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The goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, and to understand the interplay of its two principal sources: man-made and natural. The text examines human contributions to release of radionuclides, with an eye to future reductions, and assesses natural occurrences in an evaluation of baseline radioactivity.
Radionuclides produced by past nuclear weapon test explosions
comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released
into the earth's atmosphere to date. This volume presents data and
models about the fate of the released radionuclides and their
possible effects on human health. It is divided into the following
UV radiation is an important part in the electromagnetic spectrum since the energy of the photons is great enough to produce important chemical reactions in the atmospheres of planets and satellites of our Solar System, thereby affecting the transmission of this radiation to the ground and its physical properties. Scientists have used different techniques (balloons and rockets) to access to the information contained in this radiation, but the pioneering of this new frontier has not been free of dangers.
The Sun is our main source of UV radiation and its description occupies the first two chapters of the book. The Earth is the only known location where life exists in a planetary system and therefore where the interaction of living organism with UV radiation can be tested through different epochs and on distinct species. The development of the human technology has affected the natural shield of ozone that protects complex lifeforms against damaging UV irradiation. The formation of the ozone hole and its consequences are described, together with the possible contribution of UV radiation to recent climate changes. Finally, we will discuss the the potential role of ultraviolet light in the development of life on bodies such as Mars, Europa and Titan.
The Solar System is not isolated; other external sources can contribute to the enhancement of the UV radiation in our environment. The influence of such events as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts are described, together with the consequences to terrestrial life from such events.
This book shows the state-of-the-art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, four to five contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather.
Experts agree, though it is already important, nuclear power will soon be critical to the maintenance of contemporary society. With the heightened importance of nuclear energy comes a heightened threat of terrorism. The possibility of nuclear energy infrastructure terrorism-that is, the use of weapons to cause damage to the nuclear energy industrial sector, which would have widespread, devastating effects-is very real. In Nuclear Infrastructure Protection and Homeland Security, authors Frank R. Spellman and Melissa L. Stoudt present all the information needed for nuclear infrastructure employers and employees to handle security threats they must be prepared to meet. The book focuses on three interrelated nuclear energy infrastructure segments: nuclear reactors, radioactive materials, and nuclear waste. It presents common-sense methodologies in a straightforward manner, so the text is accessible even to those with little experience with nuclear energy who are nonetheless concerned about the protection of our nuclear infrastructure. Important safety and security principles are outlined, along with security measures that can be implemented to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities.
Foreword Over the past decades, Piero Risoluti has built up an intimate knowl edge of the nuclear industry - in particular of nuclear waste man agement. In this book, his scientific understanding is apparent - for example in his comprehensive but readily understandable descrip tions of waste conditioning and disposal. Moreover, he has also been directly involved in the wider societal and political debates in the nuclear area - especially in his Italian homeland. What shines through in these pages is.his frustration at the lack of progress in im plementing disposal concepts that are judged by many to be very safe and his unfaltering drive to improve this situation. To provoke debate, the book is very deliberately written in a po larising, black and white style that can easily be labelled as "politi cally incorrect" - a characterisation that Piero will probably agree with and be amused by. Criticism is directed equally at "loud mouthed and incompetent anti-nuclear environmentalists," the "nu clear Byzantium" of the international nuclear establishment, the "in tellectual narcissism" of those nuclear experts that dare to admit the importance of societal issues, and the tendency of politicians to "in definite procrastination." These are not words chosen to avoid open confrontation of opposing views."
This volume provides an extensive overview of radiation effects on integrated circuits, offering major guidelines for coping with radiation effects on components. It contains a set of chapters based on the tutorials presented at the International School on Effects of Radiation on Embedded Systems for Space Applications (SERESSA) that was held in Manaus, Brazil, November 20-25, 2005.
A major part of this book is based on work performed by several of the national organizations that are responsible for disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, with the Author involved in the research as well in the reporting. He is greatly indebted to the organizations and to their representatives that were engaged in the projects, and to the European Commission, represented by Mr Christophe Davies, that supported the work ?nancially and otherwise. Mr Davies' services are gratefully acknowledged. The author also expresses his thanks to the following p- sons who assisted in various ways in the preparation of the book: Christer S- mar, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Sweden; Wolf S- dler, Agence National pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), France; Jan Verstricht, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie-Centre d'Etude de l'ener gie Nuc- are (SCK-CEN), Belgium; and Tilmann Rothfuchs, Gesellschaft fur ] Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GmbH (GRS), Germany. Lund, January 2008 Roland Pusch v Acknowledgment The author expresses his thanks to the following persons who assisted in va- ous ways in the preparation of the book: Christer Svemar, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB), Sweden; Wolf Seidler, Agence National pour la gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), France, and Tilmann Rothfuchs, Gesellschaft fur ] Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GmbH (GRS), Germany. vii Contents Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 National and International Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Basic Principle of Final Storage of Hazardous Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TheCROPProject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Crystalline Rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 SaltRock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Argillaceous Rock and Clastic Clay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ."
This book presents decade-long advances in atmospheric research in the Mackenzie River Basin in northern Canada, which encompasses environments representative of the coldest areas on Earth. Collaborative efforts by a team of about 100 scientists and engineers have yielded knowledge entirely transferable to other high latitude regions in America, Europe and Asia.
Biophysics is the science of physical principles underlying the "phenomenon of life" on all levels of organization. This book begins by explaining molecular and ionic interactions, movements, excitation and energy transfer, and the self-organization of supramolecular structures. Then the biological organism is introduced as a non-equilibrium system. Finally, system analyses are discussed as well as environmental biophysics, ecological interactions, growth, differentiation, and evolution. A growing number of applications in biotechnology are based on these biophysical concepts.
China is going nuclear. It is planning to increase its nuclear generation capacity by building two or three nuclear power plants every year for the next ten years, as one step towards meeting its rapidly rising energy demand. Will China be able to expand its nuclear capacity sufficiently and quickly enough to beat the urgent twin challenges it faces -- energy security and climate change? If history is the judge, perhaps not. The Politics of Nuclear Energy in China seeks to provide an answer to this question by examining the forces in China that have shaped its nuclear energy development. It highlights the economic, technical, environmental and, most importantly, political challenges facing nuclear energy development in China.
The US Environmotection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air asked the National Research Council to evaluate whether sufficient new data exist to warrant a reassessment of health risks reported in Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR V) in 1990. To respond to this request, the National Research Council assembled the Committee on Health Risks of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiations. The work of the committee was conducted in what was called the BEIR VII phase-1 study. To assist the committee during its deliberations, various scientists were consulted for advice, and a workshop on the impact of biology on risk assessment was held in collaboration with the Department of Energy Office of Health and Environmental Research. The intent of the workshop was to address the implications of new understanding of the biologic basis of radiation injury and carcinogenesis for risk assessment.
This book takes the reader through the testing of nuclear weapons during the Cold War, and describes their devastating effects on American citizens while the BIG LIE was forced on the public that fallout and radiation was safe. It contains horror stories involving government sponsored research programs which deliberately exposed infants, pregnant women, mental patients, military personnel and prisoners to dangerous levels of radiation. All conducted without the victims full knowledge and consent. America's Nuclear Legacy describes military accidents involving missiles and nuclear weapons -- come almost resulted in thermonuclear war! It describes secret nuclear testing in the US. Accidents and near catastrophes are explored involving nuclear power reactors, weapons plants, and nuclear waste sits in America and in the former Soviet Union. With the world awash with nuclear materials and terrorists the book tells of missing nuclear materials, missiles and nuclear weapons, and the race by unstable nations to obtain nuclear weapons. The ease which terrorist nations are able to obtain nuclear secrets from former Soviet scientists is described, including how easily nuclear terrorism will be waged against the United States and other nations.
Photochemical reactions play a major role in the environment including a wide range of reactions in the atmosphere, natural waters, soil and living organisms. This new volume on Environmental Photochemistry up-dates the previous edition with chapters on basic aspects including concepts of photochemical transformations and mechanistic photochemical processes in the atmosphere and water. In addition a range of applications are also detailed such as advanced photochemical oxidation processes for water and air treatment as well as applications of photocatalysis for surface treatment and nuclear fuel reprocessing. The new edition provides a critical up to date overview of the most important research in the field of environmental photochemistry.
Explores the history and challenges of nuclear energy development in China, across five main areas: politics, economics, environment, technology transfer and the nuclear fuel cycle. It emphasizes the political challenges in developing a set of long-term national strategies to ensure speedy, safe and secure nuclear energy development.
Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality and help to control metastatic cancer. Attention is also drawn to biases in epidemiological research when using the LNT assumption. The author shows how proponents of the LNT assumption consistently reject, manipulate, and deliberately ignore an overwhelming abundance of published data and falsely claim that no reliable data are available at doses of less than 100 mSv.
In 2002 Finnish Parliament decided to permit further construction of nuclear power after decades of long societal struggle. This book analyzes the major phases of the decision-making process. It is an excellent guide to understanding energy and climate policy in Finland and thus the main ideas behind the renewal of nuclear power in Europe.
Nuclear and radioactive agents are considerable concerns especially after the early 1990s and more attention has been focused on the radiation detection technologies. This book comprises the selected presentations of NATO Advanced Training Course held 26-30 May 2008 in Mugla, Turkey. The contributions represent a wide range of documents related to control, monitoring and measurement methods of nuclear / radioactive isotopes and agents for both fundamental and applied works dealing with their use for different purposes. This book presents environmental data from many locations of different countries and also contains the contributions in the detection/monitoring programs of some authors from CIS countries.
The basic goal of this book is to deal with recent developments and applications of environmental monitoring and measurement techniques of environmental radionuclides and nuclear agents as well as the auxiliary techniques. The many recent examples contributed by authors will be useful in monitoring/ measurement studies of radioactive/nuclear agents in the present environment, and can help, not only in carrying out outdoor and laboratory experiments, but also in protection of possible sources of radionuclides and nuclear agents. Especially the contributions of experts and specialists involved in this book assured the highest level of knowledge in the field of techniques for the detection of radioactive and nuclear agents.
As a result of arms control efforts over the past 50 years, nuclear material is subject to strict national controls and tough international treaties. But there are still almost no controls, other than a voluntary International Atomic Energy Agency code of conduct, on the sorts of radiological sources used to make radiological dirty bombs. Radiological sources are used all over the world for a wide range of peaceful purposes, including smoke detectors, medical devices, meteorology, mining and thermoelectric generators. There are at least eight million identified radiological sources worldwide. Their small size, portability and high value make them vulnerable to misuse and theft: the IAEA reported 272 cases of illicit trafficking in sealed radioactive sources between 1993 and 2002.
The IAEA estimates that 110 countries worldwide still fail to impose adequate controls. The time is ripe for an international convention and treaty on the safety and security of radiological sources.
This book covers expert discussions designed to enhance cooperation and assistance between NATO and Partner countries in support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) efforts to secure radioactive sources against the threat of terrorism and also to support the security agenda at the International Radiation Protection Association Congress in Buenos Aires in 2008.
In 1957 one of the two reactors built at Windscale, in Cumbria, to produce plutonium for bombs, was destroyed by fire in the world's first major nuclear accident. This text tells of the men who designed, built & operated the reactors. It also describes the fire & what followed, & considers its causes, effects & political importance.
Please note this is a 'Palgrave to Order' title (PTO). Stock of this book requires shipment from an overseas supplier. It will be delivered to you within 12 weeks. This book tells the history of nuclear age urban planning, civil defence and continuity of government programs in one of the nation's most critical Cold War targets: Washington, D.C.
At the 2005 Almaty workshop, specialists from the IAEA, Brazil, France, Kazakhstan, Poland, Russia, USA and Uzbekistan discussed safety-related issues of storing spent nuclear fuel. Fifteen papers were presented that dealt with aluminium-clad fuel discharged from research reactors worldwide, five papers were concerned with stainless steel-clad fuel from fast reactors, and two were devoted to Zircaloy-clad fuel from commercial light-water reactors.Although most attention was focused on fuel behaviour in storage pools, many countries - owing to lack of space - are beginning to dry store' spent fuel in an inert atmosphere in shielded casks. Both topics were covered thoroughly at the workshop. Water quality and dryness of the spent fuel, respectively, are critical factors in avoiding material degradation for the two storage modes...
This book contains papers from a NATO-sponsored workshop in Almaty in September 2005, which discussed safety-related issues of storing spent nuclear fuel. Fifteen papers cover aluminum-clad fuel discharged from research reactors worldwide, while five papers examine stainless steel-clad fuel from fast reactors, and two Zircaloy-clad fuel from commercial light-water reactors.
With the nuclear issue back on the agenda worldwide, this highly topical collection steers a path through the controversies, presenting the views of proponents of nuclear expansion, examining the challenges that face them and exploring the arguments of those who support alternative approaches.
The issue of nuclear energy excites strong emotions and there are widely differing views as to whether nuclear power can or should make a major contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. With the nuclear issue back on the agenda worldwide, this highly topical collection steers a path through these controversies, presenting the views of proponents of nuclear expansion, examining the challenges that face them and exploring the arguments of those who support alternative approaches.
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