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The Japanese Navy ordered two new battleships in 1912. They were an improved version of Fuso type battleships. Their construction was included in the equipment plan 8-4 of the fleet (8 battleships and 4 heavy cruisers), which was approved by the government and parliament. The amount of money allocated totaled 80 million yen. Design work began in 1913 and all funds for the start of word were collected by July 1914. On May 6, 1915, at the Mitsubishi group shipyard in Nagasaki, a keel for the new battleship was laid. On January 27, 1917, the ship was launched receiving the name Hyuga (after the name of the province). On November 1, 1917, Commander Eitaro Shimodairo became the first captain of the battleship. The Hyuga battleship project was based on the design of the Fuso battleship. Some changes were made to it. The hull was extended by 3 meters, and the armor of the ship's magazines and the central command post were changed. The layout of guns 1 and 2 was changed, which allowed placing the boiler room closer to the bow and fitting the funnels closer to each other. It also allowed putting artillery guns 3 and 4 behind the boiler room. It was not a good choice, because it was necessary to carry the steam ducts to the engine room through the ship's magazines. A better solution was to install the wires under the ship's magazines and over the double bottom.
During the Second World War, the Arctic saw an unusually high intensity of action, adventure, excitement and tragedy, and Swastikas in the Arctic: U-boat Alley Through the Frozen Hell describes the German military activities in that harsh frozen hell. Based mainly on original logs, the bare facts have been fleshed out with help from veterans and researchers from the United States, Iceland, Britain, Norway, Germany and Russia. This has made it possible to describe some of the now forgotten battles, the secret U-boat activities, the German struggle to broadcast essential weather data to Berlin and the incredible surface ship activity that forced Britain to launch major offensives against heavy odds. The Arctic also saw intense British efforts to help with the cracking of the highly complicated Enigma radio code. Many studies of the Second World War give scant attention to activity in this ice-studded ocean. However, as becomes apparent reading this book, those who fought, suffered and died there were shot at and bombed more heavily than in any other theatre of war and the contribution they made influenced military actions far away in warmer regions.Gloriously illustrated with many unpublished photographs, Swastikas in the Arctic: U-boat Alley Through the Frozen Hell is a fitting tribute to the men who made the ultimate sacrifice against all the odds.
This book is a rare look at Soviet combat divers from the 1930s up to the end of World War II. The initial formation of the military diving services, including diving reconnaissance and sabotage units of the navy, and Red Army during the prewar years are described in detail. The training of divers during the war years-including underwater exploration and sabotage, mine clearance, emergency rescue, diving support landings, and river crossings-as well as their operational combat use from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, is also presented in concise detail. The highly informative description of the diving gear, weapons, and equipment used by divers-scouts and saboteurs features many photos, many of which are published here for the first time.
European Navies and the Conduct of War considers the different contexts within which European navies operated over a period of 500 years culminating in World War Two, the greatest war ever fought at sea. Taking a predominantly continental point of view, the book moves away from the typically British-centric approach taken to naval history as it considers the role of European navies in the development of modern warfare, from its medieval origins to the large-scale, industrial, total war of the twentieth century. Along with this growth of navies as instruments of war, the book also explores the long rise of the political and popular appeal of navies, from the princes of late medieval Europe, to the enthusiastic crowds that greeted the modern fleets of the great powers, followed by their reassessment through their great trial by combat, firmly placing the development of modern navies into the broader history of the period. Chronological in structure, European Navies and the Conduct of War is an ideal resource for students and scholars of naval and military history.
This book provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier program, the Navys FFG(X) program, on the Navys Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program and on three new ship-based weapons the Navy is developing that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and surface craft: the Surface Navy Laser Weapon System (SNLWS), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the gun-launched guided projectile (GLGP), previously known as the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).
During the autumn of 1944, three RAF raids - using Avro Lancaster heavy bombers - finally sank the German battleship Tirpitz. Many previous attempts, including the use of midget submarines and raids by carrier-based aircraft, had damaged Tirpitz at her Norwegian hideout. Throughout the war, Tirpitz had become a much feared asset of the Third Reich war machine, almost gaining mythical status. In mid-1944, No. 5 Group of RAF Bomber Command was assigned the job of finally sinking Tirpitz. The first raid, codenamed Operation Paravane, saw Tirpitz damaged by Russian-based Lancasters where the great ship was heavily damaged. Subsequently, the battleship was transferred further southwest to Tromso for repairs, which meant that it came within the range of UK-based bombers. The last raid proved successful. Each Lancaster carried a 12,000 lbs 'Tallboy' bomb packed with high explosive. The Tallboy, engineered by Barnes Wallis who was responsible for the Dambusters' bouncing bomb, proved highly effective.Despite heavy flak and tracer fire, the Tirpitz was rocked by violent explosions of an apocalyptic magnitude: windows were broken and houses were rocked off their foundations some three miles away. A stray Tallboy hit the island and silenced all AAA batteries. The job was done: near misses and a direct hit pulverised the mighty battleship. The Tirpitz capsized and sank, taking her doomed crew with her.
Q ships came in all shapes and sizes - coastal steamer, trawler, barque, yacht or schooner - but all had to look harmless in order to lure their opponents to the surface and encourage them to attack. Armaments differed according to ship size; steamers commonly had 4in guns mounted amidships and in the bow, trawlers 3-pdrs and sailing ships 12-pdrs. Those who served on Q ships had to accept that their U-boat opponents would be able to strike first. Q ship captains kept ready a 'panic crew', which was trained to act out an elaborate evacuation to convince the U-boat commander that the ship was being abandoned by its crew. The Q ship captain would remain behind with a handful of other crewmen manning the guns, which remained hidden until the most opportune time to unmask and engage the U-boat. The Q ship concept had emerged early in the war when no other method seemed likely to counter the U-boat threat, and flourished until new technologies and tactics were developed, tested and implemented.
This is a companion volume to Norman Friedman' s highly successful British Battleships 1906-1946 and completes his study of the Royal Navy's capital ships. Beginning with the earliest installation of steam machinery in ships of the line, British Battleships of the Victorian Era traces the technological revolution that saw the introduction of iron hulls, armor plate, shell-ring guns, and the eventual abandonment of sail as auxiliary propulsion. This hectic development finally settled down to a widely approved form of pre-dreadnought battleship, built in large numbers and culminating in the King Edward VII class.As with all his work, Friedman explains why, as well as how and when, advances were made, and locates British ship design firmly within the larger context of international rivalries, domestic politics, and economic constraints. The result is a sophisticated and enlightening overview of the Royal Navy's battle fleet in the latter half of the nineteenth century. British Battleships of the Victorian Era is well illustrated--a comprehensive gallery of photographs with in-depth captions is accompanied by specially commissioned plans of the important classes by A. D. Baker III, and a color section featuring the original Admiralty drafts, including a spectacular double gatefold.
In 1900 the US Navy took into its first submarine, the Holland VI, into service. With a single torpedo tube, it had a crew of six, weighed 82 tons and travelled submerged at 6.2mph at a depth of up to 75 feet. Contrast this to the 18 Ohio Class nuclear-powered submarines which entered service in 1981. Weighing 21,000 tons with a crew of 155, its underwater speed is estimated at 30mph at a depth of some 1,000 feet. It carries 16 nuclear warhead ballistic missiles with a range of 4,600 miles. This latest Images of War title provides a detailed insight into the many US Navy submarine classes. Particularly fascinating is the post Second World War programme of nuclear powered submarines stating with the Nautilius and progressing to the Skate, Thresher, Sturgeon, Los Angeles and George Washington. Admiral Hyman G Rickover's role as Father of the nuclear navy is examined in detail. This superbly illustrated yet affordable book is a must for all naval enthusiasts.
The latest addition to the successful Second World War Battleground Europe Series, describes the fierce campaign, codenamed INFATUATE, mounted in November 1944 to clear the way through the port of Antwerp. This was a vital task as the Allies lacked sufficient port facilities to provide for the increasing quantities of war supplies required as the advance eastwards took them closer to Germany. There was a danger of lines of communication becoming overextended.
A leading role was played by British Royal Marine commandos but all who took part in both D Day and this landing regarded the former as a picnic! As the book vividly describes, the Germans fought with extraordinary courage against overwhelming odds and refused to surrender although all must have known defeat was inevitable. The winter weather was another major problem and the terrain was extremely difficult
Exercise Tiger was a series of operations off the South Devon coast in the spring of 1944, rehearsing for the forthcoming D-Day landings. Shrouded in mystery, one of these exercises ended in disaster for over 600 young American servicemen, as their operation was discovered by a patrol of German e-boats, which attacked, leaving two LSTs sunk and one badly damaged. The secret nature of these exercises, some claimed, led to a military cover-up and many families were not immediately informed of the nature of the deaths of their loved-ones. Over the months that followed, D-Day came and went, the war ended and there seemed little point in raking over this sorry affair. Exercise Tiger became a forgotten chapter in the annals of the Second World War. Using archive documents and images, this book recounts the history and personal accounts behind this tragic event, as well as examining the many subsequent conspiracy theories and exploring the evidence behind them.
The rival battlecruisers first clashed in January 1915 at Dogger Bank in the North Sea and although the battle was a British tactical victory with neither side losing any of its battlecruisers, the differences in the designs of the British and German ships were already apparent. The two sides responded very differently to this first clash; while the Germans improved their ammunition-handling procedures to lessen the risk of disabling explosions, the British drew the opposite lesson and stockpiled ammunition in an effort to improve their rate of fire, rendering their battlecruisers more vulnerable. These differences were highlighted more starkly during the battle of Jutland in May 1916. Of the nine British battlecruisers committed, three were destroyed, all by their German counterparts. Five German battlecruisers were present, and of these, only one was sunk and the remainder damaged. Fully illustrated with specially commissioned artwork, this is the gripping story of the clash between the rival battlecruisers of the Royal Navy and the Kaiserliche Marine at the height of World War I.
Discharged in 1959 after one year at the U.S. Naval Academy because of a progressive left ear hearing loss, I went on to college and medical school. In 1965, my draft board notified me that upon completion of internship in 1967 I would be drafted despite my disqualifying medical disability. Doctors with a medical disqualifying condition were being drafted because of the rapidly escalating conflict in Vietnam. I volunteered for a Navy program that made me an Ensign and paid all my expenses during my last year of medical school. After my pediatric internship ended in June 1967 I was assigned to a small Navy Hospital in Sasebo, Japan as a general medical officer. After 2 years there I reported to the Navy Hospital San Diego to complete training in general pediatrics and two additional years of training in hematology and oncology. The rest of my clinical years were spent training others in these specialties. In 1984 I transitioned to Navy Executive Medicine and in 1987 I reported to Washington where I had several challenging assignments as the Cold War ended. I served in the most senior positions in military medicine, retiring as a Vice Admiral in 1998.
John Lambert was a renowned naval draughtsman, whose plans were highly valued for their accuracy and detail by modelmakers and enthusiasts. By the time of his death in 2016 he had produced over 850 sheets of drawings, many of which have never been published. These have now been acquired by Seaforth and this is the third of a planned series of albums on selected themes, reproducing complete sheets at a large page size, with an expert commentary and captioning. The initial volumes concentrate on British naval weaponry used in the Second World War, thus completing the project John Lambert was working on when he died. His interest was always focused on smaller warships and his weapons drawings tend to be of open mountings - the kind that present a real challenge to modelmakers - rather than enclosed turret guns, but he also produced drawings of torpedo tubes, underwater weapons, fire-control directors and even some specific armament-related deck fittings. Following the earlier volumes on destroyer and escort armament, this one covers the multitude of weapons carried by Coastal Forces, many of which were improvised, ad hoc or obsolescent, but eventually leading to powerful purpose-designed weaponry. An appendix covers the main deck guns carried by British submarines of this era. The drawings are backed by introductory essays by Norman Friedman, an acknowledged authority on naval ordnance, while a selection of photographs adds to the value of the book as visual reference. Over time, the series will be expanded to make this unique technical archive available in published form, a move certain to be welcomed by warship modellers, enthusiasts and the many fans of John Lambert's work.
The cruisers of the Imperial German Navy (Kaiserlische Marine) were active throughout the First World War and saw action all around the globe, tying up valuable Allied naval resources out of all proportion to their number. Drawing on first-hand accounts and original research in German archives, the author here describes in detail some of their most significant and/or audacious battles. Some are well known, such as their role at Jutland, Goeben's attack on the Russian fleet (which brought Turkey into the war) and the sagas of Konigsberg and Emden; but others have been unduly neglected. Gary Staff deliberately focuses on the latter to bring new material to the attention of the reader and to demonstrate the global span of the cruisers' activities. The blow-by-blow accounts of the action (drawing heavily on first-hand Allied and especially German accounts) are supported by dozens of photographs, many previously unpublished, from the author's own impressive collection. The battles described include: Heligoland Bight, August 1914; Coronel, November 1914; Falklands December, 1914; Doggerbank, January 1915; Goeben and the Russian fleet, Black Sea, May 1915; Ostergarn July 1915; Jutland, 1916; Second Heligoland Bight, November 1917; Imbros, January 1918.
In the summer of 1942 one of the main issues in the balance was the fate of Malta. The island was still a bastion of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean and a constant threat to the supply route for the enemy land forces in North Africa. It bravely resisted every onslaught of the Axis powers, but food supplies were desperately short and fuel oil running low. In August of that year Operation Pedestal was launched - a last attempt to relieve Malta. Fourteen merchant ships were allocated to it and the Royal Navy provided the most powerful force ever to escort a convoy including four aircraft carriers. Operating from Sardinia and Sicily, the Germans and Italians let fly with their shore-based aircraft on an unprecedented scale. The losses on the British side were appalling, but the objective was achieved and the blockade of Malta was finally lifted.
As the Third Reich headed for destruction, German ingenuity in the naval field turned to unconventional weapons midget submarines, radio-controlled explosive boats, and various forms of underwater sabotage. This is one of the last un-chronicled areas of World War II naval history and this well-known author describes how, facing overwhelming odds, German sailors most of them volunteers mounted attacks that were little better than suicide missions. Judged by their effect on the Allied advance, their successes were slight, but there seems to have been no collapse of morale and the indomitable bravery of those involved makes riveting reading. Pieced together from fragmentary sources, this largely untold story uncovers some of the most desperate operations of the War.
This is the first book ever written about Wales' part in naval history. Based on extensive research, it tells a compelling story that spans nearly two thousand years, from the Romans to the present. Many Welshmen - and women - have served in both the Royal Navy and the navies of other countries. Welshmen played major parts in voyages of exploration, in the navy's suppression of the slave trade, and in naval warfare from the Viking era to the Spanish Armada, in the American Civil War, both World Wars and the Falklands War. Britannia's Dragon tells their stories in vivid detail. The navy also did much to shape Wales itself. The town of Pembroke Dock was created by the country's only Royal Dockyard, while the expansion of the coal and copper industries was largely driven by the navy. Comprehensive, enlightening and provocative, Britannia's Dragon also explodes many myths about Welsh history, arguing that most Welshmen in the sailing navy were volunteers not pressed men, and that relative to the size of national populations, proportionally more Welsh seaman than English fought at Trafalgar.
The story of the man who won the battle of Midway and avenged Pearl Harbor for the United States.
During the Battle of Midway in June 1942, US Navy dive bomber pilot Wade McClusky proved himself to be one of the greatest pilots and combat leaders in American history, but his story has never been told-until now.
It was Wade McClusky who remained calm when the Japanese fleet was not where it was expected to be. It was he who made the counterintuitive choice to then search to the north instead of to the south. It was also McClusky who took the calculated risk of continuing to search even though his bombers were low on fuel and may not have enough to make it back to the Enterprise. His ability to remain calm under enormous pressure played a huge role in the US Navy winning this decisive victory that turned the tide of war in the Pacific.
This book is the story of exactly the right man being in exactly the right place at exactly the right time. Wade McClusky was that man and this is his story.
Hunt the Bismarck tells the story of Operation Rheinübung, the Atlantic
sortie of the Nazi Germany's largest battleship in May 1941.
The first modern frogmen were the Italian commando frogmen, of Decima Flottiglia MAS which was first in action in 1940. They were nicknamed Uomini Rana, Italian for frogmen, because of their swimming frog kick style and because their fins looked like frogs' feet. Their success against Royal Navy warships was a shock to the British Admiralty which took up the challenge and by 1942 the Royal Navy had their own frogmen with manned torpedo Chariots. Many of the early frogmen's breathing sets were German pilots' oxygen cylinders recovered from shot-down Luftwaffe planesRoyal Navy frogmen began with the torpedo chariots, but later moved to midget submarines known as X-craft. On 20 September 1943 two four-man X-craft set out to attack the Tirpitz in Kafjord in Norway which was badly damaged by limpet mines.This fascinating and well-written book chronicles the use of frogmen during the Second World War, predominantly describing the Royal Navy operatives. It details their training, their various attacks, and the use of frogmen to clear the D-Day beaches of underwater obstacles, and the clearance of mines, booby traps and wrecks in harbours.By the end of the war, the British human torpedo operations had earned their participants 20 medals and 16 men had been killed.
By the beginning of May 1942, five months after the Pearl Harbor attack, the US Navy was ready to challenge the Japanese moves in the South Pacific. When the Japanese sent troops to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, the Americans sent the carriers Lexington and Yorktown to counter the move, setting the stage for the Battle of the Coral Sea. In Scratch One Flattop: The First Carrier Air Campaign and the Battle of the Coral Sea, historian Robert C. Stern analyzes the Battle of the Coral Sea, the first major fleet engagement where the warships were never in sight of each other. Unlike the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Coral Sea has received remarkably little study. Stern covers not only the action of the ships and their air groups but also describes the impact of this pivotal engagement. His analysis looks at the short-term impact as well as the long-term implications, including the installation of inert gas fuel-system purging on all American aircraft carriers and the push to integrate sensor systems with fighter direction to better protect against enemy aircraft. The essential text on the first carrier air campaign, Scratch One Flattop is a landmark study on an overlooked battle in the first months of the United States' engagement in World War II.
Designed for busy junior officers in the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard, and Merchant Marine, this primer teaches the basics of leadership in five sequential steps. It begins with a useful overview of major leadership studies, followed by an informative summary of the wisdom of 380 senior sea-going officers regarding those leadership attributes required of the junior officer. One chapter includes sea stories from officers of varied backgrounds, each offering a leadership lesson that was learned the hard way. Along with this sage advice from experienced sea-service officers, the book offers a final chapter that helps readers build personalized plans to improve their own leadership skills. Such a practical guide is certain to turn young officers into successful leaders.
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