Your cart is empty
Nuclear Energy provides an authoritative reference on all aspects of the nuclear industry from fundamental reactor physics calculations to reactor design, nuclear fuel resources, nuclear fuel cycle, radiation detection and protection, and nuclear power economics. Featuring 19 peer-reviewed entries by recognized authorities in the field, this book provides comprehensive, streamlined coverage of fundamentals, current areas of research, and goals for the future. The chapters will appeal to undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and energy industry experts.
In China, a lot of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are in the stages of planning, design, or construction. Thus it is necessary to do a comprehensive research on design standards for protective engineering and structural technology of the NPP based on the world's highest safety requirements. This book discusses the joint probability analysis of meteorological, oceanographic and hydrological hazards based on various distribution models.
This book presents a 20-year historical overview and comprehensive study results of the aquatic environment affected by the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident. The book analyzes water remediation actions, using current science and mathematical modeling, and discusses why some were successful, but many others failed. This book will interest engineers, scientists, decision-makers, and everyone involved in radiation protection and radioecology, environmental protection and risk assessment, water remediation and mitigation, and radioactive waste disposal.
Fossil fuels will remain the backbone of the global energy economy for the foreseeable future. The contribution of nuclear energy to the global energy supply is also expected to increase. With the pressing need to mitigate climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the fossil energy industry is exploring the possibility of carbon dioxide disposal in geological media. Geological disposal has been studied for decades by the nuclear industry with a view to ensuring the safe containment of its wastes. Geological disposal of carbon dioxide and that of radioactive waste gives rise to many common concerns in domains ranging from geology to public acceptance. In this respect, comparative assessments reveal many similarities, ranging from the transformation of the geological environment and safety and monitoring concerns to regulatory, liability and public acceptance issues. However, there are profound differences on a broad range of issues as well, such as the quantities and hazardous features of the materials to be disposed of, the characteristics of the targeted geological media, the site engineering technologies involved and the timescales required for safe containment at the disposal location. There are ample opportunities to learn from comparisons and to derive insights that will assist policymakers responsible for national energy strategies and international climate policies.
The long-term governance of radioactive waste continues to be a major complex and unresolved socio-technical issue. Previous technocratic approaches have so far failed. This empirically based study provides a novel approach to complementing technical expertise and economic/political power with stakeholder involvement. Inclusive participation is shown to be an asset that strengthens the processes, enhances robustness and facilitates sustainable decision making, thus adding value for all involved.
The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy's (NE) approach to advanced reactor research and development (R&D) focuses on three reactor technologies -- high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, sodium-cooled fast reactors, and fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactors -- but NE is also funding research into other advanced reactor technologies. NE's approach is to conduct research in support of multiple advanced reactor technologies, while collaborating with industry and academia, with the ultimate goal for industry to take the results of NE's research to the next step of development and commercialization. This book describes NE's approach to advanced nuclear reactor R&D and examines how NE plans and prioritizes its advanced reactor R&D activities, including deploying an advanced reactor. This book also discusses the DOE's International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Agreement. It examines how and why the estimated costs and schedule of the U.S. ITER Project have changed since 2006; the reliability of DOE's current cost and schedule estimates; and actions DOE has taken to reduce U.S. ITER Project costs and plan for their impact on the overall U.S. fusion program.
This is the first book to cover actinide nano research. It is of interest both for fundamental research into the chemistry and physics of f-block elements as well as for applied researchers such as those studying the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal and developing remediation strategies. The authors cover important issues of the formation of actinide nano-particles, their properties and structure, environmental behavior of colloids and nanoparticles related to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, modeling and advanced methods of characterization at the nano-scale.
Presented here is the story of the mining and sale of uranium and radium ore through biographical vignettes, chemistry, physics, geology, geography, occupational health, medical utilization, environmental safety and industrial history. Included are the people and places involved over the course of over 90 years of interconnected mining and sale of radium and uranium, finally ending in 1991 with the abandonment of radium paint and medical devices, Soviet nuclear parity, and the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act.
Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality and help to control metastatic cancer. Attention is also drawn to biases in epidemiological research when using the LNT assumption. The author shows how proponents of the LNT assumption consistently reject, manipulate, and deliberately ignore an overwhelming abundance of published data and falsely claim that no reliable data are available at doses of less than 100 mSv.
Looking at national peace organizations alongside lesser-known protest collectives, this book argues that anti-nuclear activists encountered familiar challenges common to other social movements of the late twentieth century.
Applications of EPR in Radiation Research is a multi-author contributed volume presented in eight themes: I. Elementary radiation processes (in situ and low temperature radiolysis, quantum solids); II: Solid state radiation chemistry (crystalline, amorphous and heterogeneous systems); III: Biochemistry, biophysics and biology applications (radicals in biomaterials, spin trapping, free-radical-induced DNA damage); IV: Materials science (polymeric and electronic materials, materials for treatment of nuclear waste, irradiated food); V: Radiation metrology (EPR-dosimetry, retrospective and medical applications); VI: Geological dating; VII: Advanced techniques (PELDOR, ESE and ENDOR spectroscopy, matrix isolation); VIII: Theoretical tools (density-functional calculations, spectrum simulations).
This publication defines the basic concepts and elements of nuclear security culture, with the aim of providing Member States with international consensus guidance on planning and implementing a programme to improve nuclear security culture. Particular emphasis is placed on areas such as regulation, government institutions and general public awareness. The report provides an overview of the necessary attributes of an effective nuclear security culture and emphasizes that its success is ultimately dependent on individuals: policy makers, regulators, managers, individual employees and, to a certain extent, members of the general public. Practical methods to assess and improve the effectiveness of security culture are also included.
Unlike existing books of nuclear reactor physics, nuclear engineering and nuclear chemical engineering this book covers a complete description and evaluation of nuclear fission power generation. It covers the whole nuclear fuel cycle, from the extraction of natural uranium from ore mines, uranium conversion and enrichment up to the fabrication of fuel elements for the cores of various types of fission reactors. This is followed by the description of the different fuel cycle options and the final storage in nuclear waste repositories. In addition the release of radioactivity under normal and possible accidental conditions is given for all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially for the different fission reactor types.
The book deals with various consequences of major nuclear accidents, such as in 1986 in Chernobyl and in 2011 in Fukushima. The public is extremely interested in learning more about the movements and risks posed by radiation in the environment related to food supply and food safety. Radionuclides are found in air, water, soil and even in us not only after nuclear accidents because they occur also in nature. Every day, we ingest and inhale radionuclides in our air and food and the water. This book provides a solid underpinning of the basic physical-chemistry and biogeochemistry of naturally occurring and anthrop radioactivity. The mechanisms of radioactive element transfer in the atmosphere, tropospheric and stratospheric diffusion of radioactivity, environmental contamination from accidents and the impact of atmospheric pollution on the food chain, soil and plants, are analyzed and the analytical methods are illustrated. The question of natural radioactivity concentration in building materials is addressed too. While the book contains many case studies and data for Greece, it is of general value. It contributes to the development of international environmentally safe standards and economically reasonable standard regulations based on justified radiological, social and economical legislation concepts.
The interaction of the solar and heat radiation with the atmosphere and surface is the subject of the book. It is useful also for wide circle scientists involved in environmental studies. The book contains the description of 17 computer studying programs supporting different topics of courses. It includes only the base ground for comprehension of key topics and provides the accomplishment of practical works with using specially elaborated computer programs. Themes of practical works reflect main sections of mentioned courses of lectures. The packet of computer programs is added for solution of direct and inverse problems. It promotes deep and reliable comprehension of corresponding topics by students. All described approaches and computer programs are valuable resources for solving radiative transfer problems and they could be used by students for courses and diploma studies concerned atmospheric optics.
Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing
radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic
and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation
exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field
of radiation protection.
An extensive Part I deals with recent experimental and theoretical findings on radiation induced damage at the molecular level. It includes many contributions on electron and positroncollisions with biologically relevant molecules. X-ray and ion interactions are also covered. Part II addresses different approaches to radiation damage modelling. In Part III biomedical aspects of radiation effects are treated on different scales. After the physics-oriented focus of the previous parts, there is a gradual transition to biology and medicine with the increasing size of the object studied. Finally, Part IV is dedicated to current trends and novel techniques in radiation reserach and the applications hence arising. It includes new developments in radiotherapy and related cancer therapies, as well as technical optimizations of accelerators and totally new equipment designs, giving a glimpse of the near future of radiation-based medical treatments."
Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.
An essential reference for journalists, activists, and students, this book presents scientifically accurate and accessible overviews of twenty-four of the most important issues in the nuclear realm, including: health effects, nuclear safety and engineering, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, transport of nuclear materials, spent fuel, nuclear weapons, and global warming. Each 'brief' is based on interviews with named scientists, engineers, or administrators in a nuclear specialty, and each has been reviewed by a team of independent experts. The objective is not to make a case for or against nuclear-related technologies, but rather to provide definitive background information. (The approach is based on that of ""The Reporter's Environmental Handbook"", published in 1988, which won a special award for journalism from the Sigma Delta Chi Society of professional journalists.) Other features of the book include: a glossary of hundreds of terms; an introduction to risk assessment; environmental and economic impacts, and public perceptions; an article by an experienced reporter with recommendations about how to cover nuclear issues; quick guides to the history of nuclear power in the United States, important federal legislation and regulations, nuclear position statements, and key organizations; and, references for print and electronic resources.
When we first contemplated a book on this subject we were faced with a number of options: (a) to write it all ourselves, which would have had the merit of internal consistency and continuity of style; (b) to produce a collection of existing papers. which would have given us expert views in the various sub-fields of the economics of nuclear energy and would have put us in the position of knowing from the start exactly what the authors' contribu tions would be: (c) to commission contributions from individual specialists, chapter by chapter; or (d) some combination of these options. We settled for the last - we have written some of the material ourselves, have obtained permission to use some existing papers that seem to us to be valuable contributions to the subject, and have been fortunate in persuading a number of eminent people in their fields to produce papers especially for the book. This has given us a great deal of work and taken up more time than we planned for but we believe the result justifies this time and effort. It enabled us to design a structure for the book from the outset, recognizing that there are several aspects to the economics of nuclear energy - especially if we take a broad view of what is embraced by the word 'economics'."
During the late 1990s, the Department of Energy (DOE) had difficulties with a lack of clear management authority and responsibility that contributed to security problems at the nation's nuclear weapons laboratories and management problems with major projects. In response, Congress created the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) as a separately organised agency within the DOE under the NNSA Act. The NNSA is responsible for managing nuclear weapons and non-proliferation-related national security activities in laboratories and other facilities, collectively known as the nuclear security enterprise. This book examines the problems that have arisen with the nuclear security enterprise, from projects' cost and schedule overruns to inadequate oversight of safety and security at NNSA's sites. With the NNSA proposing to spend tens of billions of dollars to modernise its facilities, it is important to ensure scarce resources are spent in an effective and efficient manner.
In recent decades radiobiologists' efforts have been directed at identifying the mechanisms of radiation effects; the general mechanisms have since been studied extensively. This book describes and analyzes radiation-induced adaptation as processes produced in cells, tissues, and populations. This viewpoint helps to understand the nature and factors of induced processes, to determine the characteristics of observed radiation effects and their limitations. The investigations presented here were founded on proper lab experiments, ecological studies of plant population growth near an operating nuclear power plant and a thorough epidemiological examination of human populations living in territories polluted fifty years ago, as well as on relevant published data. This research demonstrates the radiation-induced adaptation processes that continue even when the radiation itself is no longer at a critical background level. The investigations utilized the method of statistical modeling on the basis of distributions on the number of abnormalities. This method allows us to investigate the processes induced by low-dose factors when accompanied by Darwinian selection in different systems; the distribution parameters can then be used to study the characteristics of adaptation processes and system resistance. The consequences of background-level radiation continue to provoke debate, and the mathematical bases of the adaptation model are shown, while due consideration is paid to the components of adaptation: instability, selection, and proliferation. The book will be especially useful to specialists in radiation pollution, ecology, epidemiology, and radiology for studies of radiation-induced processes; the method presented here can also be adapted to investigate low-dose effects in other fields. In addition, the book presents a number of reviews in the fields of radiation biology, including pioneering investigations in Russia which were previously unavailable to Western scientists.
The basic logic is very simple. Countries around the globe have a need for more electrical generating capacity because of increases in population and increases in energy use per capita. The needs are constrained by the requirement that the ba- load energy source be economical, secure, and not emit climate-changing gases. Nuclear power fits this description. Therefore, many countries that have not had a nuclear power program (or only had a small program) see a need to develop one in the future. However, the development of a national nuclear energy program is not so simple. The purpose of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Nuclear Power and Energy Security was to contribute to our understanding of how these programs might evolve. The workshop took place 26-29 May 2009 in Yerevan, Armenia. Approximately 50 participants discussed the infrastructure that is needed and some of the reactor options that might be considered. The papers in this book helped define the discussion that took place. The infrastructure that is needed includes a legal framework, a functioning regulator, a plan for waste disposal, a plan for emergency response, etc. These needs were explained and just as importantly, it was explained what international, bilateral, and regional cooperation is available. Although there were many co- tries represented, the Armenian experience was of particular interest because of where the meeting was located. The papers on reactor options covered both innovative and evolutionary designs.
This book grew out of projects funded by the Kentucky Human ities Council in 1974 and 1975 and by the Environmental Protec tion Agency in 1976 and 1977. As a result of the generosity of these two agencies, I was able to study the logical, methodological, and ethical assumptions inherent in the decision to utilize nuclear fission for generating electricity. Since both grants gave me the opportunity to survey public policy-making, I discovered that there were critical lacunae in allegedly comprehensive analyses of various energy technologies. Ever since this discovery, one of my goals has been to fill one of these gaps by writing a well-docu men ted study of some neglected social and ethical questions regarding nuclear power. Although many assessments of atomic energy written by en vironmentalists are highly persuasive, they often also are overly emotive and question-begging. Sometimes they employ what seem to be correct ethical conclusions, but they do so largely in an in tuitive, rather than a closely-reasoned, manner. On the other hand, books and reports written by nuclear proponents, often under government contract, almost always ignore the social and ethical aspects of energy decision-making; they focus instead only on a purely scientific assessment of fission generation of electricity. What the energy debate needs, I believe, are more studies which aim at ethical analysis and which avoid unsubstantiated assertions. I hope that these essays are steps in that direction."
Environmental Chemistry is a relatively young science. Interest in this subject, however, is growing very rapidly and, although no agreement has been reached as yet about the exact content and limits of this interdisciplinary discipline, there appears to be increasing interest in seeing environmental topics which are based on chemistry embodied in this subject. One of the first objectives of Environ mental Chemistry must be the study of the environment and of natural chemical processes which occur in the environment. A major purpose of this series on Environmental Chemistry, therefore, is to present a reasonably uniform view of various aspects of the chemistry of the environment and chemical reactions occurring in the environment. The industrial activities of man have given a new dimension to Environ mental Chemistry. We have now synthesized and described over five million chemical compounds and chemical industry produces about hundred and fifty million tons of synthetic chemicals annually. We ship billions of tons of oil per year and through mining operations and other geophysical modifications, large quantities of inorganic and organic materials are released from their natural deposits. Cities and metropolitan areas of up to 15 million inhabitants produce large quantities of waste in relatively small and confined areas. Much of the chemical products and waste products of modern society are released into the environment either during production, storage, transport, use or ultimate disposal. These released materials participate in natural cycles and reactions and frequently lead to interference and disturbance of natural systems."
This book examines the U.S.-foreign partnership efforts to prevent nuclear smuggling and terrorist travel. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) established the Megaports Initiative in 2003 to deter, detect, and interdict nuclear or other radiological materials smuggled through foreign seaports. The Initiative funds the installation of radiation detection equipment at select seaports overseas and trains foreign personnel to use this equipment to scan shipping containers entering and leaving these seaports, regardless of destination. Additionally, the U.S. government has identified four key gaps in foreign countries' capacity to prevent terrorist travel overseas. The book evaluates how U.S. capacity-building efforts address those gaps and assesses the extent to which the U.S. government is measuring progress in its efforts to close those gaps.
You may like...
The Radium Girls - They paid with their…
Kate Moore Paperback
Too Hot to Touch - The Problem of…
William M. Alley, Rosemarie Alley Hardcover
Atomic Accidents - A History of Nuclear…
James Mahaffey Paperback (2)
A Study of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear…
Michio Ishikawa Paperback
Geologic Disposal of High-Level…
Roland Pusch, Raymond N. Yong, … Hardcover R3,794 Discovery Miles 37 940
Manual for Survival - A Chernobyl Guide…
Kate Brown Paperback (1)
Nuclear Emergencies - A Holistic…
Georg Steinhauser, Akio Koizumi, … Paperback R2,531 Discovery Miles 25 310
Environmental Contamination from the…
Teruyuki Nakajima, Toshimasa Ohara, … Hardcover R2,709 Discovery Miles 27 090
Midnight in Chernobyl - The Untold Story…
Adam Higginbotham Paperback (1)
Chernobyl - History of a Tragedy
Serhii Plokhy Paperback (1)