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Resisting the Bomb continues the story, begun in the award-winning One World or None, of humanity's efforts to avert nuclear destruction. Beginning with the catastrophic atmospheric nuclear weapons tests of 1954, it describes the gradual development of a grassroots, worldwide movement for nuclear disarmament. By the late 1950's and early 1960's, this campaign had taken on mass dimensions in many nations, with antinuclear protests simultaneously drawing hundreds of thousands of people in dozens of countries.
The movement engaged the efforts of some of the world's most prominent and revered intellectuals, such as Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand Russell, and had a substantial impact on major political, labor, and religious groups, as well as on public opinion. Even within the relatively closed confines of Communist countries, antinuclear activities emerged and exerted pressure on public officials. As a result, the public policy of numerous countries began to shift away from a reliance upon nuclear war and toward curbing the nuclear arms race -- a process that culminated in the partial test ban treaty, the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, and other arms control measures of the 1960's.
This is the first comprehensive account of worldwide nuclear disarmament activism and its consequences during these years. The book is based on extensive research, in fifteen countries, on more than a hundred peace groups and government agencies. Many of the documents -- such as those drawn from the files of the U.S. State Department, the Atomic Energy Authority of Great Britain, and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union -- were until recently classified as top secret. Now,together with personal interviews and material drawn from peace movement periodicals, they contribute to a vivid panorama of the global antinuclear campaign and provide startling revelations about the efforts of government officials to repress, contain, and, finally, accommodate to popular protest.
Experience has shown that an integrated decision making process, including deterministic and probabilistic analyses together with good engineering practices, consideration of operating experience and sound managerial arrangements, is effective in refining and improving safe design and safe operation of nuclear installations. This publication is intended to promote a common understanding among the international nuclear community of how the concept of risk can be used in making safety decisions relating to nuclear installations. It identifies the framework, principles and key elements for integrated risk informed decision making (IRIDM) and describes the interrelationship between the key elements as well as the integration of their input. Although this publication is focused on the use of IRIDM in the context of nuclear power plants, including their fuel handling and storage systems, it can be equally applied with appropriate adjustments to other nuclear facilities and activities as well as to non-nuclear applications.
This volume is a follow-up of PAGEOPH Topical Volume 167 (2010) and again reports on the latest advances in science and technology that have been achieved to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). This progress in the development and testing of new sensor technologies and analysis methodologies in all relevant scientific disciplines improves the detection, location and characterization of CTBT-relevant events. In particular the latter poses a challenge for smaller events, where natural or manmade but CTBT-irrelevant sources can generate false positive events. Being able to effectively identify these events while maintaining a minimum risk of missing a nuclear explosion is the overall challenge. The 29 papers in this volume can be structured into 16 waveform studies, eight contributions in the field of radionuclide monitoring and related atmospheric backtracking and five papers related to on-site inspection or overhead detection of relevant events, with many of these originally presented at a special session on "Research and Development in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring" at the most recent annual General Assemblies of the European Geosciences Union (EGU). The volume addresses the interests of scientists and practitioners whose work is related to the CTBT relevant applications and technologies in the fields of seismology, hydro-acoustics, infra-sound, meteorology and nuclear physics.
An array of challenges threaten the peace and security of Northeast Asia, not least how to contain a nuclear North Korea and ensure the safety of the region's nuclear power structure. Addressing multiple dimensions of these crucial issues, the authors of Northeast Asia's Nuclear Challenges highlight the cooperative approaches needed not only among the primary actors-China, the two Koreas, Russia, and the United States-but throughout the international community. Distributed for the Institute for Far Eastern Studies, Kyungnam University.
For over 30 years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has maintained effective nuclear security, emergency preparedness and incident response programs. The NRC requires safe and secure operations at nuclear facilities wherein safety refers to operating the facility in a manner that protects the public and the environment. Security refers to protecting the facility from adversaries who wish to harm people and the environment. Safety and security are accomplished by using people, equipment and physical protection. This book explores the safety and security threats to our nation's nuclear facilities and the measures and techniques in place to thwart any such emergency.
The seismic design criteria applied to sitting commercial nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. received increased attention following the March 11th, 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Since the events, some in Congress have begun to question whether U.S. plants are vulnerable to a similar threat, particularly in light of the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions's (NRC)ongoing reassessment of seismic risks at certain plant sites. This book presents some of the general design concepts of operating nuclear power plants in order to discuss design considerations for seismic events.
The future heralds a potential crisis in power supply in view of growing global and domestic demand for fossil fuel energy, particularly in supplying power for seawater desalination in the case of the Gulf region. The possibility of fossil fuel depletion on the one hand, and the increasing rate of development in the Gulf countries on the other, has prompted the Gulf states to consider the development of peaceful nuclear energy as an alternative source of power generation. Here, leading energy experts from academic, professional and technical backgrounds examine the inherent risks and opportunities associated with the development of nuclear energy in the Gulf. They examine key related issues such as: climate change, security infrastructure and the role of international cooperation in the field of nuclear technology and long-term development.
In the early 1970s construction began on a nuclear power plant at Laguna Verde in the Mexican state of Veracruz. Initially, most local citizens were largely unconcerned with the prospect of having the nuclear plant in their community. With the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, however, residents' complacency toward the power plant soon turned to opposition. Protest groups such as the Madres Veracruzanas emerged to join existing environmental groups in a fight to close down the facility. In "Mothers and the Mexican Antinuclear Power Movement," Velma Garcia-Gorena traces the protest movement against the Mexican government's Laguna Verde nuclear plant, outlining the movement's formation, development, and decline. Documenting the movement's key players and turning points in superb detail, she interweaves important historical narrative with a deft examination of the events, framing her analysis in terms of social movement literature. In a departure from the more conventional New Social Movements approach to analyzing antinuclear movements, Garcia-Gorena demonstrates how, in many ways, movements of this kind are not so new and how a modified "political process" approach fits much better. With a sophisticated application of various social movements' paradigms, Garcia-Gorena incorporates perspectives such as resource mobilization, political process paradigms, and feminist theory. Timely, well written, and thoroughly researched, "Mothers and the Mexican Antinuclear Power Movement" fills a major gap in the literature on grassroots environmental movements in Latin America. Both rich in empirical detail and convincing in its conclusions, this study provides a broader understanding of Mexican social movements and the quest for democracy in developing countries.
Based on the authors' recent investigations, this book describes the application of glassy and polyphase composite materials for nuclear waste immobilisation. It introduces immobilisation issues beginning with a short description of nuclear waste types and compositions. Sources of nuclear waste are described including the nuclear fuel cycle, operational and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing waste streams. The glassy waste forms currently being used for high-, intermediate- and low level radioactive waste immobilisation are described. Problems related to immobilisation capacity, process efficiency and long-term radionucleide retention are highlighted. Scientific and technical problems in nuclear waste immobilisation are emphasised in particular long-term waste form stability and durability. Recent developments in advanced nuclear waste forms are described such as glass composite materials (GCM) with higher versatility and waste loading. New immobilisation approaches and technologies are described including advanced cold crucible induction melting (CCM), self sustaining thermochemical immobilisation (SSI), and in-situ self-sintering in deep underground repositories. Long-term durability tests of nuclear waste glasses are outlined and the role of ion-exchange phase in glass corrosion is described in detail.
This Safety Guide provides guidance on various aspects of emergency planning and preparedness for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material, including the assignment of responsibilities. It reflects the requirements specified in Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-l (ST-1, Revised), Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 1996 Edition (Revised) (2000), and those of Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (1996). It supersedes Safety Series No. 87, Emergency Response Planning and Preparedness for Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material (1988).
This book presents a compilation of selected papers from the Fourth International Symposium on Software Reliability, Industrial Safety, Cyber Security and Physical Protection of Nuclear Power Plant, held in August 2019 in Guiyang, China. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss inspection, testing, certification and research concerning the software and hardware of instrument and control (I&C) systems used at nuclear power plants (NPP), such as sensors, actuators and control systems. The event provides a venue for exchange among experts, scholars and nuclear power practitioners, as well as a platform for the combination of teaching and research at universities and enterprises to promote the safe development of nuclear power plants. Readers will find a wealth of valuable insights into achieving safer and more efficient instrumentation and control systems.
Although the Cold War is over, the world is awash with nuclear weapons and materials. There is a high probability for a nuclear disaster involving nuclear reactors, nuclear waste, weapons and weapons grade materials. This book discusses in layman's language the problems families face during disasters. Its premise is that if a family is prepared for any type of nuclear disaster, it will be prepared for other kinds of disasters -- which are increasing in number and intensity each year. Nuclear disasters can take many courses: the accidental detonation of a nuclear weapon, a reactor explosion and core meltdown, nuclear waste explosion, terrorist use of nuclear materials, nuclear spills -- each could result in a major disaster. The book explains in detail how to prepare for such extreme emergencies, from removing radionuclides from drinking water, storing emergency food and medicines, to treating those suffering from acute radiation sickness. The physical effects of nuclear explosions are explained as well as how to protect oneself and family from direct nuclear radiation, radioactive fallout, remove radioactive contamination from air, water and food. It also includes information on protecting electronic circuitry from EMP (Electromagnetic Pulses).
This open access book summarizes the latest scientific findings regarding the biological effects of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident in 2011. Various cases of changes in animals and organisms have been reported since the FNPP accident. However, it is often unknown whether they are actually due to radiation, since the dose or dose-rate are not necessarily associated with the changes observed. This book brings together the works of radiation biologists and ecologists to provide reliable radioecology data and gives insight into future radioprotection. The book examines the environmental pollution and radiation exposure, and contains valuable data from abandoned livestock in the ex-evacuation zone and from wild animals including invertebrates and vertebrates, aqueous and terrestrial animals, and plants that are subjected to long-term exposure in the area still affected by radiation. It also analyzes dose evaluation, and offers new perspectives gained from the accident, as well as an overview for future studies to promote radioprotection of humans and the ecosystem. Since the biological impact of radiation is influenced by various factors, it is difficult to scientifically define the effects of low-dose/low-dose-rate radiation. However, the detailed research data presented can be combined with the latest scientific and technological advances, such as artificial intelligence, to provide new insights in the future. This book is a unique and valuable resource for researchers, professionals and anyone interested in the impact of exposure to radiation or contamination with radioactive materials.
ICRP Publication 74 provides an extensive and authoritative set of data linking the operational quantities defined by ICRU with the dosimetric and protection quantities defined by ICRP. The operational quantities provide a satisfactory basis for most of the measurements for radiation protection against external radiations. In those cases where it is not so, the data given in the report provides a basis for designing special measurement programmes, properly interpreting their results and relating them to the protection quantities. The report should be useful to operational health physicists, medical physicists and those involved in the calibration of instruments and personal dosimetry.
The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28 - May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issues related to international high level radioactive waste management activities, and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities.
The proceedings of the first annual Conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 8-12, 1990, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issues related to international high level radioactive waste management activities, and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as intraplate seismotectonics, transport processes, geochemistry, and rock mass characterization, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as public involvement, institutional impacts, regulations, and environmental and health effects. By providing this wider perspective of high level waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated, and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities.
Provides a personal yet scientific comparative study of nuclear energy and a spectrum of other energies from a reliability point of view, as well as outlining guidelines for developing energy policies The Fukushima nuclear accident made people ponder and question nuclear safety again, resulting in national decisions to phase out nuclear power completely. Is this the right decision? Are there better ways to deal with this important issue of the 21st century? Critical Reflections on Nuclear and Renewable Energy examines both the real and unreal potential dangers of nuclear power as well as a range of other energy sources, including coal, oil, gas, and renewable energies like solar, hydro, wind, and wave energy sources. The book analyzes the pros and cons of a spectrum of energies in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. It maintains that we should look at nuclear energy from a rational point of view instead of being influenced by emotions or politicians arguments. The book also examines policies that concern science and technology, energy resources, environmental protection, and occupational safety, emphasizing the need to deepen the general populace s understanding of the concept of reliability. Critical Reflections on Nuclear and Renewable Energy provides both perspective and detail on the relative merits and state of the various energies and the real-life cost of new energies. The analysis considers mining, emissions, sustainability, cost implications, and energy security and safety. Through the discussion of the real cost and impact on environment of individual sources, this book provides a valuable insight into prospects for future energy development. Readership The book is for the general public, government officials responsible for drafting energy policies, as well as engineering professionals working in the energy sector. It will also be a helpful source for academics in related disciplines.
This publication establishes requirements in respect of the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. It covers the essential aspects of the framework for establishing a regulatory body and taking other actions necessary to ensure the effective regulatory control of facilities and activities utilized for peaceful purposes. Other responsibilities and functions, such as liaison within the global safety regime and on support services for safety (including radiation protection), emergency preparedness and response, nuclear security, and the State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material, are also covered. A review of Safety Requirements publications was commenced in 2011 following the accident in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. The review revealed no significant areas of weakness and resulted in just a small set of amendments to strengthen the requirements and facilitate their implementation, which are contained in the present publication.
The promise and peril of nuclear power have been a preoccupation of the modern age. Though the nuclear industry has witnessed periods of expansion and retrenchment, there are now more than one hundred nuclear reactors providing America with almost a quarter of its electrical power.
Robert Duffy now examines the politics of nuclear power over the last fifty years, relating broad trends in American politics to changes in the regulation of the nuclear industry to show how federal policies in this area have been made, implemented, and altered. He weaves a discussion of institutional change in all three branches of government into a study of agenda-setting, regulatory reform, and "subgovernment" politics, demonstrating how these forces combined to create policy change in this important area of public policy.
Duffy's work traces nuclear politics from the creation of a powerful subgovernment through the public lobby reforms of the late 1960s and early 1970s and the deregulatory backlash of the Reagan years. He demonstrates that while policies did change in the 1970s, they did not change as much as other accounts have suggested, and that the industry continued to receive considerable federal support. The book is particularly significant for extending the discussion of nuclear policy through the Bush and Clinton years, including the controversy over waste disposal, new licensing procedures enacted in the 1992 Amendments to the Atomic Energy Act, and the effects of deregulation of electric utilities.
By providing both a description of the transformation of this policy community and an analysis of how regulatory change occurs, Nuclear Politics in America offers a new and important view of policymaking in America.
This book presents the reader with a story-based narrative of discovery and development of radiation-induced graft polymerization. The report presented here accomplishes this by relating the inspiring account of research and development based on long-term collaboration among a professor, an engineer, and an entrepreneur. Their goal, ultimately successful, was to come up with a method for grafting functional polymer chains onto existing trunk polymers. The desired outcome was to produce feasible forms for practical use as adsorbents such as porous hollow-fiber membranes, porous sheets, nonwoven fabrics, and fibers. Adsorbents that specifically and efficiently bind to target ions and molecules are essential for capturing uranium species in seawater and antibody drugs in biological fluids and for removing metal ions from ultrapure water and radioactive cesium ions from contaminated water. This unique volume, with its clearly written text and many illustrative figures and diagrams, demonstrates the advantages of the high-adsorption capacity and rate and the easy handling of new polymeric adsorbents over conventional adsorbents. The dynamic behavior of graft chains as described here is certain to appeal especially to chemists, physicists, and material scientists as well as to other readers with an interest in this valuable subject.
This book examines the role played by civil nuclear energy in Britain's relationship with Europe between the end of the Second World War and London's first application to join the European Communities. Tracing the development of the British nuclear programme as it emerged as a global leader in constructing the world's first atomic power stations, it analyses how the threat of energy shortages throughout the 1950s presented ministers with a golden opportunity to utilise nuclear cooperation as an instrument to influence the political shape of Europe. Importantly, this book will show how this chance was missed by ministers due to a combination of disorganization and diplomatic pressure, as well as a perennial lack of domestic resources. In so doing, this book joins the long-disconnected historiographies of European integration and nuclear energy to offer a new perspective on both scholarly fields.
The research and its outcomes presented here focuses on tropospheric or ground level ozone, in particular due to its surfacing as a major threat to crop productivity around the world. This book presents the ozone concentration data for a variety of geographical regions, examines the factors responsible for its increasing concentrations and its potential effects on physiological and biochemical responses culminating in crop productivity losses which, in turn may pose a serious threat to global food security. Beside this, certain ameliorative measures that could be adopted to assess ozone injury in plants are also discussed. Global climate change scenarios predict a significant increase in future tropospheric ozone concentration. Particular attention is therefore given to evaluate the effect of global climate change on ozone concentrations. Readers will also discover how yield losses due to ozone are related to changes in the socio-economic conditions of the society, especially in South Asian regions. Students and researchers studying crop and soil science, environmental scientists, risk assessment professionals and policy makers will find this book of interest.
This book presents a comprehensive study of the environmental situation prevailing in the areas located near the Koshkar-Ata (Kazakhstan) tailings dump and the development of rehabilitation measures taking into account the area's soil and climatic features. Given their impact on the local population's health, rehabilitation activities and their monitoring are vital for countries where nuclear power technologies are developed and where uranium mining industry wastes exist. Book analyzes the negative influences of the tailings on soil and vegetation cover on near-ground atmospheric layers and groundwater. Based on radiometric, field and laboratory analytical research methods, it presents quantitative information on the levels of pollution of the environment by radionuclides and chemical toxicants, and includes the results of constant monitoring of dust from radioactive and toxic wastes in the area. The book also offers recommendations for technical solutions for reclaiming radioactive tailing ponds, as well as for the development of disposal sites for radioactive waste in the tailing ponds, based on effective rehabilitation technologies developed at two control sites. The study attracted considerable interest from the Republic of Kazakhstan's state authorities and public organizations, and raised awareness of the need for rehabilitation measures at the KOSHKAR-ATA tailing pond. The monograph is intended for specialists in the field of environmental protection and radiation ecology, as well as senior undergraduate and graduate students, doctoral students and young scientists. This publication is recommended by the Academic Council of the L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University.
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