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This book provides an introduction of how radiation is processed in polymeric materials, how materials properties are affected and how the resulting materials are analyzed. It covers synthesis, characterization, or modification of important materials, e.g. polycarbonates, polyamides and polysaccharides, using radiation. For example, a complete chapter is dedicated to the characterization of biodegradable polymers irradiated with low and heavy ions. This book will be beneficial to all polymer scientists in the development of new macromolecules and to all engineers using these materials in applications. It summarizes the fundamental knowledge and latest innovations in research fields from medicine to space.
Gerald Jacob views the history of public policy regarding nuclear waste, culminating in the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy act and its aftermath. The 1982 act promised a solution, but Jacob believes it deferred to the interests of the nuclear utilities and the U.S. Department of Energy. He describes how the nuclear establishment used science and geography to protect its interests and dominate nuclear waste policy making. He examines the federal promotion of nuclear power, and asserts that federal policies strong-armed public opposition, and locked the country into a single, but flawed waste disposal solution.
This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.
A. AULICIEMS Living organisms respond to atmospheric variability and variation, and over time morphological and process differentiations occur both within individuals and the species, as well as in the environment itself. In systems language, the concern is with the atmospheric process-response system of energy and matter flows within the biosphere. The study of such interactions between living organ isms and the atmospheric environment falls within the field of bioclimatology, alternatively referred to as biometeorology. Amongst the more readily recognizable study areas under the bioclimatolog that investigate the effects of atmospheric variation and ical umbrella are those variability upon 1. Terrestrial and aquatic ecology (zoological, botanical and ethological), natural resource production and management (including silviculture, agri culture, horticulture, and grassland, wetland, and marine systems). 2. Stress, morbidity and mortality in animals and humans (including physiolog ical and psychological adaptations). 3. The built environment (all aspects of planning, urban design, and architec ture). 4. Economic systems and social activities (including organizational, individual, and group behavior and management). In addition, bioclimatology is very much concerned with the feedback loop, that is both 5. The inadvertent modification of the atmosphere by living systems, especially human, i.e., studies of pollution, changes to atmospheric amenity, and the processes of deterioration of landscape (deforestation and desertification), and 6. The advertent modifications of natural energy and matter flows within urban areas and indoor climate constructions."
This book presents the proceedings of SICC 2017, a conference devoted to promoting the dissemination of the different methodologies, techniques, theories, strategies, technologies and best practices on the prevention and mitigation of CBRNE risks. As the first scientific international conference on safety & security issues in the CBRNE field, SICC 2017 attracted contributions resulting from fruitful inter-professional collaborations between university and military experts, specialized operators, decision makers and the industry. As such, these proceedings are primarily intended for academics and professionals from public, private and military entities. It is the first trans-disciplinary collection of scientific papers from the numerous fields related to CBRNE.
Modern societies require energy systems to provide energy for cooking, heating, transport, and materials processing, as well as for electricity generation. Energy systems include the primary fuel, its conversion, and transport to the point of use. In many cases this primary fuel is still a fossil fuel, a one-use resource derived from a finite supply within our planet, causing considerable damage to the environment. After 300 years of increasing reliance on fossil fuels, particularly coal, it is becoming ever clearer that the present energy systems need to change. In this Very Short Introduction Nick Jenkins explores our historic investment in the exploitation of fossil energy resources and their current importance, and discusses the implications of our increasing rate of energy use. He considers the widespread acceptance by scientists and policy makers that our energy systems must reduce emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and looks forward to the radical changes in fuel technology that will be necessary to continue to provide energy supplies in a sustainable manner, and extend access across the developing world. Considering the impact of changing to an environmentally benign and low-carbon energy system, Jenkins also looks at future low-carbon energy systems which would use electricity from a variety of renewable energy sources, as well as the role of nuclear power in our energy use. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This publication is the lead Implementing Guide in a suite of guidance on implementing the Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5), IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13. It provides guidance and suggestions to assist States and their competent authorities in establishing, strengthening and sustaining their national physical protection regime and implementing the associated systems and measures, including operators' physical protection systems.
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), especially in the hands of radical states and terrorists, represent a major threat to U.S. national security interests. Multilateral regimes were established to restrict trade in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile technologies, and to monitor their civil applications. Congress may consider the efficacy of these regimes in considering the potential renewal of the Export Administration Act, as well as other proliferation-specific legislation in the 111th Congress. This book provides background and current status information on nuclear non-proliferation regimes which encompass several treaties, extensive multilateral and bilateral diplomatic agreements, multilateral organisations and domestic agencies, and the domestic laws of participating countries.
This Safety Requirements publication establishes a basis for safety and for safety assessment at all stages in the lifetime of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. A broad scope of requirements is established for site evaluation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and preparation for decommissioning that must be satisfied to ensure safety. These requirements apply to facilities for conversion, enrichment, nuclear fuel production, storage of fresh and spent fuels, reprocessing, preparation for disposal and associated research and development facilities.
The debate over genetically modified organisms: health and safety concerns, environmental impact, and scientific opinions. Since they were introduced to the market in the late 1990s, GMOs (genetically modified organisms, including genetically modified crops), have been subject to a barrage of criticism. Agriculture has welcomed this new technology, but public opposition has been loud and scientific opinion mixed. In GMOs Decoded, Sheldon Krimsky examines the controversies over GMOs-health and safety concerns, environmental issues, the implications for world hunger, and the scientific consensus (or lack of one). He explores the viewpoints of a range of GMO skeptics, from public advocacy groups and nongovernmental organizations to scientists with differing views on risk and environmental impact. Krimsky explains the differences between traditional plant breeding and "molecular breeding" through genetic engineering (GE); describes early GMO products, including the infamous Flavr Savr tomato; and discusses herbicide-, disease-, and insect-resistant GE plants. He considers the different American and European approaches to risk assessment, dueling scientific interpretations of plant genetics, and the controversy over labeling GMO products. He analyzes a key 2016 report from the National Academies of Sciences on GMO health effects and considers the controversy over biofortified rice (Golden Rice)-which some saw as a humanitarian project and others as an exercise in public relations. Do GMO crops hold promise or peril? By offering an accessible review of the risks and benefits of GMO crops, and a guide to the controversies over them, Krimsky helps readers judge for themselves.
Under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, the Peruvian authorities requested assistance from the IAEA in relation to the radiological accident that occurred during non-destructive testing using a nuclear radioactive source in the district of Chilca, Peru, in 2012. This assistance related to dose assessment and medical management of those involved in the accident was provided during 2012 and 2013. The report gives a detailed account and analysis of the event, as well as, the actions taken in order to assist organizations responsible for radiation protection, source safety and emergency preparedness and response in identifying lessons to be learned that may help to prevent similar accidents.
Environmental tragedies such as Chernobyl and the "Exxon Valdez" remind us that catastrophic accidents are always possible in a world full of hazardous technologies. Yet, the "apparently" excellent safety record with nuclear weapons has led scholars, policy-makers, and the public alike to believe that nuclear arsenals can serve as a secure deterrent for the foreseeable future. In this provocative book, Scott Sagan challenges such optimism. Sagan's research into formerly classified archives penetrates the veil of safety that has surrounded U.S. nuclear weapons and reveals a hidden history of frightening "close calls" to disaster.
A practical guide to the basic physics that radiation protection professionals need A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided. Coverage includes: * The atom as an energy system * An overview of the major discoveries in radiation physics * Extensive discussion of radioactivity, including sources and materials * Nuclear interactions and processes of radiation dose * Calculational methods for radiation exposure, dose, and shielding * Nuclear fission and production of activation and fission products * Specialty topics ranging from nuclear criticality and applied statistics to X rays * Extensive and current resource data cross-referenced to standard compendiums * Extensive appendices and more than 400 figures This complete discussion of the basic concepts allows readers to advance their professional skills.
As radiological residue, both naturally occurring and technologically driven, works its way through the ecosystem, we see its negative effects on the human population. Radionuclide Concentrations in Food and the Environment addresses the key issues concerning the relationship between natural and manmade sources of environmental radioactivity, their transportation through the ecosystem, and the subsequent radionuclide concentrations in foods and the human population. The book discusses the negative effects of environmental radioactivity on plants and animals, as well as the effects of radiocontaminated food on human health, and perspectives for transfer prevention.
Beginning with the fundamentals of matter and the behavior of particles, the text lays a solid foundation for discussions on the source of radionuclides and their concentrations in air, water, and soil. Using predictive modeling, the authors examine the transfer of radionuclides through ecosystems and their effects on individual substances. The book provides up-to-date information on monitoring programs and legislation, detailed descriptions of detection systems, and evaluations of safety protocols in radioanalytical laboratories and in food processing. The authors devote considerable attention to the nuclear and radiological terrorist threat, illicit trafficking and masking of radioactive materials, event scenarios, and radiological forensics.
Methods of proteomics have been shown to be powerful tools in search of target proteins - proteins that respond in cells to an internal or an external stimulus. Proteomics is widely used in biomedical research. However, in radiation biology research, following exposures of living matter to low doses of either ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, proteomics approach is only very slowly gaining support. This book, by presenting the current status of the use of proteomics in radiation biology, will help to attract attention to the field of radiation proteomics.
Recent years have witnessed an intensification of international debate on the Iranian nuclear program. This book enriches the understanding of the nuclear program that Iran claims is meant for peaceful purposes, though Western powers remain suspicious of the Iranian intent and appear to be determined to block its nuclear ambition. The book situates the discourse and international debates concerning the nature of Iran's nuclear program within the emerging contour of a post 9/11 world order. Within this framework, it captures the orientations, engagements, and responses of the major world powers, as well as the regional powers, towards Iran. Contents include: (PART I: IRAN AND MAJOR POWERS) Iranian Nuclear Policy: A Historical Overview American Debate on Iran's Nuclear Program The European Union and Iran Russian-Iranian Relations in the Contemporary World Sino-Iranian Relations: Cobbling up a United Front India, Iran and US in Post-9/11 Period (PART II: IRAN AND REGIONAL POWERS) Iranian Nuclear Program: Regional Responses Iran, Saudi Arabia and the Bomb Israel's Perception of Iranian Nuclear Program Iran's Nuclear Program: Turkey's Perception and Response.
This book provides essential background knowledge on a wide range of hydrological processes governing contaminant transport from soil to surface water across a range of scales, from hillslope to watershed. The mathematical description of these processes is based on both well-known and unique analytical solutions of different initial and boundary problems (primarily using methods from the kinematic wave theory and the reservoir/lumped-parameter concept), supported by numerical modelling studies. Some research topics, in particular several case studies, are illustrated by monitoring and experimental data analysis to show the importance of the research's applications in environmental practice and environmental education. Specific results concern the recognition of: (a) the effect of transient rainfall-runoff-infiltration partitioning on the chemical response of drainage areas to excess precipitation under certain field conditions related to the soil, hillslope characteristics, and contaminant properties; (b) soil erosion as a key factor that enhances the potential of adsorbed chemical transport in runoff; and (c) common tendencies in radionuclide behaviour in the near-surface environment contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl (1986), Fukushima (2011) and the less known Kyshtym (1957) accidents, as well as from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere since 1952. The book's goal is to provide a conceptual foundation enabling readers to apply scientific knowledge to solve practical problems in environmental hydrology and radiology. More specifically, the book presents the state-of-the-art approaches that scientists and natural resources experts need in order to significantly improve the prediction of changes in the soil-water system chemistry due to human activities.
Each year billions of dollars are being spent in the area of nuclear power generation to design, construct, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of systems around the globe. Many times these systems fail due to safety, reliability, human factors, and human error related problems. The main objective of this book is to combine nuclear power plant safety, reliability, human factors, and human error into a single volume for those individuals that work closely during the nuclear power plant design phase, as well as other phases, thus eliminating the need to consult many different and diverse sources in obtaining the desired information.
With the dissolution of the Soviet Union the nuclear threats facing the world are constantly evolving and have grown more complex since the end of the Cold War. The diversion of complete weapon systems or nuclear material to rogue nations and terrorist organizations has increased. The events of the past years have proved the necessity to reevaluate these threats on a level never before considered. In recognition that no single country possesses all of the answers to the critical scientific, institutional and legal questions associated with combating nuclear and radiological terrorism, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats" and this proceeding was structured to promote wide-ranging, multi-national exploration of critical technology needs and underlying scientific challenges to reducing the threat of nuclear/radiological terrorism; to illustrate through country-specific presentations how resulting technologies were used in national programs; and to outline the role of legal, policy and institutional frameworks in countering nuclear/ radiological terrorism. One key outcome of this book is better understanding of the interdependent contributions from across the international community of the scientific and technological components and the legal, policy and institutional components to combating nuclear and radiological threats.
Presents a comprehensive approach to the open questions in solar cosmic ray research and includes consistent and detailed considerations of conceptual, observational, theoretical, experimental and applied aspects of the field. The results of solar cosmic ray (SCR) investigations from 1942 to the present are summarized in this book. It treats the research questions in a self-contained form in all of its associations, from fundamental astrophysical aspects to geophysical, aeronautical and cosmonautical applications. A large amount of new data is included, which has been accumulated during the last several decades of space research. This second edition contains numerous updates and corrections to the text, figures and references. The author has also added several new sections about GLEs and radiation hazards. In addition, an extensive bibliography is provided, which covers non-partially the main achievements and failures in the field. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers in solar physics and space science.
In situ leach or leaching (ISL) or in situ recovery (ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. This publication provides an historical overview and shows how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations, and emphasizing the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. The publication provides information on how to design, operate and regulate current and future projects safely and efficiently, with a view to maximizing performance and minimizing negative environmental impact.
This book is the collection of papers from the latest International Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology Conference (UMH VII) held in September 2014, in Freiberg, Germany. It is divided to five sessions: Uranium Mining, Uranium and Phosphates, Clean-up technologies for water and soil. Uranium and daughter nuclides and basic research and modeling. Each session covers a wide range of related topic and provides readers with up to date research and solutions on those matters.
From an expert who advised on the Chernobyl problem as well as in the aftermath of Three Mile Island comes a book that contains experienced engineering assessments of the options for replacing the existing, aged, fossil-fired power stations by renewables, gas-fired, or nuclear plants. From geothermal, solar, and wind to tidal and hydro generation, this important book assesses the engineering of renewable sources for commercial generation and discusses the important aspects of the design, operation, and safety of nuclear stations.
On January 27, 1951, the first atomic weapon was detonated over a section of desert known as Frenchman Flat in southern Nevada, providing dramatic evidence of the Nevada Test Site's beginnings. Fifty years later, author A. Costandina Titus reviews contemporary nuclear policy issues concerning the continued viability of that site for weapons testing. Titus has updated her now-classic study of atomic testing with fifteen years of political and cultural history-from the mid-1980s Reagan-Gorbachev nuclear standoff to the authorization of the Nevada Test Site Research Center, a Desert Research Institute facility scheduled to open in 2001. In the second edition of Bombs in the Backyard, Titus deftly covers the post-Cold War transformation of American atomic policy as well as our overarching cultural interest in all matters atomic, making this a must-read for anyone interested in atomic policy and politics.
The book deals with various consequences of major nuclear accidents, such as in 1986 in Chernobyl and in 2011 in Fukushima. The public is extremely interested in learning more about the movements and risks posed by radiation in the environment related to food supply and food safety. Radionuclides are found in air, water, soil and even in us not only after nuclear accidents because they occur also in nature. Every day, we ingest and inhale radionuclides in our air and food and the water. This book provides a solid underpinning of the basic physical-chemistry and biogeochemistry of naturally occurring and anthrop radioactivity. The mechanisms of radioactive element transfer in the atmosphere, tropospheric and stratospheric diffusion of radioactivity, environmental contamination from accidents and the impact of atmospheric pollution on the food chain, soil and plants, are analyzed and the analytical methods are illustrated. The question of natural radioactivity concentration in building materials is addressed too. While the book contains many case studies and data for Greece, it is of general value. It contributes to the development of international environmentally safe standards and economically reasonable standard regulations based on justified radiological, social and economical legislation concepts.
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