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The global medical and scientific communities need to standardize methodologies and agree on minimum criteria to permit inter-study comparisons. This book develops such standards, presenting a series of recommendations that represent the first codification of the manner in which studies should be executed.
This is a comprehensive account of the nature of the hazards presented by ionizing radiation and the methods of protection. It takes the reader through the general background of the subject, the underlying principles applied to the control of radiation hazards (including chapters on human physiology, the biological effects of radiation and radiation detection and measurement), before moving to specialized topics such as medical applications and waste disposal.;This edition has been revised and updated to reflect the significant changes that have occurred in this area in recent years. The most recent ICRP recommendations are included, the section on legislation has been expanded to emphasize the European and International requirements in addition to those of the UK, while the chapter on radiological emergencies has been rewritten to highlight international developments arising from the Chernobyl disaster.
Concepts associated with nuclear strategy often go beyond any objective logic of deterrence. Nuclear weapons have special roles in different national belief-systems, myths surround them, they have catalyzed tensions already existing in societies, and become symbols of power or of past sins. This book explores the conscious and unconscious beliefs in Britain, France and the Federal Republic of Germany (all voiced in debates about nuclear strategy), about society, the state and power structures, each country's place in the world, the international system, and allies and enemies.
Radionuclides produced by past nuclear weapon test explosions comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released into the earth's atmosphere to date. This volume presents data and models about the fate of the released radionuclides and their possible effects on human health. It is divided into the following three parts: - Source Term Studies;- Dose Reconstruction;- Ecological and Health Effects,and comprises both Western and formerly secret Soviet research studies, illuminates past and current research.
This volume focuses on the human exposures and medical effects studies in the SemipaiatinskJ Altai region of Siberia that were a consequence of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions that took place at the Semipalatinsk Test Site of the former Soviet Union. It contains a detailed account of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) devoted to the subject, and a selection of the papers presented. The title of the ARW was "Long-term Consequences of Nuclear Tests for the Environment and Population Health (SemipaiatinskJAltai Case Studies)." The estimated exposures to large numbers of people in the Altai lie in an important dose rate and dose domain. Hence the research reported herein provides new and unique information on the effects of radiation on humans. Also emphasized at the ARW were studies involving fallout from the Pacific Island tests of the U. S. A . . There have been over 2300 nuclear weapon test explosions to date. More than 500 took place in the atmosphere and outer space; the remainder were underground. The atmospheric tests comprise the largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity released into the earth's atmosphere to date. The vast majority, in number and yield, were carried out by the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the United States. Each superpower maintained two primary test sites, one continental primarily for small yield tests, and the other more remote for larger yield tests. For the U. S. A.
Drawing upon newly-released official and private papers, this book provides an intimate account of Anglo-American debates over one of the most grave and politically sensitive foreign-policy issues of the early 1960s. It examines the roles played by John F. Kennedy and Harold Macmillan in the test-ban negotiations between 1961 and 1963. It also describes the way in which contrasting domestic political imperatives and conceptions of how the Cold War could best be won, created tensions between the two allies. Nevertheless, they retained a broad unity of perspective and purpose, eventually producing the imaginative diplomacy that resulted in the signing of the Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty in August 1963.
Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial, and Military
Sources is the comprehensive source of information on radiation in
the environment and human exposure to radioactivity. This Fourth
Edition isa complete revision and extension of the classic work,
reflecting major new developments and concerns as the Cold War
ended, nuclear weapons began to be dismantled, and cleanup of the
nuclear weapons facilities assumed center stage. Contamination from
accidents involving weapons, reactors, and radionuclide sources are
discussed in an updated chapter, including the latest information
about the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Important revisions
are also made to the chapters on natural radioactivity, nuclear
fuels and power reactors, radioactive waste management, and various
other sources of exposure. Several chapters provide primers for
readers who may not be familiar with the fundamentals of radiation
biology, protection standards, and pathways for the environmental
transport of radionuclides. An Appendix lists the properties of the
more important radionuclides found in the environment. The book
concludes with a commentary on contemporary social aspects of
radiation exposure and risks that offers analternative view to
current, often excessive concerns over radiation, nuclear
technology, and waste.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has sponsored research and personnel safety standards development for exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) for over twenty years. The Aerospace Medical Panel of the Advisory Group For Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) sponsored Lecture Series No. 78 Radiation Hazards,! in 1975, in the Netherlands, Germany, and Norway, on the subject of Radiation Hazards to provide a review and critical analysis of the available information and concepts. In the same year, Research Study Group 2 on Protection of Personnel Against Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation (Panel VIIl of AC/243 Defence Research Group, NATO) proposed a revision to Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2345. The intent of the proposal was to revise the ST ANAG to incorporate frequency-dependent-RFR safety guidelines. These changes are documented in the NATO STANAG 2345 (MED), Control and Recording of Personnel Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation,2 promulgated in 1979. Research Study Group 2 (RSG2) of NATO Defense Research Group Panel VIII (AC1243) was organized, in 1981, to study and contribute technical information concerning the protection of military personnel from the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. A workshop at the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, U. K. was held to develop and/or compile sufficient knowledge on the long-term effects of pulsed RFR to maintain safe procedures and to minimize unnecessary operational constraints.
James B. Conant (1893-1978) was one of the giants of the American establishment in the twentieth century. President of Harvard University from 1933 to 1953, he was also a scientist who led the US government's effort to develop weapons of mass destruction, and his story mirrors the transition of the United States from isolationism to global superpower at the dawn of the nuclear age. 'This splendid portrait of Conant ...illuminates the life of a pivotal figure in the making of US nuclear, scientific, educational, and foreign policy for almost half a century. But the book is much more: it is not only an insightful narration of Conant's life, it is also a brilliant and important account of the making of the nuclear age, a chronicle that contains much that is new.' TheWashington Post 'The bomb would be as much Conant's as it was anyone's in government. His inner response to that burden of responsibility has long been obscured, but it is illumined here ...This is a model of historiography that is evocative reading.' The New York Times Book Review 'Vibrantly written and compelling, it breaches Conant's shield of public discretion in masterly fashion ...It is a huge, ambitious work - a history of the Cold War as Conant encountered it as well as a study of the man. ' The New Yorker 'Magnificent ...Any reader interested in nuclear weapons, Cold War history, or American politics from FDR to JFK will find this biography riveting.'
"Blurb & Contents" Frank von Hippel has been at the forefront of those scientists grappling with the troubled legacy of our Nuclear Age. Von Hippel offers insights about the choices we must make and how science can help us to make them. Topics include nuclear power, atomic weapons, disarmament, energy and the future of automobiles. The scientist's role in public life and the importance of "making trouble" is emphasized. Of interest to physicists, particularly those working in nuclear physics, policy makers, environmentalists and those concerned with nuclear disarmament and the role of science in society.
This book provides a concise but rigorous appraisal about the future of nuclear power and the presumed nuclear renaissance. It does so by assessing the technical, economic, environmental, political, and social risks related to all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mills and mines to nuclear reactors and spent fuel storage facilities. In each case, the book argues that the costs of nuclear power significantly outweigh its benefits. It concludes by calling for investments in renewable energy and energy efficiency as a better path towards an affordable, secure, and socially acceptable future.The prospect of a global nuclear renaissance could change the way that energy is produced and used the world over. Sovacool takes a hard look at who would benefit - mostly energy companies and manufacturers - and who would suffer - mostly taxpayers, those living near nuclear facilities, and electricity customers. This book is a must-read for anyone even remotely concerned about a sustainable energy future, and also for those with a specific interest in modern nuclear power plants.
Why did Britain decide in 1947 to build an atomic bomb? What military plans were there for using it? This neglected dimension of British nuclear policy is assessed in detail for the first time, using confidential records - including those of the Chiefs of Staff - which have become available for the entire post-war decade. The emergence and evolution of British strategic ideas about nuclear deterrence and targeting are documented and analysed by Ian Clark and Nicholas J. Wheeler, who also argue that British thinking was distinctive and made a much more substantial impact on nuclear strategy than American accounts would suggest. They reveal that, from a perspective unique to British circumstances and traditions, British officials made a significant contribution to early thinking about nuclear weapons. This study covers the early shift from a 'countervalue' to a damage limitation targeting posture, the assessment of the Soviet threat, the impact of the Korean War, the Global Strategy Paper of 1952, the decision to manufacture a hydrogen weapon in 1954, and the inter-service rivalries in the mid-1950s about the nature and size of the British strategic force. As well as providing a survey of British thinking, it is unusual in its focus on strategic comparisons between Britain and the United States.
This book investigates radiocesium movement in all major components of forest ecosystems, e.g. the plants, animals, insects, microorganisms, and soils, during the initial stage of contamination after the incident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Most of the work was conducted at a common research site. More specifically, the book examines the contribution of surface uptake by trees in the dynamics of radiocesium during the initial contamination stage; the movement of radiocesium in the form of small organic fragments that are essential to the radiocesium dynamics in forest ecosystems; and the upward movement of radiocesium due to microorganism activity, which promotes the effective decontamination of the forest floor. Lastly, it explains why spiders could be a valuable indicator of the contamination level in forest ecosystems.
This publication covers the broad scope of requirements for fuel cycle facilities that, in light of the experience and present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure safety for the lifetime of the facility. Topics of specific relevance include aspects of nuclear fuel generation, storage, reprocessing and disposal.
This publication presents experimental simulations of plasma-surface interaction phenomena at extreme conditions as expected in a fusion reactor, using dedicated test bed devices such as dense plasma focus, particle accelerators, plasma accelerators and plasma guns. It includes the investigation of the mechanism of material damage during transient heat loads on materials and addresses, in particular, the performance and adequacy of tungsten as plasma facing material for the next step fusion devices, such as ITER and fusion demonstration power plants. The publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project on investigations on materials under high repetition and intense fusion pulses, conducted in the period 2011-2016 and provides a practical knowledge base for scientists and engineers carrying out activities in the plasma-material surface interaction area.
This publication provides guidance on the actions to be taken by a State in implementing an effective nuclear security infrastructure for a nuclear power programme. The topics covered are: development of national policy and strategy; common nuclear security measures; infrastructure issues relating to nuclear and other radioactive material; associated facilities; and cooperation with other States. The guidance provided is intended primarily for use by national policy makers, national legislators, competent authorities, institutions and individuals involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of the nuclear security infrastructure for a nuclear power programme.
This book gathers selected papers from the Second International Symposium on Software Reliability, Industrial Safety, Cyber Security and Physical Protection of Nuclear Power Plant, held in Chengdu, China on August 23-25, 2017. The symposium provided a platform of technical exchange and experience sharing for a broad range of experts, scholars and nuclear power practitioners. The book reflects the state of the art and latest trends in nuclear instrumentation and control system technologies, as well as China's growing influence in this area. It offers a valuable resource for both practitioners and academics working in the field of nuclear instrumentation, control systems and other safety-critical systems, as well as nuclear power plant managers, public officials and regulatory authorities.
This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.
This publication is a revision of IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, and has been extended to cover the commissioning stage. It describes the requirements to be met to ensure the safe commissioning, operation, and transition from operation to decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Over recent years there have been developments in areas such as long term operation of nuclear power plants, plant ageing, periodic safety review, probabilistic safety analysis review and risk informed decision making processes. It became necessary to revise the IAEA's Safety Requirements in these areas and to correct and/or improve the publication on the basis of feedback from its application by both the IAEA and its Member States. In addition, the requirements are governed by, and must apply, the safety objective and safety principles that are established in the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles. A review of Safety Requirements publications, initiated in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, revealed no significant areas of weakness but resulted in a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation. These are contained in the present publication.
Why did nuclear energy policies in France, Sweden, and the United States, very similar at the time of the oil crisis of 1973 and 1974, diverge so greatly in the following years? In answering this question, James Jasper challenges one of the most popular trends in political analysis: explanations relying exclusively on political and economic structures to account for public policies. Jasper proposes a new cultural and state-centered approach--one heeding not only structural factors but cultural meanings, individual biographies, and elite discretion. Surveying the period from the successful commercialization of light-water-reactor technology in the early 1960s to the present, he explains the events that occurred after 1973: France built even more reactors than it needed, the United States canceled most reactor orders, and Sweden completed planned nuclear plants but decided to phase out nuclear energy by 2010. This work is based on one hundred interviews with managers, policymakers, and activists in the three countries. In addition to providing a unique theoretical perspective, it broadens our understanding of nuclear policy by looking at three countries in depth and over a long historical span. Originally published in 1990. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Professor Knorr examines bends in the values which nations derive in their international relationships from the possession and use of both nuclear and non-nuclear military forces, and suggests that territorial conquest and the furtherance of economic benefits by military means have generally diminished in appeal. He inquires into the costs and disadvantages of military power-the greatly reduced security obtainable even by the major nuclear powers and the noticeable diminution in the legitimacy of international violence in its several forms. Originally published in 1966. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
This book presents the reader with a story-based narrative of discovery and development of radiation-induced graft polymerization. The report presented here accomplishes this by relating the inspiring account of research and development based on long-term collaboration among a professor, an engineer, and an entrepreneur. Their goal, ultimately successful, was to come up with a method for grafting functional polymer chains onto existing trunk polymers. The desired outcome was to produce feasible forms for practical use as adsorbents such as porous hollow-fiber membranes, porous sheets, nonwoven fabrics, and fibers. Adsorbents that specifically and efficiently bind to target ions and molecules are essential for capturing uranium species in seawater and antibody drugs in biological fluids and for removing metal ions from ultrapure water and radioactive cesium ions from contaminated water. This unique volume, with its clearly written text and many illustrative figures and diagrams, demonstrates the advantages of the high-adsorption capacity and rate and the easy handling of new polymeric adsorbents over conventional adsorbents. The dynamic behavior of graft chains as described here is certain to appeal especially to chemists, physicists, and material scientists as well as to other readers with an interest in this valuable subject.
This publication focuses on the challenges and their possible solutions in the areas of leadership, human performance and internal communication in a severe nuclear emergency. It presents a brief overview of some of the key concepts, especially how they relate to an organization's ability to successfully manage an emergency event. The target audience for this publication are those officials and senior managers dealing with emergency response in the operating organization, government, local authorities and the regulatory body. Those who have an influence on the style of leadership and personnel development and training that is applied in their organizations and who are involved in emergency preparedness and response will also benefit from this publication.
The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats" has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by "Dirty Bomb"-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety.
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