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In the summer of 1773 the 14-year old Horatio Nelson took part in an expedition to the Arctic, which came close to ending his naval career before it had begun. The expedition was to find a navigable northern passage between the Atlantic and Pacific, and was supported by the Royal Society and King George III. Two bomb vessels HMS Racehorse and Carcass were fitted out and strengthened under the command of Captain Hon. Constantine Phipps. It was an extremely cold Arctic summer and the ships became locked in ice far from Spitzbergen and were unable to cut their way out until days later when the wind changed and the ice broke up. The ships were extricated and returned home.
On the trip, the young Nelson had command of one of the smaller boats of the ships, a four-oared cutter manned by twelve seamen. In this he helped to save the crew of a boat belonging to the Racehorse from an attack by a herd of enraged walruses. He also had a more famous encounter with a polar bear, while attempting to obtain a bearskin as a present for his father, an exploit that later became part of the Nelson legend.
Drawing on the ship's journals and expedition commander Phipps' journal from the National Archives, the book creates a picture of the expedition and life on board. Using the ships' muster books it also details the ship's crews giving the different roles and ranks in the ships. The book is illustrated using some of the ship's drawings and charts and pictures of many objects used on the ship, while a navigational chart of the route taken has been created from the logbooks.
The book also looks at the overall concept of naval exploration as set in train by Joseph Banks and the Royal Society. The fact that the expedition failed as a result of poor planning with potentially tragic results demonstrates the difficulties and uncertainties of such an expedition. It also looks at a great naval commander at the earliest stage of his career and considers how the experience might have shaped his later career and attitudes. Other great captains and voyages are discussed alongside Nelson, including Captain Cook and his exploration of the south seas and the later ill-fated northern journeys of Franklin and Shackleton.
On the morning of the 16th December 1914, elements of the Imperial German Navy's High Sea Fleet shelled three east coast towns. Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool all suffered damaged. Whilst Hartlepool saw the most loss of life it was the attack on Scarborough that gripped the nation's imagination. Winston Churchill, then First Sea Lord of the Admiralty, wasted no time in condemning the act: Their hate is a measure of their fear. Its senseless expression is a proof of their impotence and the seed of their dishonour. Whatever feats of arms the German navy may hereafter perform, the stigma of the baby killersA" of Scarborough will brand its officers and men while sailors sail the sea, believe me dear Mr. Mayor.A" A handful of accounts have been published over the years primarily focussing on the day in question. However, the reasons behind this serious miscalculation on the part of the German High Command have never been articulated fully. Bob Clarke accepts that challenge, taking us on a journey from the turn of the 20th Century through to that fateful morning in 1914, it is a journey about an arms race that erupts into war. Using contemporary accounts Clarke chronicles the rise of the Dreadnought and the shifting tide of world politics through naval power. A number of theories are also offered supporting possible reasons for the bombardment of Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson KB (1758 - 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. Admired for his leadership, strategy and tactics, he led many decisive British naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. Known for his bold actions, and sometimes disobeying his seniors, Nelson was taken into the hearts of the British people. This slightly built, battle-scarred, often vain man, of dubious private life and few known accomplishments beyond his profession, became a legendary figure in British history. When Admiral Horatio Nelson died, people who had never seen him wept because they felt they had lost someone special and irreplaceable. How that came about, this book describes. Nelson helped to capture Corsica and saw the battle of Calvi (where he lost the sight in his right eye). He later lost his right arm at the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife in 1797. Nelson destroyed Napoleon's fleet at the Battle of the Nile in 1798, and thus gained a direct trade route to India. Over the period 1794 to 1805, under Nelson's leadership, the Royal Navy proved its supremacy over the French. Nelson's most famous engagement, at Cape Trafalgar, saved Britain from threat of invasion by Napoleon, but it would be his last. Before the battle on 21 October 1805, Nelson sent out the famous signal to his fleet 'England expects that every man will do his duty'. Killed by a French sniper just a few hours later, while leading the attack on the combined French and Spanish fleet, Nelson's body was preserved in brandy and transported back to England where he was given a state funeral. He is buried in St Paul's Cathedral, London.
The accepted narrative of the interwar U.S. Navy is one of transformation from a battle-centric force into a force that could fight on the ""three planes"" of war: in the skies, on the water, and under the waves. The political and cultural tumult that accompanied this transformation is another story. Ryan D. Wadle's Selling Sea Power explores this little-known but critically important aspect of naval history. After World War I, the U.S. Navy faced numerous challenges: a call for naval arms limitation, the ascendancy of air power, and budgetary constraints exacerbated by the Great Depression. Selling Sea Power tells the story of how the navy met these challenges by engaging in protracted public relations campaigns at a time when the means and methods of reaching the American public were undergoing dramatic shifts. While printed media continued to thrive, the rapidly growing film and radio industries presented new means by which the navy could connect with politicians and the public. Deftly capturing the institutional nuances and the personalities in play, Wadle tracks the U.S. Navy's at first awkward but ultimately successful manipulation of mass media. At the same time, he analyzes what the public could actually see of the service in the variety of media available to them, including visual examples from progressively more sophisticated - and effective - public relations campaigns. Integrating military policy and strategy with the history of American culture and politics, Selling Sea Power offers a unique look at the complex links between the evolution of the art and industry of persuasion and the growth of the modern U.S. Navy, as well as the connections between the workings of communications and public relations and the command of military and political power.
The design work on the new carrier commenced as early as 1937 and the initial design was unveiled on 27 November and received the number "02". On 21 July 1938 corrections were done to the design and it was approved. The ship of displacement of 27.800 tons was ordered. It was included into Navy development program, approved on 8 December 1938. After the acceptance of the main specifications of the carrier work on the detailed design could be commenced (the work began in December 1939). Due to several delays the ship was laid down as late as 10 July 1941 at Kawasaki shipyard in Kobe. Until 5 March 1943, when the ship was named, she was known as the hull number 130. The official christening took place before launching on 7 April 1943. The ship was named TAIHO (Great Phoenix). On 3 February 1944 the ship was towed to the Navy Shipyard in Kure for further equipping. On 7 March 1944 the ship was commissioned and entered service.
This title presents one of the bleakest episodes in Royal Naval history. Here is the inside story as told by the men who survived. It is the story of a brutally hard convoy that, according to official records, was incident free. It is the convoy that the British Admiralty tried to cover up. The Royal Navy betrayed the men of convoy PQ17. An order was issued by the British Admiralty...'scatter' escorts. These were murderous orders that broke a prime naval convention and left the merchantmen and rescue ships unprotected. German fighter planes and submarines attacked them without mercy. Of 31 ships, 24 were lost together with their complements of 300 men. By the end of this book you do feel that you too have lived through PQ17's disastrous story. And that you can appreciate the enormous courage and endurance of the men who served in its bitter Arctic cold.
For the first time in over a decade the "US Navy Divers Handbook" is to be released with latest and most up-to-date Revision 6 tables. The Handbook not only contains the US Navy Decompression Tables but also the Recompression Chamber Operator's Handbook. It is pocket size, printed on waterproof/tear proof pages, and is easily referenced. Used internationally by recreational, commercial, and military divers because of its authoritative and approved procedures, it contains the latest decompression tables and techniques for avoiding decompression sickness. This durable handbook is a must for all divers and chamber operators. The Revised 6th Edition of the "United States Navy Diving Manual" incorporates many changes. The first major change is a complete revision of the air diving procedures and air diving tables in Chapter 9 of the Manual. 'The procedures and tables are the mature product of ten years of work including testing, rigorous analysis, and Fleet Diver feedback. The bottom line is that these new tables and procedures represent a quantum step forward in safe diving practices and correct identified safety deficiencies in the existing air tables that have been part of the manual virtually without significant change for fifty years' - Captain Rich Hooper, "USN Faceplate Magazine", Vol 11 No. 2. The second major change concerns the operation and procedures of the Oxygen Regulator Control Assembly (ORCA), a key material element that enables the proper implementation of the preferred air diving decompression regime in the revised Diving Manual: decompression with oxygen. The third addition is the training requirements for Oxygen Worker Training, a necessary element for commands to manage the oxygen systems which are required for the revised procedures.
The latest volume covers the hugely important American carrier of the Second World War. Built in larger numbers than any fleet carrier before or since, the Essex class can claim to be the US Navy's most significant weapon in the defeat of Japan. Carrying up to 100 aircraft and capable of absorbing enormous punishment (not one was sunk), they spearheaded the Fast Carrier Task Forces for most of the Pacific War.The heavily illustrated work contains everything a modeller needs to know about this prolific class.
In this remarkable book, now reissued in paperback, Brian Lavery examines every aspect of the Royal Navy, both ashore and at sea, during the Second World War, and casts a lucid eye over the strengths and weaknesses of an organisation that was put under acute strain during the period, yet rose to the challenge with initiative and determination. Divided into twelve sections, the book delves into the structure of naval power from the Board of Admiralty and shore commands to officers and crews, their recruitment and training, daily life and discipline. The roles of the Reserves, Merchant Navy, Royal Marines and Wrens within this structure are also explained. Developments in ship design and technology, as well as advances in intelligence, sensors and armament are all discussed and set in context. The different divisions are dealt with one by one, including the Submarine Service, Fleet Air Arm, Coastal Forces, and Combined Operations. The text is complemented by over 300 illustrations and the personal accounts of those who served.
The thrilling and true story of the development and operational deployment of human torpedoes - 'Chariots' - and 'X-craft' midget submarines in British naval service during WWII, and of the extraordinary men who crewed these dangerous vessels. The commando frogmen who rode the Chariots and operated as divers from the X-craft were the forerunners of today's Special Boat Service, the SBS. Their aim was to attach an explosive charge underneath an enemy ship to destroy the vessel. Their hope was to return to their submarine unscathed. The Real X-Men tells the story of the sacrifice and heroism of the individual men, many of them little more than teenagers, who volunteered for this dangerous duty and who crewed both the Chariots and the X-craft without knowing the full extent of the risks entailed, nor indeed the very small chances they had of coming back alive.
Among all the celebrations of the RAF's centenary, it was largely forgotten that the establishment of an independent air force came at a cost - and it was the Royal Navy that paid the price. In 1918 it had been pre-eminent in the technology and tactics of employing aircraft at sea, but once it lost control of its own air power, it struggled to make the RAF prioritise naval interests, in the process losing ground to the rival naval air forces of Japan and the United States. This book documents that struggle through the cash-strapped 1920s and '30s, culminating in the Navy regaining control of its aviation in 1937, but too late to properly prepare for the impending war. However, despite the lack of resources, British naval flying had made progress, especially in the advancement of carrier strike doctrine. These developments are neatly illustrated by the experiences of Lieutenant William Lucy, who was to become Britain's first accredited air 'ace' of the war and to lead the world's first successful dive-bombing of a major warship. Making extensive use of the family archive, this book also reproduces many previously unseen photographs from Lucy's album, showing many aspects of life in the Fleet Air Arm up to the end of the Norway campaign. Although it is beyond the scope of this book, in November 1940 the inter-war concentration on carrier strike was to be spectacularly vindicated by the air attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto - it inspired the Japanese to a far larger effort at Pearl Harbor the following year, but the Royal Navy had shown the way.
How history's only five-star admirals triumphed in World War II and
made the United States the world's dominant sea power.
Neglected Skies is a reconsideration of one of the Second World War's most forgotten naval engagements - the abortive clash between the British Eastern Fleet and the Imperial Japanese Navy's First Air Fleet (Kido Butai) to the south of Ceylon, over a period of ten days in late March/early April 1942. The focus upon this battle is for the purpose of exploring the surrender of British naval supremacy from the operational perspective, most particularly the inability of the British Admiralty over two decades to develop a first-line, carrier-borne air arm. By primarily analysing the evolution of British naval aviation during the interwar period, as well as the challenges which the peacetime Royal Navy was forced to confront, most especially in the fields of international arms-limitation and domestic fiscal restraint, a picture emerges of a battlefleet which entered war in September 1939 at considerably less that a primary state of combat readiness. Likewise, the publication examines the rise of the instrument which was primarily responsible for toppling the Royal Navy from its paramount position on the battlefield - namely the development of Japan's lethal first strike instrument known as the Kido Butai. The concentration of the IJN's six largest aircraft-carriers into a single striking force, equipped with state-of-the-art aircraft manned by elite aviators, represented an enormous quantum leap forward in warfighting at sea, and the evolution of both the concept, and its material components in a domestic atmosphere permeated by aggressive militarism, is a central component in the book. Two essential conclusions are reach by the author. The first is that the demise of British naval supremacy was first and foremost a process that spanned two decades, prior to coming to fruition in the Indian Ocean in April 1942. The second is that the story of British naval and imperial decline did not end with the fall of Singapore on 15 February 1942, but rather reached its climax in the subsequent conduct of Japan's Operation C, where for the first time in history, a British fleet was compelled to retire from the battlefield in the face of opposition from a force which, though similar in size, possessed a measure of modern aerial firepower which was quite beyond the capability of the British to effectively counter in any form then available to the British Admiralty.
Cold War Fleet is a selection of photographs of Royal Navy vessels from the 25 years from 1966 to 1991. Each is reproduced at an exceptionally high standard, accompanied by a detailed caption. Many of the photos are completely unique and have never been published, such as the images of the minesweepers HMS Wilton and HMS Bossington photographed during Operation Rheostat in 1974. There are many ships displayed that took part in the Falklands conflict and a large number of aerial photographs.
Created by two of the most acclaimed naval photographers in the world, this stunning book is a window back in time to the Royal Navy of the Cold War, showing a fleet created to defend Britain and other NATO countries from Soviet attack. Featuring every kind of ship from aircraft carriers and destroyers to auxiliary vessels, this is a peerless resource for any enthusiast of naval history.
The major contribution made by Coastal Forces to the Allied war effort has had surprisingly little coverage in the literature of the Second World War. Motor torpedo boats, PT boats, motor gunboats, launches and submarine chasers served with distinction throughout the war, and in every theatre. They performed invaluable service as patrol boats, convoy escorts, minelayers and minesweepers, harbour defence vessels, light landing craft, RAF rescue boats and transports for agents and clandestine missions. Allied Coastal Forces, now a recognised classic work and first published in 1990, remains the only publication to deal comprehensively - in words, photographs and drawings - with the technical detail of all these boats. Design, construction and subsequent development are all covered, and the builders, construction lists, fates and the technical data are given for each type. Separate sections cover armament and equipment, sea-going qualities and habitability. This second volume covers sixteen Vosper MTB designs and the US 70ft, 77ft and 80ft ELCO designs. US-built Vosper designs supplied under lease-lend are also covered, while weapons systems and machinery are dealt with in detail. Some 700 finely detailed drawings were drawn by the authors for this second volume in their highly acclaimed two-volume work. The authors, firmly established as the recognised authorities on small warships, unearthed a remarkable body of information now included in this major work, and their finely detailed drawings, redrawn form original builders' plans, offer an unparalleled view of all these remarkable designs. The new and redesigned editions of their work will be welcomed by naval enthusiasts and modellers alike.
Less than five years after Naval Aviation led the forces that defeated Imperial Japan that very organization was in serious trouble. The force had been drastically reduced and, despite the Korean War, growing sentiment supported by no less than the chairman of the Joint Chiefs argued that the new Air Force could do anything Naval Aviation might be required to do. Meanwhile, the Naval Aviation mishap rate soared. The very survival of Naval Aviation was at stake. It took fifty years to turn this around. Today, in spite of hot wars, cold wars, contingencies, and peacetime operations in support of friends and allies, the Navy and Marine Corps accident rate is at least as good as that of the Air Force, and it approaches that of commercial aviation. Gear Up, Mishaps Down explains that this accomplishment was achieved through dedicated and professional leadership, a focus on lessons learned from mishaps and near-mishaps, a willingness to learn from other enterprises, and by training, maintenance, supply and more.
Striking the Hornets' Nest provides the first extensive analysis of the Northern Bombing Group (NBG), the Navy's most innovative aviation initiative of World War I and one of the world's first dedicated strategic bombing programs. Very little has been written about the Navy's aviation activities in World War I and even less on the NBG. Standard studies of strategic bombing tend to focus on developments in the Royal Air Force or the U.S. Army Air Service. This work concentrates on the origins of strategic bombing in World War I, and the influence this phenomenon had on the Navy's future use of the airplane. The NBG program faced enormous logistical and personnel challenges. Demands for aircraft, facilities, and personnel were daunting, and shipping shortages added to the seemingly endless delays in implementing the program. Despite the impediments, the Navy (and Marine Corps) triumphed over organizational hurdles and established a series of bases and depots in northern France and southern England in the late summer and early fall of 1918. Ironically, by the time the Navy was ready to commence bombing missions, the German retreat had caused abandonment of the submarine bases the NBG had been created to attack. The men involved in this program were pioneers, overcoming major obstacles only to find they were no longer needed. Though the Navy rapidly abandoned its use of strategic bombing after World War I, their brief experimentation directed the future use of aircraft in other branches of the armed forces. It is no coincidence that Robert Lovett, the young Navy reserve officer who developed much of the NBG program in 1918, spent the entire period of World War II as Assistant Secretary of War for Air where he played a crucial role organizing and equipping the strategic bombing campaign unleashed against Germany and Japan. Rossano and Wildenberg have provided a definitive study of the NBG, a subject that has been overlooked for too long.
Technological changes are inevitable, often of great benefit, and they must be understood by all maritime leaders. Since the Navy's beginnings, it has created, adapted, rejected, and sometimes grudgingly accepted new technologies. This entry into the Wheel Book series considers the nature of technological innovation in the U.S. Navy, and it discusses the manner in which the Navy is currently adopting new technologies like robotic and autonomous systems, CYBER, and LASERS.
The 1894–95 war between China and Japan, known in the West as the First Sino-Japanese War, lasted only nine months, but its impact resonates today.
The Chinese Beiyang (Northern) Fleet was led by her flagship, Dingyuan, and her sister ship, Zhenyuan, which were the biggest in Asia; German-built armoured turret ships, they were armed with four 12in guns and two 6in guns, plus six smaller guns and three torpedo tubes. For their part the Japanese fleet, including the Matsushima and her sister ships Itsukushima and Hashidate, were each armed with a single 12.6in Canet gun and 11 or 12 4.7in guns, plus smaller guns and four torpedo tubes. The scene was set for a bloody confrontation that would stun the world and transform the relationship between China and Japan.
Fully illustrated with stunning artwork, this is the engrossing story of the Yalu River campaign, where Chinese and Japanese ironclads fought for control of Korea.
The submarine was one of the most revolutionary weapons of World War I, inciting both terror and fascination for militaries and civilians alike. During the war, after U-boats sank the "Lusitania" and began daring attacks on shipping vessels off the East Coast, the American press dubbed these weapons "Hun Devil Boats," "Sea Thugs," and "Baby Killers." But at the conflict's conclusion, the U.S. Navy acquired six U-boats to study and to serve as war souvenirs. Until their destruction under armistice terms in 1921, these six U-boats served as U.S. Navy ships, manned by American crews. The ships visited eighty American cities to promote the sale of victory bonds and to recruit sailors, allowing hundreds of thousands of Americans to see up close the weapon that had so captured the public's imagination.
In "America's U-Boats" Chris Dubbs examines the legacy of submarine warfare in the American imagination. Combining nautical adventure, military history, and underwater archaeology, Dubbs shares the previously untold story of German submarines and their impact on American culture and reveals their legacy and Americans' attitudes toward this new wonder weapon.
Hunters and Killers is the first comprehensive history of all aspects of anti-submarine warfare (ASW) from its beginnings in the 18th century through the important role of present anti-submarine systems and operations. Published in two volumes, the work discusses anti-submarine warfare operations in World War I, World War II, the Cold War, and today. In addition to tactical and strategic narratives of major ASW campaigns, the work covers the evolution of ASW sensors, weapons, platforms, and tactics. This first volume looks at the often ignored reaction to the earliest submersible attack on British warships in 1776 to the first, primitive ASW actions of World War I. World War I saw the Germans use U-boats to devastate British shipping, nearly driving the country out of the war. Here the authors look at the development of the innovative, but rudimentary sensors and weapons that the Allies used to counter the U-boat threats in the Atlantic and Mediterranean theaters. Still, the U-boats were never completely defeated in the Great War, and the ensuing chapters about the two decades between the world wars narrate the development of sonar, radar, and ASW ships, as well as changing political attitudes toward undersea warfare. The remainder of the first volume covers the first half of World War II's Battle of the Atlantic, from September 1939 to the U-boat crisis in the spring of 1943. This section discusses the influence of intelligence, gained mainly through cryptography, on the Battle of the Atlantic. Polmar and Whitman have created a thorough, well-researched reference for anyone interested in the development of ASW.
Why is Nelson a hero? Because he was a captain before he was 21, a man who shaped the course of history from the decks of his ships, hailed as a saviour of the nation, a hero killed in action at the moment of his greatest victory at the Battle of Trafalgar and immortalized ever since. What lies beneath the romantic legend of Horatio Nelson? What did he do before he became famous? Why did he fall from grace twice? Did he really put a telescope to his blind eye? Why did Victory's signal lieutenant change his `England expects . . . .' signal at Trafalgar? What made his leadership special? This book traces Nelson's spectacular and often controversial career from a Norfolk parson's son who entered the Royal Navy at the age of twelve, through his youth as a difficult and ambitious naval subordinate, his rise to admiral and celebrity, his fighting career and his outstanding victories at the battles of the Nile, Copenhagen and ultimately Trafalgar.
Although the wreck of the Mary Rose was raised twenty years ago, the excavations and conservation work and indeed the ship itself have never been published in full. Now the Mary Rose Trust, with the Heritage Lottery Fund is publishing the complete history of the project and the research up to the present day in five highly illustrated volumes, revealing a wealth of information covering all aspects of the ship. Sealed by Time: The Loss and Recovery of the Mary Rose traces the history of the Mary Rose from great naval vessel to ruinous shipwreck to an outstanding museum display. The Mary Rose was an extraordinary ship. Built to a new design, she was one of the first great British warships. Her career spanned all but a few years of Henry VIII's reign and she took place in most of his wars. Combining for the first time all that is known from contemporary documents and the archaeological evidence, Peter Marsden and a team of specialists give a fascinating and detailed overview of her history. They set out details of the circumstances of her building, participation in three wars with France, repairs and rebuilds, and finally the tragic sinking with massive loss of life in Portsmouth Harbour in 1545 as she prepared to encounter the French fleet one more time. Also described are the place of the ship in naval and seafaring history, the novel aspects of her shape and construction, how she performed at sea, her structure, rigging and armoury. Bringing the story up-to-date, further chapters describe the epic project to excavate and salvage the ship that culminated in the raising of the hull in 1982, an event watched by millions on television, and subsequently how the museum and display of the massive hull were created. Beautifully illustrated with contemporary paintings and documents as well as photos of the excavations and some of the 26,000 objects recovered, this will be of great interest to everyone with an interest in maritime archaeology, conservation, and the history of the period.
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