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The sharing of nuclear weapons technology between states is unexpected, because nuclear weapons are such a powerful instrument in international politics, but sharing is not rare. This book proposes a theory to explain nuclear sharing and surveys its rich history from its beginnings in the Second World War.
Looking at national peace organizations alongside lesser-known protest collectives, this book argues that anti-nuclear activists encountered familiar challenges common to other social movements of the late twentieth century.
As the world struggles to meet the growing international demands for electricity, green energy, and alternatives to fossil fuels, the nuclear power sector is experiencing global growth. Nuclear reactors are being designed and constructed at record rates, and Canada is joining the trend, with several provinces considering an expansion of their nuclear presence. Canada, the Provinces, and the Global Nuclear Revival critically examines Canadian nuclear policy in order to show how historic, environmental, economic, and political factors have shaped the direction of the nation's energy industry. Duane Bratt presents a comparative study of the Canadian nuclear sector - using a framework of interest-based coalitions - in its response to the global revival, analyzing nuclear development in Ontario, New Brunswick, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. The book also answers fundamental questions such as: Has Canada seized international opportunities in uranium mining, reactor sales, and cooperation with other countries in nuclear research? To what extent has the industry been consolidated through mergers and acquisitions, foreign investment, and the privatization of crown corporations? A state-of-the-art exploration of Canada's place in the rapidly shifting world of electricity production by an acclaimed expert in the field, Canada, the Provinces, and the Global Nuclear Revival is a major contribution to the international nuclear debate.
The atomic age was described as one that might soon end in the destruction of human civilization, but from the beginning, utopian images were attached to it as well. This book compares representations of nuclear power in popular media from around the world to to trace divergences, convergences, and exchanges.
This book presents a compelling account of atomic development over the last century that demonstrates how humans have repeatedly chosen to ignore the associated impacts for the sake of technological, scientific, military, and economic expediency. In 1945, Albert Einstein said, "The release of atomic power has changed everything except our way of thinking ... the solution to this problem lies in the heart of mankind." This statement seems more valid today than ever. Romancing the Atom: Nuclear Infatuation from the Radium Girls to Fukushima presents compelling moments that clearly depict the folly and shortsightedness of our "atomic mindset" and shed light upon current issues of nuclear power, waste disposal, and weapons development. The book consists of ten nonfiction historical vignettes, including the women radium dial painters of the 1920s, the expulsion of the Bikini Island residents to create a massive "petri dish" for post-World War II bomb and radiation testing, the government-subsidized uranium rush of the 1950s and its effects on Native American communities, and the secret radioactive material development facilities in residential neighborhoods. In addition, the book includes original interviews of prominent historians, writers, and private citizens involved with these poignant stories. More information is available online at www.romancingtheatom.com. Draws from top-secret government and military documents from the history of atomic development, archival documents from the Library of Congress, and letters from Albert Einstein and other prominent scientists during the 1950s and 1960s Presents chronological histories of events such as the displacement and relocation of the Bikini Islanders, uranium mines on Native American lands, and the cleanup of a secret uranium milling facility in a residential neighborhood in Oxford, Ohio Contains various maps including radioactive cleanup sites in the United States and other parts of the world Includes many photographs and illustrations that accompany the text Provides a bibliography containing a significant collection of books, magazine articles, newspaper reports, movies, comics, government documents, and other related archival materials
Was ist Strahlenschutz, wie gefahrlich sind Strahlen? Die Autoren informieren verstandlich uber Fakten, Hypothesen und gesetzliche Grenzwerte. Sie setzen bewusst keine Kenntnisse der Physik, Biologie oder Medizin voraus. Das Buch ist fur alle die geschrieben, die wissen mochten, was hinter dem Begriff "Strahlenschutz" steckt. Der Erfolg dieses Buches hat gezeigt, wie dringend notwendig eine sachliche Information uber die Strahlen- und Strahlenschutzproblematik ist. Gerade die Meinungsbildner, Lehrer und Arzte, sind gefordert, die Frage nach den Gefahren einer Kerntechnik auch quantitativ korrekt zu beantworten. Dies gilt besonders in einer Zeit, in der nach einem GAU in Tschernobyl und Vorwurfen gegen die Atomindustrie in der Tagespresse die Kernenergie politisch vertretbar erscheint. Beide Autoren gehoren zu der kleinen Gruppe hauptberuflicher Strahlenschutzer. Sie sind Mitglieder nationaler und internationaler Kommissionen, in denen die Grenzwerte diskutiert und Empfehlungen beschlossen werden. Die 3. Auflage des Bu- ches berucksichtigt die Grenzwertempfehlungen der ICRP (Internationale Kommission fur Strahlenschutz) von 1990 im Arbeitsschutz und fur die Bevolkerung. Sie wurden geandert, als neue Untersuchungen eine tatsachlich niedrigere Strahlendosis in Hiroshima und Nagasaki ergaben. Damit erleben die Untersuchungen der Krebssterbefalle an Uberlebenden der Atombombenabwurfe eine neue Bewertung.
Project management is a leadership function primarily concerned with the organization, coordination and control of large undertakings, with the aim of achieving technical excellence by working to quality standards, optimizing the schedule and the supply chain, and minimizing costs. Competent project management can reduce costs through more efficient work sequences, higher productivity, shorter activity durations and the parallel reduction of accumulated interest during construction of nuclear power plants. Based on past proven practices in Member States, this publication provides guidance on project management from the preparatory phase to plant turnover to commissioning of nuclear power plants. The guidelines and experiences described will enable project managers to obtain better performance in nuclear power plant construction.
This vital reference is the only one-stop resource on how to
assess, prevent, and manage severe nuclear accidents in the light
water reactors (LWRs) that pose the most risk to the public. LWRs
are the predominant nuclear reactor in use around the world today,
and they will continue to be the most frequently utilized in the
near future. Therefore, accurate determination of the safety issues
associated with such reactors is central to a consideration of the
risks and benefits of nuclear power. This book emphasizes the
prevention and management of severe accidents to teach nuclear
professionals how to mitigate potential risks to the public to the
maximum extent possible.
The environmental implications of generating electric power from nuclear fission have been a matter of concern since the construction of the earliest nuclear reactors and power stations in the 1950s. After two or more decades of construction of nuclear power stations, this ceased in many countries, largely as a result of concerns for the environment and human health. However, the pressing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is leading many countries to plan extensive new programmes of construction of nuclear power stations which serves to re-emphasise concerns over environmental impacts. Volume 32 of the Issues in Environmental Science and Technology series is concerned with reviewing the political and social context for nuclear power generation, the nuclear fuel cycles and their implications for the environment. Known issues of nuclear accidents, the legacy of contaminated land and low level waste, and the decommissioning of nuclear sites are considered together with a more forward look at the deep geological disposal of high level waste and the pathways of radioactive substances in the environment and their implications for human and non-human organisms. This topical work will be of interest to scientists and policy makers working within this field or related areas as well as advanced students.
As oil reserves decline and the environment takes centre stage in public policy discussions, the merits and dangers of nuclear power and nuclear waste management are once again being debated. "Nuclear Waste Management in Canada" provides a critical counterpoint to the position of government and industry by examining not only the technical but also the social and ethical aspects of the issue. What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? And how and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? This timely collection defuses the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds discussions of nuclear energy.
It will appeal to academics, students, and stakeholders in publicpolicy or environmental studies who want to think critically and morebroadly about how we approach energy generation and waste management.
An essential reference for journalists, activists, and students, this book presents scientifically accurate and accessible overviews of twenty-four of the most important issues in the nuclear realm, including: health effects, nuclear safety and engineering, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, nuclear medicine, food irradiation, transport of nuclear materials, spent fuel, nuclear weapons, and global warming. Each 'brief' is based on interviews with named scientists, engineers, or administrators in a nuclear specialty, and each has been reviewed by a team of independent experts. The objective is not to make a case for or against nuclear-related technologies, but rather to provide definitive background information. (The approach is based on that of ""The Reporter's Environmental Handbook"", published in 1988, which won a special award for journalism from the Sigma Delta Chi Society of professional journalists.) Other features of the book include: a glossary of hundreds of terms; an introduction to risk assessment; environmental and economic impacts, and public perceptions; an article by an experienced reporter with recommendations about how to cover nuclear issues; quick guides to the history of nuclear power in the United States, important federal legislation and regulations, nuclear position statements, and key organizations; and, references for print and electronic resources.
The hydrogen test-bomb Bravo, dropped on the Marshall Islands in 1954, had enormous consequences for the Rongelap people. Anthropologists Barbara Rose Johnston and Holly Barker provide incontrovertible evidence of physical and financial damages to individuals and cultural and psycho-social damages to the community through use of declassified government documents, oral histories and ethnographic research, conducted with the Marshallese community within a unique collaborative framework. Their work helped produce a $1 billion award by the Nuclear Claims Tribunal and raises issues of bioethics, government secrecy, human rights, military testing, and academic activism. The report, reproduced here with accompanying materials, should be read by everyone concerned with the effects of nuclear war and is an essential text for courses in history, environmental studies, bioethics, human rights, and related subjects.
Radiological Risk Assessment and Environmental Analysis comprehensively explains methods used for estimating risk to people exposed to radioactive materials released to the environment by nuclear facilities or in an emergency such as a nuclear terrorist event. This is the first book that merges the diverse disciplines necessary for estimating where radioactive materials go in the environment and the risk they present to people. It is not only essential to managers and scientists, but is also a teaching text. The chapters are arranged to guide the reader through the risk assessment process, beginning with the source term (where the radioactive material comes from) and ending with the conversion to risk. In addition to presenting mathematical models used in risk assessment, data is included so the reader can perform the calculations. Each chapter also provides example and working problems. The book will be a critical component of the rebirth of nuclear energy now taking place, as well as an essential resource to prepare for and respond to a nuclear emergency.
Using declassified government material James C. Oskins and Michael H. Maggelet have written the most comprehensive and detailed study of the thirty six known U.S. nuclear weapons accidents, known as "Broken Arrows." The authors have poured through government documents, aircraft accident reports, nuclear weapon incident and accident reports, and first hand accounts to shed light on the Department of Defense's vague summaries of nuclear weapons accidents. Their research dispels myths surrounding the Tybee and Goldsboro accidents, and provides great insight into the human element and the condition of individual weapons and AEC or DOD recovery operations regarding nearly every Broken Arrow. The underlying cause of such accidents, be it human error or equipment malfunction, is clearly shown in formerly secret reports and photographs.
A quiet French country district is the site of a nuclear waste-processing plant. Francoise Zonabend describes the ways in which those working in the plant, and living nearby, come to terms with the risks in their daily lives. She provides a superb sociology of the nuclear work-place, with its divisions and hierarchies, and explains the often unexpected responses of the workers to the fear of radiation and contamination. The work is described euphemistically in terms of women's tasks - cleaning, cooking, preparing a soup - but the male workers subvert this language to create a more satisfying self-image. They divide workers into the cautious ('rentiers') and the bold ('kamikazes') who relish danger. By analysing work practices and the language of the work-place, the author shows how workers and locals can recognise the possibility of nuclear catastrophe while, at the same time, denying that it could ever happen to them. This is a major contribution to the anthropology of modern life.
In A Brighter Tomorrow, Pete V. Domenici, the senior Republican Senator from New Mexico, has written a thoughtful and, at times, provocative assessment of nuclear power in the United States. He outlines what went wrong and why, and shares his vision and passion for a renewed commitment by this nation, and the rest of the world, to the dreams that nuclear energy can help fulfill.
The global threat of nuclear weapons is one of today's key policy issues. Using a wide variety of sources, including recently declassified information, Nathan E. Busch offers detailed examinations of the nuclear programs in the United States, Russia, China, Iraq, India, and Pakistan, as well as the emerging programs in Iran and North Korea. He also assesses the current debates in international relations over the risks associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the post--Cold War world. Busch explores how our understanding of nuclear proliferation centers on theoretical disagreements about how best to explain and predict the behavior of states. His study bridges the gap between theory and empirical evidence by determining whether countries with nuclear weapons have adequate controls over their nuclear arsenals and fissile material stockpiles (such as highly enriched uranium and plutonium). Analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of various systems of nuclear weapons regulation, Busch projects what types of controls proliferating states are likely to employ and assesses the threat posed by the possible theft of fissile materials by aspiring nuclear states or by terrorists. No End in Sight provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of issues at the forefront of contemporary international affairs. With the resurgence of the threat of nuclear terrorism, Busch's insights and conclusions will prove critical to understanding the implications of nuclear proliferation.
A practical guide to radiation safety
Many health and scientific professionals require a basic understanding of radiological safety principles, even and especially if they are not specialists in radiological health. Principles of Radiological Health and Safety is designed for this purpose as well as a resource for safety personnel who also handle radiation safety duties. It is a text of basic concepts needed in broad-based protection programs, with real-world examples and practice problems to demonstrate principles and hone skills.
Resource data for practical problems in radiation protection are provided along with illustrative examples of their use. For example, modes and energies of radioactive transformation, radiation attenuation and absorption, dose coefficients, and environmental transport parameters are included for many of the common circumstances encountered in laboratory and industrial settings. these are cross referenced to standard compendiums for straightforward use when more in-depth listings need to be consulted. Other topics include:
Safety professionals as well as students and teachers will find Principles of Radiological Health and Safety to be an invaluable addition to their professional and academic libraries.
More than a quarter-century has now passed since the United States set off the last of three underground atomic blasts in the remote wilderness of the Aleutian islands, off the coast of Alaska. Cannikin, as this third test was called, exploded as planned on November 6, 1971, on Amchitka Island. The first test, Project Long Shot (1965), was designed to determine whether the blast's shock waves could be distinguished from earthquakes. Milrow, the second (1969), and Cannikin were part of the U.S. anti-ballistic missile development program. Amchitka and the Bomb looks at how these nuclear explosions were planned and conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Atomic Energy Commission, in spite of vehement protests by political and civilian groups. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of a new generation of weapons, the government defended the nuclear tests on Amchitka as providing U.S. presidents, and especially Richard Nixon, with negotiating power to force the Soviet Union to accept a satisfactory arms limitation agreement. Dean Kohlhoff traces the enormous environmental impact of the blasts on the Aleutian wildlife refuge system. He also examines the social and political fallout from the tests on Aleut civilian populations. As the tests inexorably went forward, an emerging environmental movement was galvanized to action. Passionate but ultimately futile attempts to stop the blasts were made by such nascent groups as Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth, and the Wilderness Society. Although Alaskan Aleuts sued to halt Cannikin and environmental groups joined them for an injunction against the test, a split U.S. Supreme Court eventually approved the 5.1-megaton explosion. Amchitka and the Bomb tells a harrowing story of the struggle of private citizens and small environmental groups to counter the weight of the federal government. It adds immeasurably to our understanding of the nuclear history of the United States. Its concise interweaving of the military, scientific, economic, and social implications surrounding the nuclear explosions on Amchitka Island exposes the unpleasant consequences of allowing treasured national values to become victim to political necessity. Kohlhoff has contributed a vital chapter to Alaska's history and to the history of the American environmental movement.
The Manhattan Project-the World War II race to produce an atomic bomb-transformed the entire country in myriad ways, but it did not affect each region equally. Acting on an enduring perception of the American West as an "empty" place, the U.S. government located a disproportionate number of nuclear facilities-particularly the ones most likely to spread pollution-in western states. The Manhattan Project manufactured plutonium at Hanford, Washington; designed and assembled bombs at Los Alamos, New Mexico; and detonated the world's first atomic bomb at Alamagordo, New Mexico, on June 16, 1945. In the years that followed the war, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected additional western sites for its work. Many westerners initially welcomed the atom. Like federal officials, they, too, regarded their region as "empty," or underdeveloped. Facilities to make, test, and base atomic weapons, sites to store nuclear waste, and even nuclear power plants were regarded as assets. By the 1960s and 1970s, however, regional attitudes began to change. At a variety of locales, ranging from Eskimo Alaska to Mormon Utah, westerners devoted themselves to resisting the atom and its effects on their environments and communities. Just as the atomic age had dawned in the American West, so its artificial sun began to set there. The Atomic West brings together contributions from several disciplines to explore the impact on the West of the development of atomic power from wartime secrecy and initial postwar enthusiasm to public doubts and protest in the 1970s and 1980s. An impressive example of the benefits of interdisciplinary studies on complex topics, The Atomic West advances our understanding of both regional history and the history of science, and does so with human communities as a significant focal point. The book will be of special interest to students and experts on the American West, environmental history, and the history of science and technology.
"Is it safe?" "What are the risks involved?" are questions frequently asked by members of the public. This unique book explains the fundamental problems faced in modern-day life. Terms such as "risk" and "safe" are clearly defined, and the risks encountered between birth and death are discussed, including transport, the home, healthcare, diet, and the workplace. The perception of risk, and the risks from radiation (natural, radwaste and nuclear reactors) are covered, along with management of risk and the psychology of risk perception. What is Safe? The Risks of Living in a Nuclear Age is illustrated with examples from the most deeply researched areas. Written for the lay-person, the volume also includes a complete reprint of the late Lord Walter Marshall's famous lecture "The Radioactive Garden." It will be of interest to students, teachers, researchers, industrialists or indeed anyone wishing for an up-to-date view of risk and safety.
First published in 1978, Helen Caldicott's cri du coeur about the dangers of nuclear power became an instant classic. In the intervening sixteen years much has changed - the Cold War is over, nuclear arms production has decreased, and there has been a marked growth in environmental awareness. But the nuclear genie has not been forced back into the bottle. The disaster at Chernobyl and the "incidents" at other plants around the world have disproven the image of "safe" nuclear power. Nuclear waste dumping has further poisoned our environment, and developing nuclear technology in the Third World poses still further risks. In this completely revised, updated, and expanded edition, Dr. Caldicott defines for the 1990s the dangers of this madness - including the insidious influence of the nuclear power industry and the American government's complicity in medical "experiments" using nuclear material - and calls on us to accept the moral challenge to fight against it, both for our own sake and for that of future generations.
The development and use of nuclear power in the United States has become stalemated. After the early promise of energy too cheap to meter, public concerns and legal challenges have stymied the nuclear power industry. Chief among these is the issue of safe disposal of nuclear waste. This volume, therefore, examines the dynamics of nuclear waste disposal policy. It is organized to address a wide range of issues found in the policy debate, e.g., the interrelationship between science and public choice, policy management and implementation, legal protection and liability, quality assurance and transportation, and so on. The volume provides a comprehensive view of the complex environment in which nuclear waste disposal policy develops.
For the first time, the sad story of America's uranium miners and the duplicity of our government is revealed. This expert study examines, in microcosm, the political, legal, social, medical, engineering, and ethical problems that emerged when American leaders developed a nuclear arsenal to contain the Soviet Union without considering the cost this could have on innocent lives. Medical and public health personnel, policymakers and political scientists, lawyers and legal historians, and citizen watchdogs will find this account illuminating. Ball provides the context in the 1940s and 1950s for understanding the Communist hysteria that swept the country and led policymakers to develop risky nuclear technology and to engage in uranium mining and production while assuring Navajo and Mormon miners of their safety. The study analyzes the medical consequences and the etiology of cancer among miners, the politics behind radioactive policy, the miners' long legal battles, and compensatory legislation in 1990. An appendix provides a federal report about three decades of radiation experiences on U.S. citizens. A bibliography points to primary and secondary source material of note.
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