the design, development and financing of the new fleet units. Under the leadership of Vice-Admiral Alexander von Monts, the Imperial Naval Office started to implement the naval visions of Kaiser Wilhem II.
The design work on the new carrier commenced as early as 1937 and the initial design was unveiled on 27 November and received the number "02". On 21 July 1938 corrections were done to the design and it was approved. The ship of displacement of 27.800 tons was ordered. It was included into Navy development program, approved on 8 December 1938. After the acceptance of the main specifications of the carrier work on the detailed design could be commenced (the work began in December 1939). Due to several delays the ship was laid down as late as 10 July 1941 at Kawasaki shipyard in Kobe. Until 5 March 1943, when the ship was named, she was known as the hull number 130. The official christening took place before launching on 7 April 1943. The ship was named TAIHO (Great Phoenix). On 3 February 1944 the ship was towed to the Navy Shipyard in Kure for further equipping. On 7 March 1944 the ship was commissioned and entered service.
"Remarkable . . . a feat of historical reconstruction." -Paul Kennedy, New York Times-bestselling author of The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. The Battle of the Atlantic, the longest continuous campaign of World War II, climaxed in 1943, when Germany came closest to interrupting Allied supply lines and perhaps winning the war. In March of that year, German U-boats scored their last great triumph, destroying nearly 150,000 tons of supplies and fuel.
Battleships conjure a golden age of naval history, when these floating powerhouses ruled the waves, carrying the military might of their respective countries around the globe. The battleship was the ultimate embodiment of naval power during the latter stages of the British Empire, with the Royal Navy the first to build the dreadnought battleship in 1906. The new design, with a uniform main battery and steam turbines making it faster and more accurate than ever before, sparked a naval race with the German navy which culminated in the Battle of Jutland in 1916, the only fleet-to-fleet naval battle during the First World War. With major losses on both sides, and several treaties during the inter-war years banning the construction of new battleships, a new generation emerged only in the Second World War, with Japan secretly creating Yamato and Musashi, two of the most powerful battleships ever built. World War Two saw the zenith of the battleship, with many pivotal battles such as the battle of Denmark Strait during which the iconic battleships HMS Hood was sunk, the second battle of Guadacanal and the battle of Leyte Gulf to name but a few. The Germans, the Japanese, the Royal Navy and the US Navy were locked in a titanic struggle across vast distances, in which battleships for a time played a decisive role, until the development of new aircraft carriers and growing use of torpedoes began to make them obsolete. Since the 1990's, no battleship has seen active service. This accessible short history gives an expert overview of the history of the battleship, looking at its origins, the role played by battleships in both World Wars, famous ships and their stories, as well as the weaponry and technology they employed.
(New edition) This comprehensive encyclopedia focuses exclusively on destroyers and frigates. The opening section both explains the rationale behind the technological development of destroyers and frigates and illustrates the varied manner of their use. Three major country-by-country sections then deal with, firstly, the destroyer in its formative years up until the end of World War I, and secondly, its classic phase and transformation into a specialist anti-aircraft escort. The third section covers the development of the frigate since its inception in 1940. Technical description is blended with informed comment on the performance and effectiveness of each of over 250 types and classes, making this an essential reference, and also an enjoyable read for anyone interested in naval history. The book examines destroyer and frigate evolution, including special topics such as the origins of the torpedo boat, frigates versus high-speed submarines, and frigates in the missile age. Specification boxes provide each vessel's country of origin, the company that built the ship, construction and completion dates, displacement, dimensions, armament, machinery, power and performance. A collection of over 500 colour and black-and-white photographs illustrating each type of warship, and there are fascinating quotes from military leaders, plus a glossary of key terms and abbreviations.
This collection of 51 essays provides a history of amphibious landings that include European, Asian, and American operations. It describes in detail some of history's most significant amphibious assaults, as well as planned attacks that were never carried out.
The battleship "Nagato" was the first dreadnought equipped with a main artillery with a caliber exceeding 400 mm. It was armed with eight 406 mm (16 in) guns. The keel of "Nagato" was laid in 1917 in the naval shipyard in Kure. The ship was launched in 1919 and incorporated into service on November 15, 1920. The sister unit was "Mutsu". Before the war, "Nagato" underwent many modifications and repairs increasing combat value of the ship. With the outbreak of World War II, "Nagato" became the flagship of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto. The attack on Pearl Harbor was ordered from battleship's deck.
'Rape, Ravage and Rant are the German watchwords in this war. Right, Revenge & Retrenchment shall be ours.' Alexander Scrimgeour, 17th September 1914. Most published war diaries have been written by soldiers but Alexander Scrimgeour was a naval officer who was killed at the Battle of Jutland in 1916 at the age of 19. But he had already left a legacy - his diaries in which he recounted every event with sincerity, risking court martial to record several notorious incidents. Among his revelations, Scrimgeour discloses the real reason behind the sinking of the HMS Hawke, the events preceding the capture of the infamous Baron Von, and what he learned from dining with his Naval Commanders as the ship's interpreter. He also chronicles his numerous love affairs and his anguish at the loss of close friends killed during the war. Now publishing in paperback for the first time, and updated with new material on his life before the First World War, this new edition includes much previously unseen material, chronicling Scrimgeour's life prior to joining the navy.
Unlike Alfred Thayer Mahan, Britain's great maritime strategist Sir Julian Corbett believed that victory in war does not come simply by the exercise of sea power and that, historically, this has never been the case. Corbett's keen analysis of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 as presented in this work, along with his discussion of the pros and cons of limited conflict will be of great value to our understanding of today's limited wars. Based on intelligence material provided by the Japanese government, this work was written as an official study in the years just before World War One and classified "confidential" by the Royal Navy. The two-volume study demonstrates the lessons the war held for the future and shows the essential differences between maritime and continental warfare, while also exploring their interaction.
John Lambert was a renowned naval draughtsman, whose plans were highly valued for their accuracy and detail by modelmakers and enthusiasts. By the time of his death in 2016 he had produced over 850 sheets of drawings, many of which have never been published. These have now been acquired by Seaforth and this is the first of a planned series of albums on selected themes, reproducing complete sheets at a large page size, with an expert commentary and captioning. The initial volumes will concentrate on British naval weaponry used in the Second World War, thus completing the project John Lambert was working on when he died. His interest was always focused on smaller warships and his weapons drawings tend to be of open mountings - the kind that present a real challenge to modelmakers - rather than enclosed turret guns, but he also produced drawings of torpedo tubes, underwater weapons, fire-control directors and even some specific armament-related deck fittings. This volume covers all such weapons carried by British destroyers of this era, with additional appendices devoted to earlier guns still in service, and destroyer-calibre weapons only mounted in larger ships. The drawings are backed by introductory essays by Norman Friedman, an acknowledged authority on naval ordnance, while a selection of photographs add to the value of the book as visual reference. Over time, the series will be expanded to make this unique technical archive available in published form, a move certain to be welcomed by warship modellers, enthusiasts and the many fans of John Lambert's work.
HUNTER KILLER: a submarine designed to pursue and attack enemy submarines and surface ships using torpedoes. HUNTER KILLERS will follow the careers of four daring British submarine captains who risked their lives to keep the rest of us safe, their exploits consigned to the shadows until now. Their experiences encompass the span of the Cold War, from voyages in WW2-era submarines under Arctic ice to nuclear-powered espionage missions in Soviet-dominated seas. There are dangerous encounters with Russian spy ships in UK waters and finally, as the communist facade begins to crack, they hold the line against the Kremlin's oceanic might, playing a leading role in bringing down the Berlin Wall. It is the first time they have spoken out about their covert lives in the submarine service. This is the dramatic untold story of Britain's most-secret service.
Dominating the seas during World War II, the US aircraft carrier
played a crucial role in every major naval combat of the war.
This title charts the history of amphibious warfare in conflicts around the globe, from World War I to the present day. It features conventional personnel and cargo carriers, welldeck "dock ships", modern multi-function ships, ramped beaching craft and high-speed air-cushion craft. It explores the fascinating history of the five recognized categories of amphibious operation: assault, raids, demonstrations, feints and withdrawal. It includes detailed analyses of key naval operations in Gallipoli, Dieppe, the Pacific, Normandy, Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, Vietnam, the Falklands and the Middle East. It includes over 220 archive photographs and a glossary explaining naval acronyms, abbreviations and terminology. Wars are decided definitively through the occupation of an enemy's territory - a task for military forces, which may have to be transported by sea. This authoritative volume covers the complete history of amphibious warfare vessels: the ships that travel from shore to shore, and the craft that move from ship to shore. Through the use of historical examples, it highlights the many activities necessary for a successful operation, from surveying and minesweeping to fire support, fighter direction and tri-service control. With over 220 photographs from museums and historical sources, the book provides enthusiasts with a lively guide to this fascinating subject.
Written by US Navy expert Mark Stille, this book offers a unique insight into the Standard-type classes of US battleships. It provides a detailed investigation into the histories of each of the warships in the Standard-type battleship classes, the first three of which, the Nevada, Pennsylvania and New Mexico, formed the US Navy's main force in the inter-war period. The Standard-types reflected a new design philosophy: by designing each class to meet common standards of maneuvrability and handling, vessels of different classes could operate as a single tactical unit without being limited by the performance of the slowest and least maneuvrable ship. At the time of their construction, these ships incorporated the latest design features such as triple gun turrets. Although they were rendered increasingly obsolete by evolving naval doctrines and the ascendance of the fast battleship, they served with distinction throughout World War II. This study combines analysis of design features and an absorbing narrative of operational histories to offer a comprehensive picture of the Standard-type battleships, from the brutal destruction of the USS Arizona to the triumphant occupation of Japan.
First published in 1986 and lauded by historians and World War II buffs eager for the Japanese viewpoint, this collection of essays makes significant contributions to the field of World War II literature. In it, top-ranking Japanese officers offer their personal perspectives of the Pacific War. This second edition adds five articles to the original twelve to present a full picture of the Japanese navy's role in the war.Most of these moving accounts were written in the 1950s and retain the immediacy felt by the writers when they participated in the events. They provide valuable information on the strategy, tactics, and operations of the Japanese fleet, as well as insights into the personalities and motives of its leaders. Here, Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukudome comes to grips with allegations that the assault on Pearl Harbor represented strategic folly, political blundering, and tactical stupidity. Captain Mitsuo Fuchida describes how his bombing group unleashed "devils of doom" on Battleship Row, and Mitsuru Yoshida gives an eye-witness account of the sinking of the famous battleship Yamato. The new contributions to the volume discuss operations in the Indian Ocean, the battle of the Philippine Sea, the protection of merchant shipping, submarine warfare, and Japan's overall naval strategy.
On the Russian Arctic convoys in 1942, Leonard H. Thomas kept a secret notebook from which he later wrote his memoirs. These contained many well-observed details of life onboard his ship, HMS Ulster Queen. He detailed observations of the hardships that followed when they endured being at action stations and locked in the engine room, under fire from the skies above and the sea below, and only able to guess at what was happening from the cacophony of sounds they could hear. Thomas tells of how the crew suffered from an appalling lack of food, the intense cold, and the stark conditions endured for weeks on end berthed in Archangel in the cold of the approaching Russian winter. There are also insights about the morale of the men and lighter moments when their humour kept them going. These stories can now be told as his daughter has edited them into an account that illustrates the fortitude and bravery of the men who sailed through ice and fire to further the war effort so far from home.
Charles Stewart's life of sailing and combat on the high seas rivals that of Patrick O'Brien's fictional hero, Jack Aubrey. Stewart held more sea commands (11) than any other U.S. Navy captain and served longer (63 years) than any officer in American naval history. He commanded every type of warship, from sloop to ship-of-the-line, and served every president from John Adams to Abraham Lincoln. Born in Philadelphia during the American Revolution, Stewart met President Washington and went to sea as a cabin boy on a merchantman before age thirteen. In March 1798, at age nineteen, he received a naval commission one month before the Department of the Navy was established. Stewart went on to an illustrious naval career: Thomas Jefferson recognized his Mediterranean exploits during the Barbary Wars, Stewart advised James Madison at the outset of the War of 1812, and Stewart trained many future senior naval officers - including David Porter, David Dixon Porter, and David G. Farragut - in three wars. He served as a pallbearer at President Lincoln's funeral. Stewart cemented his reputation as commander of the Navy's most powerful frigate, the USS Constitution. more naval engagements. Undefeated in battle, including defeating the British warships Cyane and Levant simultaneously, both ship and captain came to be known as Old Ironsides. Few sailors in U.S. history approach Stewart's length of service to the Navy. In 1798, at the age of nineteen, he was commissioned a lieutenant on board the frigate USS United States. Eight years later he was promoted to captain. He would continue to serve throughout the nineteenth century, surrendering his final command of the Philadelphia Navy Yard in 1860, but in 1861 offering to serve yet again when the Union was threatened by secession... No captain of the Constitution--arguably the most famous American warship in U.S. history--commanded her for a longer period in war not through more naval engagements than Charles Stewart, who would in his own lifetime also come to be known by the Constitution's moniker--'Old Ironsides.' His ability to survive controversy and surmount disappointment and setbacks mirrored the Constitution's ability to repel enemy shot off her hull. Berube and John Rodgaard have produced the first full-length biography of one of the US Navy's earliest heroes.
When it was first published in 1953, opinions were sharply divided between those who deplored the apparent extolling of a vicious form of warfare, and this who found in Heinz Schaeffer s account a revealing picture of the German Navy s training and methods. U-Boat 977 was the German submarine that escaped to Argentina at the end of World War Two. This epic journey started from Bergen in Norway, where in April 1945 it was temporarily based, and took three and a half months to complete. Because of the continuing Allied naval activity the commander decided to make the first part of the journey underwater. Before surfacing near the west coast of Africa U-977 had spent a remarkable sixty-six days submerged. Heinz Schaeffer, the commander of U-977 wrote a full account of his career that culminated in this last command. It depicts the gruelling aspects of a submariner s life aboard a vessel that was subjected to harsh conditions of the sea and oceans. As an experienced commander Schaeffer took part in many of the decisive U-boat operations in the North Sea and Atlantic Ocean. In the final months of the war, and in common with most surviving U-boat commanders, Schaeffer and his crew came under constant attacks from Allied aircraft and surface ships. The final part of U-Boat 977 is Schaeffer s account of the journey to Argentina and lays to rest some of the more fanciful sorties that followed its arrival.
A once-remote auxiliary air station that sprung from the mud flats of old Princess Anne County near the whistle stop of Oceana, from which it gets its name, Naval Air Station Oceana has advanced in the decades since World War II to become the navy's East Coast master jet base and one of the largest and most advanced air stations in the world. Through interviews, exhaustive research and rare and often never-before-seen photographs, author and historian Yarsinske tells the story of vision, courage and commitment that reinforce what Admiral Michael G. Mullen, then chief of naval operations, said of Oceana when he testified before the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) commission regional hearings on August 4, 2005, his words just as relevant today as they were then. "We know how important it is to our training. We know how important it is to our preparation for warfighting. We know how important it is to be good neighbors, and we will continue to be. Our sailors and their families - and I include my own family on that list - enjoy living in the wonderful communities of the great state of Virginia," he continued. "Mr. Chairman [Anthony Principi], I need now - your navy needs now - Naval Air Station Oceana."
While a large number of books have dealt with the navies and war at sea during the World Wars, the immediate aftermaths have generally received only minimal coverage. However, the fates of defeated navies are of enormous interest from a number of perspectives. These include the relative priorities of the victorious powers, acquisition and testing of ex-enemy materiel and the intended future capabilities of those ex-enemy navies that were to be allowed to continue to exist. This new book traces the histories of navies and ships of the defeated powers from the months leading up to the relevant armistices or surrenders through to the final execution of the appropriate post-war settlements. In doing so, it discusses the way in which the victorious powers reached their final demands, how these were implemented, and to what effect. The later histories of ships that saw subsequent service, either in their original navies or in those navies which acquired them, are also described. In doing this, much use is made of material drawn from archival, and in some cases archaeological, sources, some of which has never previously been used. Through these, a wide range of long-standing myths are busted, and some badly distorted modern views and assessments of events in the wake of the conflicts put right. The fascinating narrative will be accompanied by tabulated lists of all major navy-built (and certain significant ex-mercantile) enemy ships in commission at the relevant date of the armistice or surrender, or whose hulks were specifically listed for attention in post-Second World War allied agreements. These will include key dates in their careers and their ultimate fates. This highly original book, drawing on archaeological evidence as well as archival sources, and including numerous photographs will become an essential reference tool for all those interested in the naval history of the two World Wars.
Equipped with the largest guns and heaviest armour and with the greatest displacement of any ship ever built, the Yamato proved to be a formidable opponent to the US Pacific Fleet in the Second World War. The book contains a full description of the design and construction of the battleship including wartime modifications, and a career history followed by a substantial pictorial section with rare onboard views of Yamato and her sister ship Musashi, a comprehensive portfolio of more than 1,020 perspective line artworks, 350 colour 3D views, and 30 photographs. The wreck of Musashi has been recently discovered to great excitement in Japan, renewing interest in these iconic warships. Janusz Skulski's anatomies of three renowned ships of the 20th century Japanese navy are among the most comprehensive of the Anatomy series with hundreds of meticulously researched drawings of the ships. Since their first publication he has continued to research the ships and has now produce a more definitive anatomy than was possible then. He has teamed up with 3D artist Stefan Draminksi who produces superb realistic renditions of the ships that bring a whole new level of detail to the portraits of the ships. This new editions is a genuine 'Super Anatomy' containing the most detailed renditions of these ships ever seen.
Edward Pellew, captain of the legendary Indefatigable, was quite simply the greatest frigate captain in the age of sail. An incomparable seaman, ferociously combative yet chivalrous, a master of the quarterdeck and an athlete of the tops, he was as quick to welcome a gallant foe into his cabin as to dive to the rescue of a man overboard. He is the likely model for the heroic but all-too-human Jack Aubrey in Patrick O'Brian's novels. Pellew was orphaned at eight, but fought his way from the very bottom of the Navy to fleet command and a viscountcy. Victories and eye-catching feats won him a public following. Yet as an outsider with a gift for antagonizing his better-born peers, he made powerful enemies. Redemption came with his last command, when he set off to do battle with the Barbary States and free thousands of European slaves. Contemporary opinion held this to be an impossible mission, and Pellew himself, in leading from the front in the style of his direct contemporary Nelson, did not expect to survive. Pellew's humanity as much as his gallantry, fondness for subordinates and blind love for his family, and the warmth and intimacy of his letters, make him a hugely engaging and sympathetic figure. In Stephen Taylor's magnificent new life he at last has the biography he deserves.
The Royal Dockyard at Pembroke Dock produced over 250 warships for the Royal Navy, including five royal yachts, between its founding in 1814 and its closure after the First World War. Prior to this, no ocean-going ships had ever been built on the south shores of Milford Haven, where the most complex piece of machinery used was the horse-drawn plough. Yet within twenty years Pembrokeshire men were building major British warships and they did so for the next hundred years. This long century, from the Napoleonic Wars until after the First World War, covered all the major changes in warship design and construction, from wood to iron and then steel, and from sail to steam, and paddle wheel to screw propulsion. In this authoritative and splendidly illustrated work, naval historian Lawrie Phillips, who was born and bred just outside the dockyard walls, tells the story of this royal yard, its ships and the Pembroke men who built them.
Taken for granted as the natural order of things, peace at sea is in fact an immense and recent achievement -- but also an enormous strategic challenge if it is to be maintained in the future. In Maritime Strategy and Global Order, an international roster of top scholars offers historical perspectives and contemporary analysis to explore the role of naval power and maritime trade in creating the international system. The book begins in the early days of the industrial revolution with the foundational role of maritime strategy in building the British Empire. It continues into the era of naval disorder surrounding the two world wars, through the passing of the Pax Britannica and the rise of the Pax Americana, and then examines present-day regional security in hot spots like the South China Sea and Arctic Ocean. Additional chapters engage with important related topics such as maritime law, resource competition, warship evolution since the end of the Cold War, and naval intelligence. A first-of-its-kind collection, Maritime Strategy and Global Order offers scholars, practitioners, students, and others with an interest in maritime history and strategic issues an absorbing long view of the role of the sea in creating the world we know.
For its first eighty-five years, the United States was only a minor naval power. Its fledgling fleet had been virtually annihilated during the War of Independence and was mostly trapped in port by the end of the War of 1812. How this meager presence became the major naval power it remains to this day is the subject of American Naval History, 1607-1865: Overcoming the Colonial Legacy. A wide-ranging yet concise survey of the U.S. Navy from the colonial era through the Civil War, the book draws on American, British, and French history to reveal how navies reflect diplomatic, political, economic, and social developments and to show how the foundation of America's future naval greatness was laid during the Civil War. Award-winning author Jonathan R. Dull documents the remarkable transformation of the U.S. Navy between 1861 and 1865, thanks largely to brilliant naval officers like David Farragut, David D. Porter, and Andrew Foote; visionary politicians like Abraham Lincoln and Gideon Welles; and progressive industrialists like James Eads and John Ericsson. But only by understanding the failings of the antebellum navy can the accomplishments of Lincoln's navy be fully appreciated. Exploring such topics as delays in American naval development, differences between the U.S. and European fleets, and the effect that the country's colonial past had on its naval policies, Dull offers a new perspective on both American naval history and the history of the developing republic.
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