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The main outcomes of RILEM TC-226-CNM are summarized in this book. Key input was provided by researchers from countries that are main contributors in the R&D, design, construction, operation, and regulation of waste nuclear reinforced concrete facilities. Nuclear power plants and many of the facilities and structures used for the management of radioactive waste materials generated by the fuel cycle use concrete in their construction. RILEM TC 226 CNM covered several areas including functional and performance requirements for concrete structures; degradation processes; phenomenological modelling, field experiences, tests approaches, instrumentation and monitoring methods dedicated to performance assessments; service-life models; aging Management of Nuclear Power Plants, repair techniques; codes and standards specific to radioactive waste facilities.
On March 11,2011, Japan experienced the largest earthquake in its history, causing massive property damage. This book summarizes and critically analyzes the natural events and human shortcomings responsible for the failure of the Fukushima reactors during the first year following the accident, and governmental and civilian responses to the emergency. It covers the plant's safety history, the tsunami and earthquake, and the implications of the events on the nuclear reactor industry.
This book examines nuclear oversight, planning and safety efforts at U.S. nuclear power reactors across the United States. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), an independent federal agency headed by five commissioners, licenses commercial nuclear power reactors and regulates and oversees their safe operation and security. An NRC task force has reviewed the Fukushima Daiichi disaster in Japan and determined that the continued operation of existing U.S. nuclear power reactors and the licensing of new reactors do not pose an imminent risk to public health and safety. The disaster in Japan, caused by a tsunami, was more severe than the plant was designed to withstand, and has raised questions about whether a similar event could happen here. These questions were further highlighted by natural hazards that affected the sites of several U.S. commercial nuclear power plants and their reactors in 2011, including flooding near two power plants in Nebraska, severe storms at a plant in Alabama, and an earthquake at a plant in Virginia.
This book presents the results from the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency's 3-year intensive monitoring of radionuclides in a variety of fish, plankton, benthos, and their living environments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in March 2011. The book reveals the dynamics of contamination processes in marine and freshwater fish, mediated by the contamination of water, sediments, and food organisms; it also clarifies the mechanisms by which large variations in the level of contamination occurs among individual fish. Most importantly, the book includes a large amount of original measurement data collected in situ and for the first time assesses diffusion of radiocesium across the Pacific using both in situ data and a numerical simulation model. Also introduced are several new approaches to evaluate the impact of the release of radionuclides, including the measurement of radiation emission from an otolith section to identify the main period of contamination in fish. The FNPP accident represents a rare instance where the environmental radioactivity level was elevated steeply through atmospheric fallout and direct discharge of radioactive water into the sea over a short period of time. Replete with precise scientific data, this book will serve as an important resource for research in fields such as fishery science, oceanography, ecology, and environmentology, and also as a solid basis for protecting fisheries from damage resulting from harmful rumors among the general public.
This book covers essential aspects of transmutation technologies, highlighting especially the advances in Japan. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has caused us to focus attention on a large amount of spent nuclear fuels stored in NPPs. In addition, public anxiety regarding the treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes that require long-term control is growing. The Japanese policy on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is still unpredictable in the aftermath of the accident. Therefore, research and development for enhancing the safety of various processes involved in nuclear energy production are being actively pursued worldwide. In particular, nuclear transmutation technology has been drawing significant attention after the accident.
This publication is timely with the following highlights: 1) Development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs), which is a brand-new reactor concept for transmutation of highly radioactive wastes; 2) Nuclear reactor systems from the point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle. How to reduce nuclear wastes or how to treat them including the debris from TEPCO s Fukushima nuclear power stations is discussed; and 3) Environmental radioactivity, radioactive waste treatment and geological disposal policy.
State-of-the-art technologies for overall back-end issues of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the technologies of transmutation are presented here. The chapter authors are actively involved in the development of ADSs and transmutation-related technologies. The future of the back-end issues in Japan is very uncertain after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP and this book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of those issues."
***Winner of the L.H.M. Ling Outstanding First Book Prize 2020*** ***Shortlisted for the Bread and Roses Award 2020*** Since the first atomic bomb exploded over Hiroshima, the history of nuclear warfare has been tangled with the spaces and places of scientific research and weapons testing, armament and disarmament, pacifism and proliferation. Nuclear geography gives us the tools to understand these events, and the extraordinary human cost of nuclear weapons. Disarming Doomsday explores the secret history of nuclear weapons by studying the places they build and tear apart, from Los Alamos to Hiroshima. It looks at the legacy of nuclear imperialism from weapons testing on Christmas Island and across the South Pacific, as well as the lasting harm this has caused to indigenous communities and the soldiers that conducted the tests. For the first time, these complex geographies are tied together. Disarming Doomsday takes us forward, describing how geographers and geotechnology continue to shape nuclear war, and, perhaps, help to prevent it.
Homer speaks of lightning bolts after which 'a grim reek of sulphur bursts forth' and the air was '?lled with reeking brimstone'. (Homer 3000 BC). The odour was not actually the smell of sulphur dioxide associated with burning sulphur, but rather was the ?rst recorded detection of the presence of another strong odour, that of ozone (O ) in Earth's atmosphere. These molecules were formed by the passage of 3 lightning through the air, created by splitting the abundant molecular oxygen (O ) 2 molecules into two, followed by the addition of each of the free O atoms to another O to form the triatomic product. In fact, most of the ozone molecules present 2 in the atmosphere at any time have been made by this same two-step splitti- plus-combination process, although the initiating cause usually begins with very energetic solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation rather than lightning. Many thousands of years later, the modern history of ozone began with its synthesis in the laboratory of H. F. Schonbein in 1840 (Nolte 1999), although the positive con?rmation of its three-oxygen atom chemical formula came along sometime later. Scienti?c interest in high-altitude stratospheric ozone dates back to 1881 when Hartley measured the spectrum of ozone in the laboratory and found that its ability to absorb UV light extended only to 293nm at the long wavelength end (Hartley 1881a).
The 3-volume set highlights the behavior of radionuclides in the environment and focusing on the development of related fields of study, including microbiology and nanoscience. In this context, it discusses the behavior of radionuclides released in areas of Lake Karachai in Ural, and those released as a result of Chernobyl accident (1986), and in Fukushima (2011). Volume I presents the experiences gained in South Urals ("Mayak" plant, Lake Karachai), providing a scientific basis for more precise understanding of the behavior of radionuclides in complex subsurface environments. On the basis of monitoring data, it examines the pathways of radionuclide migration and the influence of the geological environment and groundwater on the migration, with a particular focus on particles from the nanoscale to microscale. It also discusses the function of microbes and microscale particles, from their direct interaction with radionuclides to their ecological role in changing the physic-chemical condition of a given environment. Lastly, the protective properties of geological media are also characterized, and mathematical modeling of contaminant migration in the area of Lake Karachai is used to provide information regarding the migration of radionuclides.
An investigation into our complicated 7-decade-long relationship with nuclear technology, from the bomb to nuclear accidents to nuclear waste.
From Hiroshima to Chernobyl, Fukushima to the growing legacy of lethal radioactive waste, humanity's struggle to conquer atomic energy is rife with secrecy, deceit, human error, blatant disregard for life, short-sighted politics, and fear. Fallout is an eye-opening odyssey through the first eight decades of this struggle and the radioactive landscapes it has left behind. We are, he finds, forever torn between technological hubris and all-too-human terror about what we have created.
At first, Pearce reminds us, America loved the bomb. Las Vegas, only seventy miles from the Nevada site of some hundred atmospheric tests, crowned four Miss Atomic Bombs in 1950s. Later, communities downwind of these tests suffered high cancer rates. The fate of a group of Japanese fishermen, who suffered high radiation doses from the first hydrogen bomb test in Bikini atoll, was worse. The United States Atomic Energy Commission accused them of being Red spies and ignored requests from the doctors desperately trying to treat them.
Pearce moves on to explore the closed cities of the Soviet Union, where plutonium was refined and nuclear bombs tested throughout the '50s and '60s, and where the full extent of environmental and human damage is only now coming to light. Exploring the radioactive badlands created by nuclear accidents--not only the well-known examples of Chernobyl and Fukushima, but also the little known area around Satlykovo in the Russian Ural Mountains and the Windscale fire in the UK--Pearce describes the compulsive secrecy, deviousness, and lack of accountability that have persisted even as the technology has morphed from military to civilian uses.
Finally, Pearce turns to the toxic legacies of nuclear technology: the emerging dilemmas over handling its waste and decommissioning of the great radioactive structures of the nuclear age, and the fearful doublethink over the world's growing stockpiles of plutonium, the most lethal and ubiquitous product of nuclear technologies.
For any reader who craves a clear-headed examination of the tangled relationship between a powerful technology and human politics, foibles, fears, and arrogance, Fallout is the definitive look at humanity's nuclear adventure.
The magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, claiming over 20,000 lives. It crippled the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, whose hydrogen-air explosions contaminated wide areas around Fukushima with radionuclides. The number of evacuees initially totaled 328,903, but has been reduced to 263,392 as of February 13, 2014. More than half of the evacuees (132,500) consist of Fukushima residents, and 67% of whom have experienced mental or physical disorders. Indeed, refugee life is so difficult that many Fukushima families have been affected by suicide, divorce, separation of family members, migration and settlement to other places, mental illness, etc. The difficulty is caused by the fear of low-dose radiation induced by the LNT model which claims that radiation cancer risk is linearly proportional to dose without any threshold. Careful scrutiny of the model, however, clearly indicates that the linearity is invalid; low dose radiation is not hazardous, but is even beneficial or hormetic because of the adaptive response to radiation. This book provides ample evidence to negate the LNT model. This book is primarily compiled to get rid of the spell of the LNT model and release Fukushima people from undue torture. The book would also be useful to the public in general who have CT scans and have concerns. In addition, the people who use radiation world-wide such as nuclear power plant workers, radiation researchers, radiologists, and X-ray operators would be relieved to learn from reading this book that the alleged risk of low-dose radiation is illusionary and that the low-dose radiation is even beneficial. Policy makers of nuclear energy and radiation who are working for governmental and/or regulatory agencies are also recommended to read this book. Severe guidelines from a safety standpoint sometimes entrap people into a fear-stricken situation rather than save them, as no one was killed by radiation directly, but more than 1,000 people have been killed by the fear of radiation secondarily in Fukushima. By the same token, this book is recommended to civil activists and journalists who emphasise dangers of low-dose radiation and raise fear of low-dose radiation. It is the time to shed new scientific light on the outdated LNT model.
This is the second in a series of three proceedings of the 20th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference (PBNC). This volume covers the topics of Operation and Maintenance, Supply Capability and Quality Control, Fuel Cycles, as well as New Technology and New Applications. As one in the most important and influential conference series of nuclear science and technology, the 20th PBNC was held in Beijing and the theme of this meeting was "Nuclear: Powering the Development of the Pacific Basin and the World". It brought together outstanding nuclear scientist and technical experts, senior industry executives, senior government officials and international energy organization leaders from all across the world. The book is not only a good summary of the new developments in the field, but also a useful guideline for the researchers, engineers and graduate students.
Covers the fundamentals of combined-cycle plants to provide background for understanding the progressive design approaches at the heart of the text Discusses the types of compact heat exchanger surfaces, suggesting novel designs that can be considered for optimal cost effectiveness and maximum energy production Undertakes the thermal analysis of these compact heat exchangers throughout the life cycle, from the design perspective through operational and safety assurance stages This book describes the quest to create novel designs for compact heat exchangers in support of emergent combined cycle nuclear plants. The text opens with a concise explanation of the fundamentals of combined cycles, describing their efficiency impacts on electrical power generation systems. It then covers the implementation of these principles in nuclear reactor power systems, focusing on the role of compact heat exchangers in the combined cycle loop and applying them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power systems. The various types of compact heat exchanger surfaces and designs are given thorough consideration before the author turns his attention to discussing current and projected reactor systems, and how the novel design of these compact heat e xchangers can be applied to innovative designs, operation and safety analyses to optimize thermal efficiency. The book is written at an undergraduate level, but will be useful to practicing engineers and scientists as well.
On April 26, 1986, Unit Four of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor exploded in then Soviet Ukraine. More than 3.5 million people in Ukraine alone, not to mention many citizens of surrounding countries, are still suffering the effects. "Life Exposed" is the first book to comprehensively examine the vexed political, scientific, and social circumstances that followed the disaster. Tracing the story from an initial lack of disclosure to post-Soviet democratizing attempts to compensate sufferers, Adriana Petryna uses anthropological tools to take us into a world whose social realities are far more immediate and stark than those described by policymakers and scientists. She asks: What happens to politics when state officials fail to inform their fellow citizens of real threats to life? What are the moral and political consequences of remedies available in the wake of technological disasters?
Through extensive research in state institutions, clinics, laboratories, and with affected families and workers of the so-called Zone, Petryna illustrates how the event and its aftermath have not only shaped the course of an independent nation but have made health a negotiated realm of entitlement. She tracks the emergence of a "biological citizenship" in which assaults on health become the coinage through which sufferers stake claims for biomedical resources, social equity, and human rights. "Life Exposed" provides an anthropological framework for understanding the politics of emergent democracies, the nature of citizenship claims, and everyday forms of survival as they are interwoven with the profound changes that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The book analyses the risks of nuclear power stations. The security concept of reactors is explained. Measures against the spread of radioactivity after a severe accident, accidents of core melting and a possible crash of an air plane on reactor containment are discussed. The book covers three scientific subjects of the safety concepts of Light Water Reactors: - A first part describes the basic safety design concepts of operating German Pressurized Water Reactors and Boiling Water Reactors including accident management measures introduced after the reactor accidents of Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. These safety concepts are also compared with the experiences of the Fukushima accidents. In addition, the safety design concepts of the future modern European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and of the future modern Boiling Water Reactor SWR-1000 (KERENA) are presented. These are based on new safety research results of the past decades. - In a second, part the possible crash of military or heavy commercial air planes on reactor containment is analyzed. It is shown that reactor containments can be designed to resist to such an airplane crash. - In a third part, an online decision system is presented. It allows to analyze the distribution of radioactivity in the atmosphere and to the environment after a severe reactor accident. It provides data for decisions to be taken by authorities for the minimization of radiobiological effects to the population. This book appeals to readers who have an interest in save living conditions and some understanding for physics or engineering.
This book discusses nuclear events that may become imminent threats to the fabric of our society, and elucidates strategies for preventing these threats or mitigating their adverse effects. It addresses multidisciplinary aspects of various nuclear emergencies, including nuclear accidents, terror attacks involving nuclear materials, illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, and problems related to nuclear forensics and strikes with nuclear weapons/warheads. Very often, nuclear emergencies are only discussed within certain, specific communities. However, this volume brings together experts from various fields to provide a more holistic approach to the problem. Physical, chemical, environmental, social, and medical scientists, together with representatives from the media and authorities, present their views on and strategies for events that cause fear and anxiety among the public - an aspect that can be even more threatening than the direct health effects. The book offers a valuable guide for nuclear scientists, such as radioecologists, health physicists, radioanalytical scientists and nuclear engineers, as well as decision-makers and national/international authorities.
This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.
The study of nuclear weapons is dominated by a single theory - that of the nuclear revolution, or mutual assured destruction (MAD). Although such theorists largely perceive nuclear competition as irrational and destined for eventual stalemate, the nuclear arms race between superpowers during the second half of the Cold War is a glaring anomaly that flies in the face of this logic. In this detailed historical account, Brendan Green presents an alternate theoretical explanation for how the United States navigated nuclear stalemate during the Cold War. Motivated by the theoretical and empirical puzzles of the Cold War arms race, Green explores the technological, perceptual, and 'constitutional fitness' incentives that were the driving forces behind US nuclear competition. Green hypothesizes that states can gain peacetime benefits from effective nuclear competition, reducing the risk of crises, bolstering alliance cohesion, and more. He concludes that the lessons of the Cold War arms race remain relevant today: they will influence the coming era of great power competition and could potentially lead to an upsurge in future US government nuclear competition.
When the Nuclear Safety Commission in Japan reviewed safety-design guidelines for nuclear plants in 1990, the regulatory agency explicitly ruled out the need to consider prolonged AC power loss. In other words, nothing like the catastrophe at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was possible-no tsunami of 45 feet could swamp a nuclear power station and knock out its emergency systems. No blackout could last for days. No triple meltdown could occur. Nothing like this could ever happen. Until it did-over the course of a week in March 2011. In this volume and in gripping detail, the Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, a civilian-led group, presents a thorough and powerful account of what happened within hours and days after this nuclear disaster, the second worst in history. It documents the findings of a working group of more than thirty people, including natural scientists and engineers, social scientists and researchers, business people, lawyers, and journalists, who researched this crisis involving multiple simultaneous dangers. They conducted over 300 investigative interviews to collect testimony from relevant individuals. The responsibility of this committee was to act as an external ombudsman, summarizing its conclusions in the form of an original report, published in Japanese in February 2012. This has now been substantially rewritten and revised for this English-language edition. The work reveals the truth behind the tragic saga of the multiple catastrophic accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.It serves as a valuable and essential historical reference, which will help to inform and guide future nuclear safety and policy in both Japan and internationally.
The United States and its allies are in a complex nuclear age, with potential adversaries modernising their arsenals, new nuclear technologies emerging, and potential new proliferants -- as well as regional challenges -- raising significant concerns. Nuclear forces provide the ultimate guarantee against major war and coercion, serving both to deter the use of weapons and to support nonproliferation initiatives. This book summarises the findings of a Congressional Advisory Panel on the current health of the nuclear security enterprise, examines the root causes of its governance challenges, and offers recommendations to address the identified problems. Furthermore, the book addresses how the Nuclear Weapons Council (Council) carries out its statutory and regulatory responsibilities and any challenges it faces in doing so and the extent to which the Council's actions are consistent with key practices for interagency collaboration.
Every nuclear weapons program for decades has relied extensively on illicit imports of nuclear-related technologies. This book offers the most detailed public account of how states procure what they need to build nuclear weapons, what is currently being done to stop them, and how global efforts to prevent such trade could be strengthened. While illicit nuclear trade can never be stopped completely, effective steps to block illicit purchases of nuclear technology have sometimes succeeded in slowing nuclear weapons programs and increasing their costs, giving diplomacy more chance to work. Hence, this book argues, preventing illicit transfers wherever possible is a key element of an effective global non-proliferation strategy.
This book presents new information on radiobiology that more clearly refutes the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption and supports radiation hormesis. Fresh light is cast on the mechanisms of radiation hormesis and the potential benefits of low-dose ionizing radiation in preventing and treating a wide variety of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. It is proposed that these effects may derive from cellular communication via electromagnetic waves directed by DNA, with each cell acting as a quantum computer. Readers will also find close analysis of the negative impacts of radiophobia on many aspects of modern life, including attitudes to imaging technologies, licensing of nuclear power reactors, and preparedness for survival of nuclear war. The book will be of interest to researchers and scientists in radiobiology, radiation protection, health physics, medical physics, and radiology. Specifically, it will provide medical physicians, radiation oncologists, radiation epidemiologists, gerontologists, cell biologists, toxicologists, and nuclear engineers with a wide range of interesting facts and enlightening novel perspectives.
This book is dedicated to the great scientist and outstanding individual Nikolay Wladimirovich Timofeeff-Ressovsky. The book brings together a number of brief stories/essays about Timofeeff-Ressovsky including "Stories told by himself", and scientific chapters addressing his major research areas: genetics, radiobiology, radiation ecology and epidemiology, and evolution. Timofeeff-Ressovsky contributed to several fields of biology and established new directions of scientific research. He often repeated the phrase, which would later become famous: "Science should not be approached with the ferocity of wild animals". In keeping with that philosophy, the issues discussed here are still open. Each scientific part starts with a current review; the chapters present leading scientific schools and views. The main theme discussed in the genetics part is mutation variability in the context of linear (replication, transcription, translation) and conformational template processes, and its dependence on phylogenetic group. In turn, the radiobiology chapters focus on the reorganization of DNA, cell, and population variability under low-dose irradiation, sparking indirect processes and adaptive response. The radiation ecology and epidemiology parts present data on the consequences of nuclear plants and related accidents for ecological systems and human beings. Here some approaches to estimating radiation risks are also offered. Evolution laws are demonstrated in the genomic universe, plant-microbe symbiosis, stabilizing and destabilizing (directional) selection. The last essay demonstrates the principles of organization operating in local animal populations, which are approached as social organisms of complex systemic nature. The chapter 'Radiation-Induced Aging and Genetic Instability of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An Issue for Late Health Effects?' is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
Almost 30 years ago, Congress addressed increasing concerns regarding the management of the nation's growing stockpile of nuclear waste by calling for the federal collection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for safe, permanent disposal. Passed in 1982, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) was an effort to establish an explicit statutory basis for the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose of the nation's most highly radioactive nuclear waste. The NWPA requires DOE to remove spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power plants, in exchange for a fee, and transport it to a permanent geologic repository or an interim storage facility before permanent disposal. This book explores the effects of a termination of the Yucca Mountain Repository Program with a focus on the need for a comprehensive DOE strategy that supports environmental cleanup decisions.
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster in 2011 many concerned citizens-particularly mothers-were unconvinced by the Japanese government's assurances that the country's food supply was safe. They took matters into their own hands, collecting their own scientific data that revealed radiation-contaminated food. In Radiation Brain Moms and Citizen Scientists Aya Hirata Kimura shows how, instead of being praised for their concern about their communities' health and safety, they faced stiff social sanctions, which dismissed their results by attributing them to the work of irrational and rumor-spreading women who lacked scientific knowledge. These citizen scientists were unsuccessful at gaining political traction, as they were constrained by neoliberal and traditional gender ideologies that dictated how private citizens-especially women-should act. By highlighting the challenges these citizen scientists faced, Kimura provides insights into the complicated relationship between science, foodways, gender, and politics in post-Fukushima Japan and beyond.
The March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant led to a worldwide review of nuclear power programs. NRC licenses and oversees civilian nuclear reactors. The State Department coordinates policy matters with international organisations and treaties, including those dealing with nuclear safety. This book examines the actions nuclear regulatory bodies from selected countries have taken to strengthen nuclear safety; the extent to which these countries have established automated systems to collect and transmit accident data; and steps international organisations have taken to support nuclear regulatory bodies and promote nuclear safety worldwide since the accident.
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