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This publication focuses on the challenges and their possible solutions in the areas of leadership, human performance and internal communication in a severe nuclear emergency. It presents a brief overview of some of the key concepts, especially how they relate to an organization's ability to successfully manage an emergency event. The target audience for this publication are those officials and senior managers dealing with emergency response in the operating organization, government, local authorities and the regulatory body. Those who have an influence on the style of leadership and personnel development and training that is applied in their organizations and who are involved in emergency preparedness and response will also benefit from this publication.
The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats" has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by "Dirty Bomb"-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety.
Why did nuclear energy policies in France, Sweden, and the United States, very similar at the time of the oil crisis of 1973 and 1974, diverge so greatly in the following years? In answering this question, James Jasper challenges one of the most popular trends in political analysis: explanations relying exclusively on political and economic structures to account for public policies. Jasper proposes a new cultural and state-centered approach--one heeding not only structural factors but cultural meanings, individual biographies, and elite discretion. Surveying the period from the successful commercialization of light-water-reactor technology in the early 1960s to the present, he explains the events that occurred after 1973: France built even more reactors than it needed, the United States canceled most reactor orders, and Sweden completed planned nuclear plants but decided to phase out nuclear energy by 2010.
This work is based on one hundred interviews with managers, policymakers, and activists in the three countries. In addition to providing a unique theoretical perspective, it broadens our understanding of nuclear policy by looking at three countries in depth and over a long historical span.
Originally published in 1990.
The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Nuclear Waste Management Strategies: An International Perspective presents worldwide insights into nuclear waste management strategies from a technical engineering perspective, with consideration for important legal aspects. It provides a one-stop, comprehensive analysis of both historical and up-to-date nuclear waste management strategies, while consulting important legal aspects of decision-making and implementation processes. With case studies from around the world, this book provides a unique understanding of nuclear waste management technologies and methods available, ensuring that researchers and engineering professionals are equipped with the right knowledge to design, build, implement and improve their own waste management strategies. This book will benefit those researching and learning in the nuclear energy sector, especially those specializing in nuclear waste management strategies, as well as technical and legal communities within nuclear and environmental areas. It is also a valuable resource for lawmakers and regulatory bodies concerned with nuclear policy and waste management.
Our nation faces the distinct possibility of a catastrophic terrorist attack using an improvised nuclear device (IND), according to international and U.S. intelligence. Detonation of an IND in a major U.S. city would result in tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of victims and would overwhelm public health, emergency response, and health care systems, not to mention creating unprecedented social and economic challenges. While preparing for an IND may seem futile at first glance, thousands of lives can be saved by informed planning and decision making prior to and following an attack. In 2009, the Institute of Medicine published the proceedings of a workshop assessing the health and medical preparedness for responding to an IND detonation. Since that time, multiple federal and other publications have added layers of detail to this conceptual framework, resulting in a significant body of literature and guidance. However, there has been only limited planning effort at the local level as much of the federal guidance has not been translated into action for states, cities and counties. According to an informal survey of community preparedness by the National Association of City and County Health Officials (NACCHO), planning for a radiation incident ranked lowest in priority among other hazards by 2,800 local health departments. The focus of Nationwide Response Issues After an Improvised Nuclear Device Attack: Medical and Public Health Considerations for Neighboring Jurisdictions: Workshop Summary is on key response requirements faced by public health and health care systems in response to an IND detonation, especially those planning needs of outlying state and local jurisdictions from the detonation site. The specific meeting objectives were as follows: - Understand the differences between types of radiation incidents and implications of an IND attack on outlying communities. -Highlight current planning efforts at the federal, state, and local level as well as challenges to the implementation of operational plans. -Examine gaps in planning efforts and possible challenges and solutions. -Identify considerations for public health reception centers: how public health and health care interface with functions and staffing and how radiological assessments and triage be handled. -Discuss the possibilities and benefits of integration of disaster transport systems. -Explore roles of regional health care coalitions in coordination of health care response.
In the twenty-first century, nuclear energy has become a hotly contested issue. In the face of climate change, and the search for alternative forms of energy, nuclear power continues to affect the lives of communities around the world. In Nuclear Portraits, scholars from Europe, North America, and Asia demonstrate the complexity, controversy, contradictions, and dangers that surround many aspects of the nuclear industry. The resulting local, regional, national, and international concerns that arise, such as the disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima, call into question the optimism espoused by the nuclear industry. We live in a world with more nuclear nations than ever before and energy policy is central to the mounting global concern about climate change. The innovative essays found in Nuclear Portraits will open your eyes to the realities of nuclear energy, thereby allowing you to decide for yourself whose side you are on.
The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field.
Nuclear Reactions explores the nuclear consensus that emerged in post-World War II America, characterized by widespread support for a diplomatic and military strategy based on nuclear weapons and a vision of economic growth that welcomed nuclear energy both for the generation of electricity and for other peaceful and industrial uses. Unease about the environmental consequences of nuclear energy and weapons development became apparent by the early 1960s and led to the first challenges to that consensus. The documents in this collection address issues such as the arms race, "mutually assured destruction," the emergence of ecosystems ecology and the environmental movement, nuclear protests, and climate change. They raise questions about how nuclear energy shaped-and continues to shape-the contours of postwar American life. These questions provide a useful lens through which to understand the social, economic, and environmental tradeoffs embedded within American choices about the use and management of nuclear energy.
In 1984, New Zealand's newly elected Labour Government's anti-nuclear policy collided with a United States foreign policy based on nuclear deterrence. After three years of ship visits denied, angry meetings, fraught diplomacy and press conferences, the stand-off led to the unravelling of the ANZUS military alliance, established in 1951. Based on previously classified government records in Britain, New Zealand, Australia and the United States, interviews with key protagonists from throughout the world, and the author's own involvement in events, Friendly Fire tells the inside story of the dramatic confrontation. We hear what Australia's Bob Hawke and America's George Schultz really thought of Prime Minister David Lange; we see the internal machinations within the Labour Party as Geoffrey Palmer wrestled with what to do about the USS Buchanan's proposed visit while David Lange was stuck in the middle of the Pacific on an old boat; and we see the complex play of cultural loyalties, strategic objectives, and personal relationships that led from policy differences to confrontation to collapse. This is the definitive account of a key turning point in New Zealand history - a dramatic story of powerful personalities arguing key questions on the world stage.
Proceedings of the 48th Session of the International Seminars on Nuclear War and Planetary Emergencies held in Erice, Sicily. This Seminar has again gathered, in 2015, over one hundred scientists from 43 countries in an interdisciplinary effort that has been going on for the last 32 years, to examine and analyze planetary problems which had been followed up, all year long, by the World Federation of Scientists' Permanent Monitoring Panels.
Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster in 2011 many concerned citizens-particularly mothers-were unconvinced by the Japanese government's assurances that the country's food supply was safe. They took matters into their own hands, collecting their own scientific data that revealed radiation-contaminated food. In Radiation Brain Moms and Citizen Scientists Aya Hirata Kimura shows how, instead of being praised for their concern about their communities' health and safety, they faced stiff social sanctions, which dismissed their results by attributing them to the work of irrational and rumor-spreading women who lacked scientific knowledge. These citizen scientists were unsuccessful at gaining political traction, as they were constrained by neoliberal and traditional gender ideologies that dictated how private citizens-especially women-should act. By highlighting the challenges these citizen scientists faced, Kimura provides insights into the complicated relationship between science, foodways, gender, and politics in post-Fukushima Japan and beyond.
This book discusses important fundamentals of radiation safety with specific details on dose units, calculations, measuring, and biological effects of ionizing radiation. The author covers different exposure situations and their requirements, and relevant legislation and regulations governing radiation safety. The book also examines radioactive waste management, the transport of radioactive materials, emergency planning and preparedness and various examples of radiation protection programs for industrial, medical, and academic applications.
This publication provides the rationale for the development of a national nuclear forensics library and addresses how a State may use such a national system in investigations of nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. Nuclear forensics is the examination of nuclear or other radioactive material, or of evidence that is contaminated with radionuclides, in the context of legal proceedings under international or national law related to nuclear security. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Important when conducting a nuclear forensics examination is the ability of States to identify nuclear and other radioactive material within the State and determine whether those materials are consistent with domestic holdings. As a system for the identification of nuclear or other radioactive material, a national nuclear forensics library can facilitate interpretation of findings and assist States in this determination. This publication seeks to assist States that choose to develop such a library tailored to their individual circumstances, national legal requirements, and security needs.
At a moment when a new generation of power stations and weapons are being developed, Fallout is a measured and fascinating exploration of our most misunderstood energy source and asks: what can we learn from our past mistakes, and what role should nuclear play in our future? Hiroshima. Bikini Atoll. Windscale. Chernobyl. Fukushima. These names no longer denote a place, but a disaster. In a few syllables, they evoke the heights of human ingenuity clashing with the worst of human error. Individually, each place has its own sobering story to tell; together, they form a timeline of the nuclear age. In this compelling and deeply researched book, Fred Pearce investigates the greatest nuclear incidents and accidents of the past 80 years by visiting their now iconic landscapes. He tours former power stations and abandoned testing sites in the company of scientists and engineers, and in previously toxic wastelands, where radioactive wolves now stalk the streets and genetically-malformed flora blooms, he witnesses the surprising resilience of nature. As well as the physical legacy, Pearce also considers the psychological impact of these disasters. Amid rumours of state cover-ups, corporate deception, and hushed-up medical epidemics, Pearce weighs the evidence on either side of the argument to disentangle the facts from the fear.
It is an unenviable task, but one that all state governments face: finding a final ""resting place"" for low-level nuclear waste from power plants, hospitals, university laboratories, and many industries. John Weingart was the official in New Jersey who for many years led this onerous charge. His book is the story of how he and a commission appointed by the governor, instead of imposing a topdown solution, designed an approach that would confront public fears by seeking a community that would volunteer to host the needed disposal facility. Initially, this novel approach was surprisingly successful, as leaders in a dozen municipalities stepped forward to say they might be interested. Once their interest became known, however, the process in each town derailed. Residents demanded assurances of zero-percent risk and expressed profound distrust of government assertions and promises. ""Waste Is a Terrible Thing to Mind"" is a compelling, suspenseful, and amusing insider's account of New Jersey policy and politics, but it is also a larger saga of the challenges facing society in the post-9/11 era, when the public's distrust of government is increasing at the same rate that its sensitivity to health and safety threats is heightening.
This book highlights the problem of UV-R-induced photocarcinogenesis and its molecular mechanism. It covers different photosensitive xenobiotics (drugs, cosmetics, and environmental pollutants) and their photosensitization mechanisms under ambient UV-R exposure. It also summarizes the role of nanotechnology in skin cancer remedies. It provides a brief overview of the various novel nanocarriers for cosmeceuticals like nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles, nanocrystals, etc., nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical products which are available in the market. It highlights the possible health hazards caused by nanoparticles on exposure of nano-based cosmetics and describes the recent regulatory rules applied to avoid the nanotoxicity.
This publication addresses relevant aspects of requesting and obtaining effective technical support (TS) and its adequate utilization in decision making on nuclear power programmes, projects and plants. It describes the TS functions and associated organizational activities and skills in providing technical and scientific input to the decisions on plant safety and performance throughout the plant's lifecycle and serves as a guidance for establishing and sustaining TS capability and capacity in Member States both embarking on nuclear power programmes and operating nuclear power plants. The publication also presents observations, lessons learned and conclusions drawn from good practices for defining and maintaining roles, responsibilities and interfacing requirements of technical support organizations (TSOs), nuclear power project/plant entities and other stakeholders. As such, it provides a set of descriptive and practiced processes that integrate technical and scientific information for safety, performance and economical aspects in support of sound and timely decisions on the safe, reliable and efficient operation of nuclear power plants.
This publication describes the various approaches to the techno-economic assessment of a project for the long term operation of a nuclear power plant in its specific market environment. It examines the process of defining the technical scope required to prolong the operating licences of nuclear power plants and highlights the need for further studies on technical cost drivers and economic assessments in order to better define the cost boundaries of long term operation. Information is also provided on the new IAEA software LTOFIN, which was developed to assist in performing long term operation economic assessments within the process described in the publication.
"Fifteen years before the Enron, WorldCom, and Parmalat debacles, another company embarked on a strategy that appeared to be driven more by the allure of short-term profits and compensation for management than by the long-term interests of shareholders. In this case, though, the risks those managers took extended beyond the purely financial to the safety of several large nuclear power plants. A sobering tale, told fairly and skillfully."--Paul Portney, President, Resources for the Future
"MacAvoy and Rosenthal paint a vivid picture of a board of directors ignoring not just red flags, but explicit warnings of the impending calamity, while being calmed by a complacent management. Their book serves as a warning to be absorbed by all boards that diligence, surely post-Enron, requires more than probing the bottom line; it includes all risks to the enterprise, probing beyond management assurances, and appropriate information flow to, and leadership of, the board."--Ira M. Millstein, Senior Partner, Weil, Gotshal & Manges LLP and Chairman of the Private Sector Advisory Group of the World Bank/OECD Global Corporate Governance Forum
"This story is important for anyone with an interest in corporate governance. It makes clear the conflicts that develop and the danger to shareholders when an industry structure changes, but executive compensation systems do not. MacAvoy and Rosenthal provide a penetrating analysis of Northeast's nuclear negligence. At Northeast, an electric utility, regulation was giving way to competition, but no change was occurring in nuclear safety requirements. Northeast executives, whose short-term compensation incentives were based on income, cut nuclear operating andmaintenance costs, making safety violations and plant shutdowns inevitable in the long term. Shareholders suffered while executives were unscathed."--Richard Bower, Leon E. Williams Professor of Finance and Managerial Economics, Emeritus, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College
"This book provides an entertaining and informative look at the implications of competition for nuclear safety. It should be read widely."--R. Preston McAfee, J. Stanley Johnson Professor of Business, Economics, and Management, California Institute of Technology, author of "Competitive Solutions: The Strategist's Toolkit"
"Paul MacAvoy and Jean Rosenthal offer an interesting discussion of one of the unforeseen problems associated with deregulating the electric utility industry. Their book will serve as a useful warning to other nuclear power plant operators--and operators in other safety-critical industries, such as airlines--that safety is a constraint, not a variable, in maximizing profits."--Geoffrey Rothwell, Stanford University
This book is the seventh in a series of titles from the National Research Council that addresses the effects of exposure to low dose LET (Linear Energy Transfer) ionizing radiation and human health. Updating information previously presented in the 1990 publication, Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR V, this book draws upon new data in both epidemiologic and experimental research. Ionizing radiation arises from both natural and man-made sources and at very high doses can produce damaging effects in human tissue that can be evident within days after exposure. However, it is the low-dose exposures that are the focus of this book. So-called late effects, such as cancer, are produced many years after the initial exposure. This book is among the first of its kind to include detailed risk estimates for cancer incidence in addition to cancer mortality. BEIR VII offers a full review of the available biological, biophysical, and epidemiological literature since the last BEIR report on the subject and develops the most up-to-date and comprehensive risk estimates for cancer and other health effects from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation.
The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) was set up by Congress in 1990 to compensate people who have been diagnosed with specified cancers and chronic diseases that could have resulted from exposure to nuclear-weapons tests at various U.S. test sites. Eligible claimants include civilian onsite participants, downwinders who lived in areas currently designated by RECA, and uranium workers and ore transporters who meet specified residence or exposure criteria. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), which oversees the screening, education, and referral services program for RECA populations, asked the National Academies to review its program and assess whether new scientific information could be used to improve its program and determine if additional populations or geographic areas should be covered under RECA. The report recommends Congress should establish a new science-based process using a method called "probability of causation/assigned share" (PC/AS) to determine eligibility for compensation. Because fallout may have been higher for people outside RECA-designated areas, the new PC/AS process should apply to all residents of the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and overseas US territories who have been diagnosed with specific RECA-compensable diseases and who may have been exposed, even in utero, to radiation from U.S. nuclear-weapons testing fallout. However, because the risks of radiation-induced disease are generally low at the exposure levels of concern in RECA populations, in most cases it is unlikely that exposure to radioactive fallout was a substantial contributing cause of cancer.
Man’s environment is pervaded by ionizing radiation of predominantly natural origin but now with an important contribution from anthropogenic activities. Exposure to ionizing radiation can have serious health implications, which is why it is of concern to us. This book brings together under one cover, the fundamentals of radiological protection, the techniques used for measuring radioactivity and radionuclides and the methods for modelling the dispersion of radionuclides in the environment. Information on radioactive decay, the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and biological effects of radiation is provided in a form that enables the reader to quickly appreciate its importance to the environment and human health. Summaries of the effects of past releases, including the Chernobyl accident, are included as well as examples of applications of models to calculate and predict concentrations of radionuclides in our environment.
This book is aimed at all those studying, at undergraduate and graduate levels, radioactivity in the environment and its impact on man. It will also serve as a handbook for workers in the fields of radiochemical analysis and environmental modelling and for scientists, consultants and environmental health and pollution officers who have to provide radiological data or information for legislative and related purposes.
This book investigates radiocesium movement in all major components of forest ecosystems, e.g. the plants, animals, insects, microorganisms, and soils, during the initial stage of contamination after the incident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Most of the work was conducted at a common research site. More specifically, the book examines the contribution of surface uptake by trees in the dynamics of radiocesium during the initial contamination stage; the movement of radiocesium in the form of small organic fragments that are essential to the radiocesium dynamics in forest ecosystems; and the upward movement of radiocesium due to microorganism activity, which promotes the effective decontamination of the forest floor. Lastly, it explains why spiders could be a valuable indicator of the contamination level in forest ecosystems.
Proceedings of a seminar focusing on planetary emergencies, followed in a multidisplinary approach since 1980 by permanent monitoring panels.
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