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Although there are some biological processes that are supported by
UV radiation, most organisms are stressed by it in various ways,
e.g. through DNA damage.
A good number of misconceptions are currently circulating on the
effects of non-ionizing radiations on our health, which can lead to
an oversimplification of the issue, to potentially dangerous
assumptions or to misleading data analysis. Health effects may be
exaggerated, or on the contrary underplayed. The authors of this
work (doctors, engineers and researchers) have endeavored to supply
validated and easily understandable scientific information on the
electromagnetic fields and their biological and health effects.
After a general review of the physics of the waves and a
presentation of non-ionizing radiations, the authors review the
main emission sources encountered in our daily environment. They
summarize simply but as accurately as possible the current
knowledge on their biological effects.
This volume focuses on the human exposures and medical effects studies in the SemipaiatinskJ Altai region of Siberia that were a consequence of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions that took place at the Semipalatinsk Test Site of the former Soviet Union. It contains a detailed account of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) devoted to the subject, and a selection of the papers presented. The title of the ARW was "Long-term Consequences of Nuclear Tests for the Environment and Population Health (SemipaiatinskJAltai Case Studies)." The estimated exposures to large numbers of people in the Altai lie in an important dose rate and dose domain. Hence the research reported herein provides new and unique information on the effects of radiation on humans. Also emphasized at the ARW were studies involving fallout from the Pacific Island tests of the U. S. A . . There have been over 2300 nuclear weapon test explosions to date. More than 500 took place in the atmosphere and outer space; the remainder were underground. The atmospheric tests comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released into the earth's atmosphere to date. The vast majority, in number and yield, were carried out by the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the United States. Each superpower maintained two primary test sites, one continental primarily for small yield tests, and the other more remote for larger yield tests. For the U. S. A.
The dramatic decrease in the incidence of stomach cancer in industrialized countries during the past 50 years, which is yet to be fully explained, and the observation that carcinogenesis in laboratory animals can be inhibited by antioxidants, retinoids, and caloric restriction, among other influences, challenge us to press on in the search for practical means to prevent cancer. It is in relation to this goal that the studies summarized in this book have special significance. This book is based on the invited and contributed papers presented at the Third Internationai Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection, held on October 15-21, 1989, in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. They cover a broad range of investigations into the mechanisms and inhibition of carcinogenesis. In keeping with recent advances in our understanding of the importance of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in carcinogenesis, many of the reports focus on mutations and related changes at the level of DNA. At the same time, however, other reports deal with nutritional, immunological, endocrinological, and epidemiological aspects. In all, the various reports address carcinogenesis and its inhibition at virtually every level of biological organization. Included in this compendium are timely reviews of diverse and promising research strategies for cancer prevention, as pursued by investigators in different parts of the world. The Organizers of the Conference are grateful to the many scientists who have contributed to the volume, as well as to the sponsors of the Conference, without whose generous support this book would not have been possible.
E.P. Wigner, one of the leading scientists involved in the early development of nuclear technology, had always in mind its political and social implications. In the 60s persuing his goal of a peaceful open world he began to develop the concept of Civil Defense against nuclear attacks. Looking back one might see this as an alternative to the concept of the Nuclear Shield. The present volume contains a selection of Wigner's writings on this subject. It is annotated by Conrad Chester.
Among the many technical innovations that were introduced after World War II, none left as strong an impression on the public as the atom bombs that destroyed two Japanese cities in August 1945. People spoke of the 'atomic age' that had now begun, as if this technological innovation would, all by itself, shape a new world. The atomic age was described as one that might soon end in the destruction of human civilization, but from the beginning, utopian images were attached to it as well. Nuclear technology offered the promise of applications in medicine, agriculture, and engineering, and nuclear power could theoretically provide an unlimited supply of energy. This book demonstrates and attempts to explain how the popular media represented nuclear power, in its military and non-military forms. It focuses on the first two decades of the 'atomic age, ' when national governments, military strategists, scientists, and the public attempted to come to terms with a technology that so drastically seemed to change the prospects for the future. Popular magazines, comics, newspapers, public exhibitions from across the world are examined to compare representations of nuclear power in different countries and to trace divergences, convergences, and exchanges.
The Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011 led Japan, and many other countries, to change their energy policies. David Elliott reviews the disaster and its global implications, asking whether, despite continued backing by some governments, the growing opposition to nuclear power means the end of the global nuclear renaissance.
The disposal of nuclear waste is becoming a major concern. Many nuclear power plants around the world are nearing the end of their operating lives. This is particularly true in the United States where most nuclear power plants are approaching the end of the operational time period allowed in their licenses. The disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and nuclear missiles is as politically intense an issue as the plants and missiles themselves. Yet the three issues have remained curiously separate in spite of their close physical ties. Few debates on nuclear power or nuclear weapons discuss the problems of waste disposal should the power plant or missile be decommissioned. Few debates on nuclear waste disposal discuss the opportunities to close nuclear power plants or get rid of nuclear weapons a disposal site would afford. Nuclear waste can be generally classified a either "low level" radioactive waste or "high level" radioactive waste. Low level nuclear waste usually includes material used to handle the highly radioactive parts of nuclear reactors (i.e. cooling water pipes and radiation suits) and waste from medical procedures involving radioactive treatments or x-rays. Low level waste is comparatively easy to dispose of. The level of radioactivity and the half life of the radioactive isotopes in low level waste is relatively small. Storing the waste for a period of 10 to 50 years will allow most of the radioactive isotopes in low level waste to decay, at which point the waste can be disposed of as normal refuse. High level radioactive waste is generally material from the core of the nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon. This waste includes uranium, plutonium, and other highly radioactive elements made during fission. Most of the radioactive isotopes in high level waste emit large amounts of radiation and have extremely long half-lives (some longer than 100,000 years) creating long time periods before the waste will settle to safe levels of radioactivity. This new book explores the issues pertaining, either directly or indirectly, to nuclear waste disposal.
The earthquake and resulting tsunami that severely damaged Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on March 11, 2011, raised questions in Congress about the accident's possible implications for nuclear safety regulation, U.S. nuclear energy expansion, and radioactive waste policy. This book explores the current nuclear energy issues facing Congress which include federal incentives for new commercial reactors, power plant safety and regulation, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
Global power is shifting to Asia. The U.S. military is embarking on an American "pivot" to the Indo-Pacific region, and the bulk of global arms spending is directed toward Asian theaters. India and Pakistan are thought to be building up their nuclear arsenals while questions persist about China's potential to "sprint to parity." China remains by far the world's largest market for new nuclear energy production, and India aspires to be on a similar trajectory.
Despite these trends, "The China-India Nuclear Crossroads" is the first serious book by leading Chinese and Indian experts to examine the political, military, and technical factors that affect Sino-Indian nuclear relations. In this book, editor and translator Lora Saalman presents a comprehensive framework through which China and India can pursue enhanced cooperation and minimize the unintended consequences of their security dilemmas.
This book is based on the invited and contributed papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, on March 8-12, 1987. The conference documented developments that have taken place in areas that were addressed during the first conference in 1982. A number of new topics, such as biological response modifiers, were included because of their emerging relevance to anticarcinogenesis and radiation protection. The organization of the material in this book does not follow the conference program; rather, we have attempted to provide a different sequence for didactic reasons. The aim of the conference, which is reflected in this book, was to promote further development of mechanistic approaches to cancer prevention and treatment based on recent progress in molecular biology and free radical chemistry. At the basis of carcinogenesis lie changes in the dynamics of growth and differentiation of specific cell subpopulations in the target tissue. 'These changes are brought about by selective toxicity and modulation of gene expression that are induced by xenobiotic carcinogens and affected by physiological and genetic factors. The book deals with oxidative stress and molecular damage caused by radiation and chemical pro-oxidants and their role in carcinogenesis, and it discusses mechanisms of deregulation of the expression of oncogenes and other genes involved in carcinogenic initiation and promotion.
This publication elaborates on the role of nuclear knowledge management in a research and development (R&D) context, and on the importance of facilitating innovation and future development of nuclear technologies for nuclear power, its associated fuel cycles, and nuclear applications in medicine, industry and agriculture. It highlights aspects such as transferring and preserving knowledge, exchanging information, establishing and supporting cooperative networks, and training the next generation of nuclear experts. It concludes with basic concepts, trends and key drivers for nuclear knowledge management for R&D project managers and other workers from nuclear R&D organizations.
Since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, ionizing
radiations have been widely applied in medicine both for diagnostic
and therapeutic purposes. The risks associated with radiation
exposure and handling led to the parallel development of the field
of radiation protection.
An extensive Part I deals with recent experimental and theoretical findings on radiation induced damage at the molecular level. It includes many contributions on electron and positroncollisions with biologically relevant molecules. X-ray and ion interactions are also covered. Part II addresses different approaches to radiation damage modelling. In Part III biomedical aspects of radiation effects are treated on different scales. After the physics-oriented focus of the previous parts, there is a gradual transition to biology and medicine with the increasing size of the object studied. Finally, Part IV is dedicated to current trends and novel techniques in radiation reserach and the applications hence arising. It includes new developments in radiotherapy and related cancer therapies, as well as technical optimizations of accelerators and totally new equipment designs, giving a glimpse of the near future of radiation-based medical treatments."
As much personal journal as investigative journalism, this account traces the worsening developments at Fukushima Daiichi during the first year following the nuclear disaster. Often poetic in tone and philosophic in scope, this day-to-day reportage is peppered with the author's reflections and dramatic monologues as she investigates the public's willing blindness toward the nuclear power industry's disregard for public safety in the pursuit of profit. The book offers a unique perspective and attempts to come to terms with Fukushima's catastrophic consequences on the planet.
The message of sunspots from the interior of the Sun to the Earth's climate When Galileo was summoned before the Inquisition on April 12, 1633, the main accusations laid against him concerned the doubts he expressed about Aristotle's theory of the universe. Aristotle's idea was that the Earth was the centre of the cosmos and that all of the stars, including the Sun, turned around it. Moreover, for Aristotle and the world of the Inquisitors, the Sun was a perfect celestial body. Now, Galileo had discovered spots on the Sun. These spots were seen as imperfections, and not just surface markings, but coming from within the Sun. Worse yet, they revolved around the Sun. All this supported the newfangled theory of Copernicus, and undermined a system of thought that had reigned supreme for centuries. Man of science that he was, and a prudent Catholic too, Galileo strived all his life to prove that Copernicus' astronomical concept was compatible with the word of the Bible. He proposed that there were not two truths but a single divine truth. It was just expressed in two different languages : there was the language of the common people, with its imprecision and inconsistencies, but intuitively understandable by everyone; and then there was the precise language of science with its strict regard for observation, which only a chosen few can grasp [L. Geymonat. 1992].
Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.
Investigation of the disaster will pose questions regarding why Daiichi was constructed in an earthquake-prone zone and was still operating despite problems that had been plaguing the reactors since 1989 such as cracks in infrastructure and leaks in radioactivity. This book analyses and explores the impact of Japans 2011 nuclear crisis.
A. AULICIEMS Living organisms respond to atmospheric variability and variation, and over time morphological and process differentiations occur both within individuals and the species, as well as in the environment itself. In systems language, the concern is with the atmospheric process-response system of energy and matter flows within the biosphere. The study of such interactions between living organ isms and the atmospheric environment falls within the field of bioclimatology, alternatively referred to as biometeorology. Amongst the more readily recognizable study areas under the bioclimatolog that investigate the effects of atmospheric variation and ical umbrella are those variability upon 1. Terrestrial and aquatic ecology (zoological, botanical and ethological), natural resource production and management (including silviculture, agri culture, horticulture, and grassland, wetland, and marine systems). 2. Stress, morbidity and mortality in animals and humans (including physiolog ical and psychological adaptations). 3. The built environment (all aspects of planning, urban design, and architec ture). 4. Economic systems and social activities (including organizational, individual, and group behavior and management). In addition, bioclimatology is very much concerned with the feedback loop, that is both 5. The inadvertent modification of the atmosphere by living systems, especially human, i.e., studies of pollution, changes to atmospheric amenity, and the processes of deterioration of landscape (deforestation and desertification), and 6. The advertent modifications of natural energy and matter flows within urban areas and indoor climate constructions."
An increasing allllo~/allce because of the anthropogenically induced ozone depletion and relevant illcrca5e of the surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation (including erythemal part of the UV spectrum) has resulted in the growth of interest to total ozone (TOZ) surface and satellite observations, surface UV measurements (with an emphasis on UV -B) and. the interpretation of observation results to assess potential impacts of the UV radiation enhancement on man and biosphere. The significance of this phenomenon is diJIcrent in various cowltries. Special attention has been paid, for instance, to ozone depletion and UV radiation increase at high latitudes (this problem has also been discussed during the Workshop). It is equally clear, however, that low and mid-latitude environmental dynamics requires carefuU monitoring and assessment of environm(:ntal trends as well. Such a conclusion is especially true for the Mediterranean Region where numerous resort places are located and subject to excessive levels of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation. This is why the NATO Advanced Rcsearch Workshop "Ground-Level and Satellite Ozone Observations: Changes in the Mediterranean Region" was organized and took place in Athens (Grcccc) during the Lime period 31 October -4 November 1995. It should be pointed out, however, that presentations discussed during the Workshop went far beyond the regional scale of consideration. This has been very important, because it opened an opportwlity to analyse the Mediterrane:an environmental situation in the broader contcx1 of the European global changes.
Current climate models diverge in their assessment of global warming that will result from the anthropogenic increase in trace gases. This is because they differ in their representation of the hydrological cycle (water vapour, clouds, snow and sea ice, soil moisture) and because a direct validation in terms of sensitivity is not possible. Indirect methods and approaches are therefore necessary to verify the models efficiently. The book provides an overview on different validation approaches. The use of satellite data is particularly stressed.
where Jeremy Richardson, Albert Weale and Hugh Ward were excellent hosts at the Department of Government and Thomas Christiansen a very good roommate. Having included the UK as a country where decision processes were far less participatory (and thus 'worse' in my own view) than those in the Netherlands, I started doing my first interviews there, which were mainly intended to identify suitable case studies for research. But then I read a highly critical review of a book that had a similar topic as my study. The critique was that cases of hazardous waste siting cannot adequately be studied without understanding their national context. This made me decide to devote some attention to the legal context of hazardous waste siting in the three countries of interest (which is of course only a part of the national context) and its development through the years. The study of the UK system of environmental regulation and land use planning was not a simple issue, and I was warned various times (for instance by Andrew Blowers at the Open University) that the legislation was highly complex and easily misinterpreted. I felt personally touched by such warnings and decided that I should perhaps approach the UK system a bit less as an evil empire and maybe be a bit more 'objective' in my appraisals.
On the morning of April 26, 1986, a Soviet nuclear plant at Chernobyl (near Kiev) exploded, pouring radioactivity into the environment and setting off the worst disaster in the history of nuclear energy. Now a former Soviet scientist gives a comprehensive account of the catastrophe.
This is the first book to cover actinide nano research. It is of interest both for fundamental research into the chemistry and physics of f-block elements as well as for applied researchers such as those studying the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal and developing remediation strategies.
The authors cover important issues of the formation of actinide nano-particles, their properties and structure, environmental behavior of colloids and nanoparticles related to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, modeling and advanced methods of characterization at the nano-scale.
The goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, and to understand the interplay of its two principal sources: man-made and natural. The text examines human contributions to release of radionuclides, with an eye to future reductions, and assesses natural occurrences in an evaluation of baseline radioactivity.
Radionuclides produced by past nuclear weapon test explosions
comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released
into the earth's atmosphere to date. This volume presents data and
models about the fate of the released radionuclides and their
possible effects on human health. It is divided into the following
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