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The nuclear age is coming to the Middle East. Understanding the scope and motivations for this development and its implications for global security is essential. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of popular and scholarly attention focussed on nuclear issues around the globe and especially in the Middle East. These studies fall into one of four general categories. They tend to focus either on the security and military aspects of nuclear weapons, or on the sources and mechanisms for proliferation and means of reversing it, or nuclear energy, or the logics driving state policymakers toward adopting the nuclear option. The Nuclear Question in the Middle East is the first book of its kind to combine thematic and theoretical discussions regarding nuclear weapons and nuclear energy with case studies from across the region. What are the key domestic drivers of nuclear behaviour and decision-making in the Middle East? How are the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council seeking to employ nuclear energy to further guarantee and expedite their hyper-growth of recent decades? Are there ideal models emerging in this regard that others might emulate in the foreseeable future, and, if so, what consequences is this development likely to have for other civilian nuclear aspirants? These region-wide themes form the backdrop against which specific case studies are examined.
This book examines the Near-Term Task Force, which was established in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The Task Force recognises that there likely will be more than 100 nuclear power plants operating throughout the United States for decades to come. In examining the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident for insights for reactors in the United States, the Task Force addressed protecting against accidents resulting from natural phenomena, mitigating the consequences of such accidents, and ensuring emergency preparedness.
Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of an authorized facility and it must be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of such facilities. This publication provides guidance on how to comply with requirements for the safe decommissioning of nuclear power plants, research reactors, and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety including: roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and completion of decommissioning. It is intended for use by those working in policy and strategy development, planning, implementation and regulatory control of decommissioning.
Highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used for two major civilian purposes: as fuel for research reactors and as targets for medical isotope production. This material can be dangerous in the wrong hands. Stolen or diverted HEU can be used-in conjunction with some knowledge of physics-to build nuclear explosive devices. Thus, the continued civilian use of HEU is of concern particularly because this material may not be uniformly well-protected. To address these concerns, the National Research Council (NRC) of the U.S. National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) held a joint symposium on June 8-10, 2011. Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities for Converting U.S. and Russian Research Reactors summarizes the proceedings of this joint symposium. This report addresses: (1) recent progress on conversion of research reactors, with a focus on U.S.- and R.F.-origin reactors; (2) lessons learned for overcoming conversion challenges, increasing the effectiveness of research reactor use, and enabling new reactor missions; (3) future research reactor conversion plans, challenges, and opportunities; and (4) actions that could be taken by U.S. and Russian organizations to promote conversion. The agenda for the symposium is provided in Appendix A, biographical sketches of the committee members are provided in Appendix B, and the report concludes with the statement of task in Appendix C.
This book is about the consequences of the Fukushima disaster in light of their technological, societal, political, cultural and environmental origins. The magnitude of the nuclear accident is investigated in this book in the contexts of politics, economy, and society. The authors scrutinize the relationships between science, technology and society leading to this accident. Further, the authors reveal how these relationships were constructed historically. This book provides a case analysis on the Fukushima disaster in political, societal, economic and cultural dimensions. In addition, analyses for historically grown relationships between different societal spheres mouthing into disasters are presented using examples of the Minamata disease (Mercury pollution), Itai-Itai Disease (Cadmium pollution), BSE, and GMOs. With this book, Yuko Fujigaki achieves to connect local and cultural peculiarities with generalized scientific information and practices in a coherent, logical fashion to a comprehensive volume on a very actual topic of global significance. In light of a globally increasing energy gap, this book has a distinct global relevance, providing an honest account on different triggers mouthing into the nuclear disaster. This book not only gives a scientific account. It also can also contribute to prevent future disasters starting from similar vectors.
The long Cold War of the twentieth century has ended, but only now are the poisonous legacies of that "first nuclear age" coming to light. Activists and anthropologists, the authors of this volume reveal the devastating, complex, and long-term environmental health problems afflicting the people who worked in uranium mining and processing, lived in regions dedicated to the construction of nuclear weapons or participated, often unknowingly, in radiation experiments. The nations and individuals, many of them members of indigenous or ethnic minority communities, are now demanding information about how the United States and the Soviet Union poisoned them and meaningful remedies for the damage done to them and the generations to come. As nuclear proliferation accelerates, this struggle takes on ever greater urgency.
This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on conducting periodic safety review (PSR) of an existing nuclear power plant. PSR is a comprehensive safety review of all important aspects of safety, carried out at regular intervals, typically every ten years. In addition, PSR may be used in support of the decision making process for licence renewal or long term operation, or for restart of a nuclear power plant following a prolonged shutdown. The review process described in this Safety Guide is valid for nuclear power plants of any age and may have a wider applicability, for example to research reactors and radioactive waste management facilities, by means of a graded approach. Although PSR may not be an appropriate means for identifying safety issues in the decommissioning phase, the documentation resulting from PSR of an operating nuclear power plant will be an important input when planning decommissioning.
Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and research data relating to emergency response. The primary objectives of this Safety Guide, co-sponsored by FAO, OCHA, ILO, PAHO and WHO, are to provide guidance on preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, to describe appropriate responses to a range of emergencies, and to provide background information on past experience, thereby helping the user to better implement arrangements that address the underlying issues.
In recent decades radiobiologists' efforts have been directed at identifying the mechanisms of radiation effects; the general mechanisms have since been studied extensively. This book describes and analyzes radiation-induced adaptation as processes produced in cells, tissues, and populations. This viewpoint helps to understand the nature and factors of induced processes, to determine the characteristics of observed radiation effects and their limitations. The investigations presented here were founded on proper lab experiments, ecological studies of plant population growth near an operating nuclear power plant and a thorough epidemiological examination of human populations living in territories polluted fifty years ago, as well as on relevant published data. This research demonstrates the radiation-induced adaptation processes that continue even when the radiation itself is no longer at a critical background level. The investigations utilized the method of statistical modeling on the basis of distributions on the number of abnormalities. This method allows us to investigate the processes induced by low-dose factors when accompanied by Darwinian selection in different systems; the distribution parameters can then be used to study the characteristics of adaptation processes and system resistance. The consequences of background-level radiation continue to provoke debate, and the mathematical bases of the adaptation model are shown, while due consideration is paid to the components of adaptation: instability, selection, and proliferation. The book will be especially useful to specialists in radiation pollution, ecology, epidemiology, and radiology for studies of radiation-induced processes; the method presented here can also be adapted to investigate low-dose effects in other fields. In addition, the book presents a number of reviews in the fields of radiation biology, including pioneering investigations in Russia which were previously unavailable to Western scientists.
This edited book provides an insight into the new approaches, challenges and opportunities that characterise open source intelligence (OSINT) at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It does so by considering the impacts of OSINT on three important contemporary security issues: nuclear proliferation, humanitarian crises and terrorism.
The Department of Energy (DOE) has adhered to its practice of using only unobligated low-enriched uranium (LEU) to meet national security needs for tritium -- a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used to enhance the power of U.S. nuclear weapons. LEU is considered unobligated when neither the uranium nor the technology used to enrich it carries an "obligation" from a foreign country requiring that the material only be used for peaceful purposes. These obligations are contained in international agreements to which the United States is a party. This book examines the extent to which DOE has adhered to its practice of using only unobligated LEU to produce tritium and the basis for this practice. Moreover, this book describes the challenges the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) has identified with its lithium production strategy, and determines the extent to which NNSA developed a mission need statement that is independent of a particular solution, as called for in DOE's directive on project management.
The Erice International Seminars are multidisciplinary seminars attended by over 100 eminent participants from all fields of science. Each year, a few scientific issues are selected and experts are invited to present contrasting views during the plenary multidisciplinary sessions of the seminar, followed by general debates. These sessions offer a unique opportunity for specialists to enlarge their fields of vision by being confronted with ideas and suggestions from high-level scientists in complementary domains of science. Associated workshops allow the experts to further refine and process the ideas evoked during the seminar. This year's topics are all currently of high relevance. For example, on energy issues, we have focused on the future of global nuclear power. On global monitoring of the planet, we have focused on the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the Nuclear-Proliferation Treaty. On climatology, we have investigated the role of aerosols on global warming and their satellite detection. On pollution, the role of plastic contaminants in water was revealed through a series of disquieting reports.
From Einstein and Truman to Sartre and Derrida, many have declared
the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to be decisive events
in human history. None, however, have more acutely understood or
perceptively critiqued the consequences of nuclear war than
Japanese writers. In this first complete study of the nuclear theme
in Japanese intellectual and artistic life, John Whittier Treat
shows how much we have to learn from Japanese writers and artists
about the substance and meaning of the nuclear age.
Unlike existing books of nuclear reactor physics, nuclear engineering and nuclear chemical engineering this book covers a complete description and evaluation of nuclear fission power generation. It covers the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the extraction of natural uranium from ore mines, uranium conversion and enrichment up to the fabrication of fuel elements for the cores of various types of fission reactors. This is followed by the description of the different fuel cycle options and the final storage in nuclear waste repositories. In addition the release of radioactivity under normal and possible accidental conditions is given for all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially for the different fission reactor types.
Since its inception in 1981, the Erice Seminars from which this book series originates have attracted the attention of world leaders in science, technology and culture. This latest volume in the series covers a wide range of topics ? from energy studies and research to disarmament and cultural emergencies. In addition to the main topics, the book also includes an associated workshop program (the 33rd Session) focusing on cultural emergencies, specifically designing and building in resilience against chemical, biological and radiological attacks.
Global power is shifting to Asia. The U.S. military is embarking on an American "pivot" to the Indo-Pacific region, and the bulk of global arms spending is directed toward Asian theaters. India and Pakistan are thought to be building up their nuclear arsenals while questions persist about China's potential to "sprint to parity." China remains by far the world's largest market for new nuclear energy production, and India aspires to be on a similar trajectory.
Despite these trends, "The China-India Nuclear Crossroads" is the first serious book by leading Chinese and Indian experts to examine the political, military, and technical factors that affect Sino-Indian nuclear relations. In this book, editor and translator Lora Saalman presents a comprehensive framework through which China and India can pursue enhanced cooperation and minimize the unintended consequences of their security dilemmas.
This publication addresses the sustainability of all aspects of a national nuclear security regime, including those relating to nuclear material and nuclear facilities, other radioactive material and associated facilities, and nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. The publication is relevant for States that have established a nuclear security regime as well as for States that are in the process of establishing one. It includes guidance on how to address challenges in sustaining a nuclear security regime over time. It also addresses the initial development and implementation of the regime, particularly where sustainability can be built into it as part of its design.
This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.
The volume Radiological Protection is not only a compilation of numerical data and functional relationships for practical purposes. Rather a comprehensive accompanying text is intended to impart to the scientific or professional user of Radiological Protection both data, the concepts and scientific bases of the discipline devoted to prevention of health risks to man from exposure to ionizing radiations and radionuclides. It contains contributions of experts internationally qualified in scientific disciplines or subjects such as radiation physics, biology and medicine, external and internal dosimetry of ionizing radiation and radionuclides, decontamination and decorporation of radionuclides, physical and biological measuring techniques, assessment of radiation shielding (restricted to an extent being necessary for completion of tasks of practical radiological protection, specifically in the field of lower energies). The CD-ROM delivered with the hardcopy of the volume contains the full text of the volume and in addition information and data, which would be beyond the scope of the printed version, within the interactive programme SISy (for MS-Windows only). These refer e.g. to decay data of radionuclides or normalized excretion functions for monitoring workers by quantitative assessment of intakes of radionuclides and calculation of resulting doses.
Radioactive particles have been released to the environment from a number of sources, including nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents and discharges from nuclear installations. Particle characteristics influence the mobility, biological uptake and effects of radionuclides, hence information on these characteristics is essential for assessing environmental impact and risks. This publication presents a series of papers covering sources and source term characterisation, methodologies for characterizing particles, and the impact of particles on the behaviour of radioactive particles in the environment. Sources covered include the Chernobyl accident, nuclear weapons accidents at Thule and Palomares accident, the discharges from Dounreay and Krashnoyarsk, and depleted uranium in Kosovo and Kuwait. The overall aim is that an increased understanding of particle characteristics and behavior will help to reduce some of the uncertainties in environmental impact and risk assessment for particle contaminated areas.
The Department of Energy (DOE) faces significant technical challenges in successfully constructing and operating the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) project that is to treat millions of gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste resulting from the production of nuclear weapons. In December 2000, DOE awarded Bechtel a contract to design and construct the WTP project at DOE's Hanford Site in Washington State. This projectone of the largest nuclear waste cleanup facilities in the worldwas originally scheduled for completion in 2011 at an estimated cost of $4.3 billion. Technical challenges and other issues, however, have contributed to cost increases and schedule delays. This book examines remaining technical challenges, if any, the WTP faces; the cost and schedule estimates for the WTP; and steps DOE is taking, if any, to improve the management and oversight of the WTP project. Moreover, DOE recently reported that nuclear waste is leaking from two of its underground storage tanks. DOE has been experiencing delays in the construction of the WTP, a collection of facilities that are to treat the tank waste for disposal. These recently reported leaks and intrusions, combined with construction delays, have raised questions among regulators, the public, and Congress about the risks posed by continuing to store waste in the aging tanks. The book examines the condition of the tanks; actions DOE has taken or planned to respond to the recent tank leaks and water intrusions; and the extent to which DOE's tank management plans consider the condition of the tanks and the delays in completing construction of the WTP.
In recent years, radioactive contamination in the environment by uranium (U) and its daughters has caused increasing concerns globally. This book provides recent developments and comprehensive knowledge to the researchers and academicians who are working on uranium contaminated areas worldwide. This book covers topics ranging from the beginning of the nuclear age until today, including historical views and epidemiological studies. Modelling practices and evaluation of radiological and chemical impact of uranium on man and the environment are included. Also covered are analytical methods used for the determination of uranium in geo/bio environments. Some chapters explore factors which influence uranium speciation and in consequence plant uptake/translocation. Last but not least, several chapters provide approaches and practices for remediation of uranium contaminated areas.
This publication provides a description of existing and emerging technologies to effectively integrate geological, geophysical and geochemical data to recognize the footprint (i.e. the total extent that the mineralizing system has affected its environment) of the deposit and the key vectors to the uranium mineralization. In addition, insights into exploration strategies and risks associated with country and basin selection are discussed, including the role of the IAEA and academia in supporting the exploration process. Representing an unprecedented, comprehensive reference document on unconformity-related uranium deposits with over 350 citations, this publication will be useful for decision makers at all levels, including governmental officers in energy and mineral resources, exploration companies, geologists, geological surveys, energy companies, universities and research institutions, and natural resource authorities.
Uranium is a naturally occurring, ubiquitous heavy metal. In various chemical forms, natural uranium is found in all soils, rocks, seas and oceans. It is also present in drinking water and food. Uranium was discovered in 1781 by Klaprot, a pharmacist in Berlin, in the Joachisthal silver mines. This book starts with a short history of uranium. It continues with the legacy of uranium mining and the authors go on to discuss the environmental and health effects of depleted uranium, which has the unique potential to threaten all natural resources, including human society because of its radiotoxic effects. Uranium migration properties are explored through the geological structures and the groundwater systems based on the determination of its total concentration essential for environmental studies. Other chapters examine the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock; the influence of uranium on the environment and the studies of content of uranium in soil, building materials, drinking water and even in the urine of specific population such as in the Czech Republic, a uranium rich territory; the types of uranium deposits; uranium bioremediation as an eco-friendly, promising approach, which will play an irreplaceable role in global nuclear energy development; discussions on uranium as one of the most widespread contaminants in groundwater in mining areas, as well as in surface waters in Brazil; and an examination of fuel materials that have been developed for use in nuclear power reactors including uranium. Bulk uranium-based systems are very complex and it is difficult to draw unambiguous conclusion on their properties and reaction mechanisms from experiments. Therefore in this book, laboratory experiments using simple model systems - thin films, for single effect studies which have a ground-breaking nature are explored in detail in this book.
This book provides an introduction of how radiation is processed in polymeric materials, how materials properties are affected and how the resulting materials are analyzed. It covers synthesis, characterization, or modification of important materials, e.g. polycarbonates, polyamides and polysaccharides, using radiation. For example, a complete chapter is dedicated to the characterization of biodegradable polymers irradiated with low and heavy ions. This book will be beneficial to all polymer scientists in the development of new macromolecules and to all engineers using these materials in applications. It summarizes the fundamental knowledge and latest innovations in research fields from medicine to space.
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