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Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear weapons production and
power generation has caused public outcry and political
consternation. Nuclear Wastes presents a critical review of some
waste management and disposal alternatives to the current national
policy of direct disposal of light water reactor spent fuel. The
book offers clearcut conclusions for what the nation should do
today and what solutions should be explored for tomorrow.
This publication describes and summarizes the work of the MODARIA (modelling and data for radiological impact assessments) Programme Working Group 6. MODARIA was set up to continue the IAEA's activities in the field of testing, comparing and developing guidance on the application of models to assess radiation exposures to humans and radiological impacts on the environment. Different aspects of the MODARIA programme were addressed by ten working groups. MODARIA WG 6 had the remit of developing a common framework for addressing climate and environmental change in post-closure radiological assessments of solid radioactive waste disposal. The intention was to include a wide range of disposal facility types. An additional goal of WG 6 was to further develop the understanding of how the biosphere may develop from the present into the far future in a wide range of regional and local contexts relevant to the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. While the focus of MODARIA is dose assessment, the methodology and results of WG 6 may be valuable in a wider safety assessment context, for example for other types of facilities and sites.
This publication results from a technical meeting on phenomenology and technologies relevant to in-vessel melt retention (IVMR) and ex-vessel corium cooling (EVCC). The purpose of the publication is to capture the state of knowledge, at the time of that meeting, related to phenomenology and technologies as well as the challenges and pending issues relevant to IVMR and EVCC for water cooled reactors by summarizing the information provided by the meeting participants in a form useful to practitioners in Member States.
This publication elaborates the technical basis for the use of seismic isolation systems in nuclear installations. There are many benefits of seismic isolation in design and construction of new facilities and in the retrofitting of existing nuclear installations. Observations of well-designed, installed and maintained isolated structures show a no damage behaviour that corresponds to expectations. This publication presents the current status of practice and use of seismic isolation systems for nuclear installations. Since it relates to a number of IAEA Safety Standards, it complements these on the technical aspects related to usage of seismically isolation for structures, systems and components in nuclear installations. It will be of interest to all those concerned with seismic analysis, seismic design, and seismic safety evaluation for such installations.
This publication draws on the work carried out during an IAEA coordinated research project to benchmark computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used in fuel assembly design and model options and methods against 'CFD quality' experimental data under single phase flow conditions. It presents the results obtained by seven participating institutes from six Member States, all with currently operating water cooled reactors. The publication provides a description of the omni flow experimental loop test facility used for benchmark experiments related to the phenomena of fuel assembly spacer grid induced flow mixing. The focus of the benchmark was on the downstream region after the spacer grid. The comparisons between the experimental measurements and the CFD calculations are hence focused on the average velocity, the fluctuating velocity (turbulence), and local cladding temperatures in this region.
This publication explains the concepts of quality assurance and quality control. It provides examples, illustrated by good practices, of their implementation within the processes of the management systems of nuclear facilities and describes how they are managed through interfaces with suppliers and subcontractors. The publication discusses the elements of a management system relevant for the quality assurance and quality control functions, such as the generation and retention of documented information. The information presented will help in ensuring the safe and economic operation of nuclear facilities and provide a neutral technical basis for dialogue between government bodies, regulators, plant operators and suppliers when dealing with management system, quality assurance and quality control issues.
This publication describes the general concept of using quantitative and qualitative information to be integrated in making safety related decisions. By following this approach, the balanced decision option could be selected in a systematic and traceable manner. The publication also provides practical insights on the selection of the various factors that could be included in the integrated risk informed decision making (IRIDM) process and provides suggestions on how the integration of the factors can be performed. Practical issues and challenges that need to be addressed in adopting an IRIDM approach are also discussed. Some examples of decision making are reviewed against the IRIDM framework to show how the process has been used or can be used.
This publication provides a description of the Rossendorf coolant mixing (ROCOM) test facility, used to provide benchmark experiments related to the phenomena of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) and boron dilution, the calculation results using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and methods, and the conclusions drawn from comparison of CFD results with experimental measurements. The aim of this benchmarking was to provide CFD practitioners with two high quality datasets of relevance to reactor transients inside a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel with different configurations and involving mixed convection, stratification, jet impingement and unsteady (inverse) plumes. The focus of the benchmarking was on the three main regions of the cold domain of the primary circuit, i.e. the cold leg, the downcomer and the core entry region. The work was carried out within the framework of an IAEA coordinated research project on application of computational fluid dynamics codes to nuclear power plant design.
This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project titled Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: Materials beyond Ignition, and reports on the research work accomplished within the framework of the project. The main objective was to provide an assessment of the material requirements, consequences and characteristic behaviours in pulsed, repetitively cycled inertial fusion energy systems. Focusing on materials characterization, physics and target design for direct drive operation, and experimental infrastructure development, the publication contains additional relevant technical details and includes conclusions regarding future research activities and a review of past and ongoing efforts.
This publication evaluates the different coolant options considered for nuclear applications with a fast neutron spectrum (i.e. fusion, fission and accelerators), compiles the latest information in the field and identifies research needs. In this study, systems cooled by light and heavy liquid metals, molten salts, as well as gas and water choices are analysed and discussed. This TECDOC documents the present state of knowledge in the area of fusion, fission and accelerator applications, and the major progress in methods and approaches made in the past years based on observations, experimental findings and operational experience. Moreover, it identifies knowledge gaps and addresses near term research and development efforts required to overcome them.
This publication is the result of an IAEA technical meeting and reports on Member States' capabilities in modelling, predicting and improving their understanding of the behaviour of nuclear fuel under accident conditions. The main results and outcomes of a coordinated research project (CRP) on this topic are also presented.
This publication presents a set of examples of different approaches for estimating potential exposures in different countries based on participants' experience and considering the IAEA Safety Standard on a generic framework for consideration of radiological environmental impact, including potential exposures. It is intended to support the development of a common understanding in assessing the population health risks from potential accident scenarios in a nuclear power plant. This publication will contribute to further improvement of the INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) methodology for sustainability assessment of nuclear energy systems (NESs) and can help Member States applying this methodology to perform a NES assessment in the areas of safety and environment. The publication is intended for use by organizations involved in development and deployment of NESs including planning, design, modification, technical support and operation of nuclear power plants.
This publication provides guidance and recommendations to nuclear organizations by offering a practical approach to assessing the behavioural competencies for safe, secure and effective performance across the nuclear workforce. It outlines a variety of tools and approaches that can aid the behavioural assessment processes and provides both general and role-specific recommendations to improve the quality of selection, promotion, training and development decisions. Also addressed in the publication are challenges, key issues and critical considerations for assessment practices. This guidance can be used by Member States as a foundation upon which to develop or improve a comprehensive behavioural competency assessment programme and contribute to building a sustainable nuclear workforce comprised of high performing nuclear professionals.
This publication presents a systematic approach to establishing and operating a national nuclear security support centre (NSSC) as a means to strengthen the sustainability of nuclear security in a State. It provides specific practical guidance to States, detailing a straightforward decision making and project management process drawn from good practices in establishing and operating an NSSC that were identified through the experience and lessons learned from States within the NSSC Network. The publication, which is a revision of TECDOC-1734, is intended for use by the IAEA and the NSSC Network as the primary reference for activities to support States with the establishment and operation of an NSSC.
Since the 1980s, the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu has faced multiple forms of resistance. Women and men from different walks of life - fishers, farmers, environmentalists, activists, writers, scholars, teachers, journalists, doctors, and lawyers among many others - have come together to combat the deadly radioactive repercussions and repression that come with the development of a high-security nuclear installation. Drawing upon their experiences, this historical and ethnographic study accounts for the anti-nuclear campaign's part in 'right-to-lives' movements while engaging with the (re)production of knowledge and ignorance in the understanding of radiation, and efforts to create an evidence base in response to the otherwise unavailable or insufficient data on the environment and public health in India. Tracing the grassroots struggle for 'energy justice' off- and on-line, the author looks into the larger questions of development, democracy, and nationalism. These have marked not just parts of India identified for large-scale constructions, but also other regions of the world where state functionaries have much to gain from corporate collaborations at the cost of local residents who lose their livelihoods, and are forcibly displaced, persecuted, or even killed in order to execute governmental designs in the name of the nation.
Three Mile Island burst into the nation's headlines twenty-five years ago, forever changing our view of nuclear power. The dramatic accident held the world's attention for an unsettling week in March 1979 as engineers struggled to understand what had happened and brought the damaged reactor to a safe condition. Much has been written since then about TMI, but it is not easy to find up-to-date information that is both reliable and accessible to the nonscientific reader. TMI 25 Years Later offers a much-needed "one-stop" resource for a new generation of citizens, students, and policy makers.
The legacy of Three Mile Island has been far reaching. The worst nuclear accident in U.S. history marked a turning point in our policies, our perceptions, and our national identity. Those involved in the nuclear industry today study the scenario carefully and review the decontamination and recovery process. Risk management and the ability to convey risks to the general population rationally and understandably are an integral part of implementing new technologies. Political, environmental, and energy decisions have been made with TMI as a factor, and while studies reveal little environmental damage from the accident, long-term studies of health effects continue.
TMI 25 Years Later presents a balanced and factual account of the accident, the cleanup effort, and the many facets of its legacy. The authors bring extensive research and writing The authors bring extensive research and writing experience to this book. After the accident and the cleanup, a significant collection of videotapes, photographs, and reports was donated to the University Libraries at Penn State University. Bonnie Osif and Thomas Conkling are engineering librarians at Penn State who maintain a database of these materials, which they have made available to the general public through an award-winning website. Anthony Baratta is a nuclear engineer who worked with the decontamination and recovery project at TMI and is an expert in nuclear accidents. The book features unique photographs of the cleanup and helpful appendixes that enable readers to investigate further various aspects of the story.
This book critically examines the phenomenon of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility siting across four international democracies. The issue is of growing importance since World War II the level of this waste has increased from the hundreds to the billions. The International Atomic Energy Agency estimates that nuclear power generation facilities alone produce about 200,000 cubic meters of low and intermediate-level waste each year worldwide; waste that needs to be isolated from the public for extended periods of time. Siting LLRW disposal facilities in democracies is beset by two main problems: almost universally negative community response to siting proposals, and, as a result, government s reactive policies. There has been a tendency for democratic countries to adopt a default position of deferring siting decisions for as long as possible due to a fear of public opposition, which only increases the risks associated with radiation.
The authors explore these issues utilizing a linear narrative case study approach that critically examines key stakeholder interactions in order to explain how siting decisions are made. The book incorporates a stakeholder theory approach to allow for a better understanding of the key players roles and how such decisions are made as well as an environmental justice perspective to better understand how some siting decisions negatively impact lower socio-economic classes and indigenous peoples within democratic societies. The four featured countries the United States, Australia, Spain and South Korea represent a broad range of current siting issues. Though the different countries are geographically and culturally diverse, they are all democracies with vibrant civil societies, which mean that siting decisions require negotiation between the siting authority and the host community via representative stakeholders. Most studies of nuclear waste focus on siting at a single location or in a single country, whereas this book seeks to establish an understanding of the political, economic, environmental, legal and social dimensions of siting across multiple countries. Furthermore, the book targets specifically low-level radioactive waste, which has traditionally received far less study by the academic community than high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel. This valuable resource fills a gap in the literature with international comparative research and provides recommendations for future low-level radioactive waste disposal facility siting efforts.
The book should be of interest to students and scholars of environmental law, justice, management and politics, as well as energy and security policy."
The Manhattan Project-the World War II race to produce an atomic bomb-transformed the entire country in myriad ways, but it did not affect each region equally. Acting on an enduring perception of the American West as an "empty" place, the U.S. government located a disproportionate number of nuclear facilities-particularly the ones most likely to spread pollution-in western states. The Manhattan Project manufactured plutonium at Hanford, Washington; designed and assembled bombs at Los Alamos, New Mexico; and detonated the world's first atomic bomb at Alamagordo, New Mexico, on June 16, 1945. In the years that followed the war, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected additional western sites for its work. Many westerners initially welcomed the atom. Like federal officials, they, too, regarded their region as "empty," or underdeveloped. Facilities to make, test, and base atomic weapons, sites to store nuclear waste, and even nuclear power plants were regarded as assets. By the 1960s and 1970s, however, regional attitudes began to change. At a variety of locales, ranging from Eskimo Alaska to Mormon Utah, westerners devoted themselves to resisting the atom and its effects on their environments and communities. Just as the atomic age had dawned in the American West, so its artificial sun began to set there. The Atomic West brings together contributions from several disciplines to explore the impact on the West of the development of atomic power from wartime secrecy and initial postwar enthusiasm to public doubts and protest in the 1970s and 1980s. An impressive example of the benefits of interdisciplinary studies on complex topics, The Atomic West advances our understanding of both regional history and the history of science, and does so with human communities as a significant focal point. The book will be of special interest to students and experts on the American West, environmental history, and the history of science and technology.
Politics and technology intersect in the international effort to prevent nuclear proliferation. Written for scientists, policy makers, journalists, students, and concerned citizens, The Politics and Technology of Nuclear Proliferation makes a highly complex subject understandable. This comprehensive overview provides information about both the basic technologies and the political realities. Methods of producing weapon materials -- plutonium and highly enriched uranium -- as well as their use in bombs are described in detail, as is the generally successful international effort to prevent the spread of the ability to make nuclear weapons.
In explaining the problems the world will face if nuclear weapons become generally available, Mozley summarizes and reviews the methods used to prevent proliferation and describes the status of those nations involved in trade in nuclear materials. He places emphasis on the danger of attack by renegade nations or terrorist groups, particularly the possibility that weapon material might be stolen from the presently impoverished and unstable former Soviet Union.
In 1982, with Cold War anxieties running high, A.G. Mojtabai set out for Amarillo, Texas, home of Pantex, the final assembly plant for all nuclear weapons in the United States. Through the lens of this particular city, she sought to focus on our adaptation as a nation to the threat of nuclear war. Her interviews began with Pantex workers assured of both the necessity and the safety of the work that they did, and in the steady, beneficent, advance of science. Working alongside them were fundamentalist Christians who believed in inevitable catastrophe, and who testified to quite another, blessed, assurance of Divine rescue from the holocaust to come. This startling juxtaposition of apocalyptic and technocratic world views was not confined to Pantex. Blessed Assurance brilliantly examines this clash of spiritual visions as it presented itself repeatedly in the streets, churches, and corporate offices of Amarillo. The voices that you hear in this book are those of the people of Amarillo speaking for themselves. Their narratives powerfully reveal their hopes and fears, their sense of the meaning of history, and the future of the human race. Blessed Assurance won the year's Lillian Smith Award for the best book about the South in 1986.
This INSAG report discusses the problem of maintaining the integrity of the design of a nuclear power plant over its entire lifetime in order to achieve a continuous high level of safety. The purpose of this report is to identify the issues and some of the principles that should be addressed, discuss some of the solutions to the problem and define the specific responsibilities of designers, operators and regulators.
"Planning as Persuasive Storytelling" is a revealing look at the
world of political conflict surrounding the Commonwealth Edison
Company's ambitious nuclear power plant construction program in
northern Illinois during the 1980s. Examining the clash between the
utility, consumer groups, community-based groups, the Illinois
Commerce Commission, and the City of Chicago, Throgmorton argues
that planning can best be thought of as a form of persuasive
storytelling. A planner's task is to write future-oriented texts
that employ language and figures of speech designed to persuade
their constituencies of the validity of their vision. Juxtaposing
stories about efforts to construct Chicago's electric future,
"Planning as Persuasive Storytelling" suggests a shift in how we
think about planning. In order to account for the fragmented and
conflicted nature of contemporary American life and politics, that
shift would be away from "science" and the "experts" and toward
rhetoric and storytelling.
The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats" has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by "Dirty Bomb"-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety.
"A substantial contribution on three fronts: it identifies and associates for the first time a large number of poems pertinent to nuclear criticism; it advances our understanding of the subject of 'nuclearity' in our time; and it provides surprising insights into the verse it considers. . . . It is also an act of social conscience, not an apparent feature in most scholarly works."--William J. Scheick, J. R. Millikan Centennial Professor of English and American Literature, University of Texas at Austin The eve of the second millennium falls 50 years after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Looking across the spectrum of American poetry since 1945, John Gery explores the role that poets have begun to play in the nuclear age. While their diverse voices join in protesting against the end of the world, poetry also embodies what Gery calls "the way of nothingness" in contemporary experience, an individual sense of human continuity paradoxically coupled with a global sense of impending annihilation. The first full-length study of nuclear theory and American poetry, this book examines four distinct poetic approaches to nuclear culture--protest poetry, apocalyptic lyric poetry, psychohistorical poetry, and the poetry of uncertainty. Each is developed through a discussion of representative poems from a range of poets, including an extended study of works by Denise Levertov, Richard Wilbur, James Merrill, and John Ashbery. As a chorus of voices, Gery contends, these poets articulate both resistance to annihilation and an acceptance of the nuclear present. What recommends this poetry, he argues, is not its oppositional posture as much as its "unique imaginative ability to connect the material threat and symbolic presence of nuclearism with the deepest confines of the human spirit." He concludes that art, especially poetry, has a critical role to play in our time. Though it serves as a resource on nuclear-age poetry and theory, the book also speaks to general readers interested in art, literature, and contemporary American culture. John Gery is professor of English at the University of New Orleans. He is the author of two books of poems, The Enemies of Leisure (1995) and Charlemagne: A Song of Gestures (1983), and of articles on contemporary poetry in journals such as Verse, Critique, Essays in Literature, and War, Literature, and the Arts.
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