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Radiation shielding has been for many years - too many years - the province of physicists and mathematicians. This is not to say that these have been the only ones confronted with shielding problems. Nuclear engineers encounter them daily. But physicists needed to shield first their accelerators and later their reactors, and they, with mathematicians, have developed the methods. And for too long engineers have relied on advice from these original shielders in their own design problems. The difficulty has been largely one of communication. Physicists, from FERMI and ZINN, who performed the first reactor shield research, to those currently so engaged, have written reports which were in the Physicists' language, and which did not extrapolate from their special data to the general problems. Later, texts on shielding were written by physicists - GOLDSTEIN, and PRICE, HORTON and SPINNEY - which told of the knowledge at hand. The engineer ROCKWELL edited the contributions of many people, most of whom were physi cists, in another text, but even this engineered approach attempted little more than to record experience from the submarine program."
Foreword Over the past decades, Piero Risoluti has built up an intimate knowl edge of the nuclear industry - in particular of nuclear waste man agement. In this book, his scientific understanding is apparent - for example in his comprehensive but readily understandable descrip tions of waste conditioning and disposal. Moreover, he has also been directly involved in the wider societal and political debates in the nuclear area - especially in his Italian homeland. What shines through in these pages is.his frustration at the lack of progress in im plementing disposal concepts that are judged by many to be very safe and his unfaltering drive to improve this situation. To provoke debate, the book is very deliberately written in a po larising, black and white style that can easily be labelled as "politi cally incorrect" - a characterisation that Piero will probably agree with and be amused by. Criticism is directed equally at "loud mouthed and incompetent anti-nuclear environmentalists," the "nu clear Byzantium" of the international nuclear establishment, the "in tellectual narcissism" of those nuclear experts that dare to admit the importance of societal issues, and the tendency of politicians to "in definite procrastination." These are not words chosen to avoid open confrontation of opposing views."
There is a widely held misconception that the problem of ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere has been solved. In fact, while CFC production has been reduced in many places, the ongoing emissions of chemicals and the production of other long-lived ozone-depleting substances mean a decade will pass before the levels of ozone-depleting chlorine in the earth's atmosphere being to decline. As a result, serious ozone depletion above the southern pole and elsewhere is expected to continue for decades, posing a severe threat to human health and to ecosystems.In this comprehensive overview, Makhijani and Gurney detail the most current knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion. More than a review of the evolution of the ozone problem, Mending the Ozone Hole provides an objective and stimulating look at current debates surrounding the research, the technology development, and the policy-making aimed at eliminating ozone-depleting substances.The book begins by clearly delineating the current status of stratospheric ozone loss and its epidemiological and ecological consequences -- including DNA damage, effects on the human immune system, skin cancer, the human eye, plant and aquatic life, and potential impacts of persistent severe ozone depletion. It then takes up the many sources of emissions of ozone-depleting compounds and of the alternative technologies that might reasonably replace them. This is followed by an examination of national and international policy development and industry responses, projections on the levels of ozone-depleting chlorine, assessments of various ozone-protection measures, and a consideration of the context in which policy is made. Finally, the research findings are summarized and specific recommendations for protecting the ozone layer are offered
This book covers the latest environmental issues based on current research objectives. All chapters are fundamentally interlinked and focus on deciphering the networking of mutagens in environmental toxicity and human health. Our changing environment, climate, and lifestyle factors are growing concerns in the 21st century. The existing mutagens, either physical or chemical, are responsible for environmental toxicity. These toxicants are carcinogenic and not limited to naturally occurring chemicals or biologicals, but can also be man-made, such as 'radiation'. The networking of mutagens can have a broad range of effects on both the environment and human health. Accordingly, the respective chapters explore the networking of mutagens in connection with environmental toxicity, and address: 1. Extant types of man-made radiation and their effects on the environment and biological systems2. Heavy metal contaminations: Effects on environmental health3. Networking of environmental pollutants in the air, dust, soil, water, and natural toxins in the environment: Exposure and health4. The molecular interaction of environmental carcinogens with DNA: An oncoinformatics approach5. Fundamentals of nonotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenic and neurotoxicity in environmental health6. The role of antioxidants and medicinal plants in reducing the impacts of disease-causing pollutants A sequel to Perspectives in Environmental Toxicology, this book highlights the latest developments in the field of environmental toxicology. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, scholars and graduate students alike.
As the debate about the environmental cost of nuclear power and the issue of nuclear safety continues, a comprehensive assessment of the Chernobyl accident, its long-term environmental consequences and solutions to the problems found, is timely. Although many books have been published which discuss the accident itself and the immediate emergency response in great detail, none have dealt primarily with the environmental issues involved. The authors provide a detailed review of the long-term environmental consequences, in a wide range of ecosystems, many of which are only now becoming apparent. They also highlight responses and counter-measures to combat the environmental consequences and discuss health, social, psychological and economic impacts on the human population as well as the long-term effects on biota.
This book presents a summary of the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Science Institute (ASI) which took place at Val Morin, Quebec, Canada, 4-15 September, 1995. This summer school offered an excellent opportunity to discuss key scientific questions related to the stratosphere and its importance for the climate system. Approximately 85 students and 15 lecturers from 19 nations attended the ASI which was sponsored by SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and Their Role in Climate), a project of the World Climate Research Programme. The purpose of the ASI was to present truly tutorial lectures rather than highly specialized or technical talks. At the conference, mornings were devoted to fundamental presentations while short illustrative talks were given in the afternoon. The book presents a summary of the two types of lectures. We were fortunate to enlist the participation of outstanding experts in the field of atmospheric science and excellent teachers. Students were strongly encouraged to actively participate in various activities during the summer school; for example, the students were asked to summarize the lectures given by the teachers, and in most cases, the chapters presented in this book were written by small groups of students and reviewed by the lecturers. During the school, students had also the opportunity to present posters that described their personal research. These lecture notes are divided into three major parts.
The evolution of life on Earth during the last four billion
years has not been uniform. Several distinct periods of mass
extinction are known, the last led to the extinction of the
dinosaurs some 60 million years ago. The causes for these mass
extinctions are, at least in some cases, cosmic catastrophes, such
as impacts of asteroid sized bodies, nearby supernova explosions
etc. It is also well known that the last ice ages are triggered by
variations of different parameters of the Earth'r orbit about the
Sun. Cosmic catastrophes therefore have to be considered when
evolution of life on planets are discussed, especially the question
of habitability on them.
This book covers essential aspects of transmutation technologies, highlighting especially the advances in Japan. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has caused us to focus attention on a large amount of spent nuclear fuels stored in NPPs. In addition, public anxiety regarding the treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes that require long-term control is growing. The Japanese policy on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is still unpredictable in the aftermath of the accident. Therefore, research and development for enhancing the safety of various processes involved in nuclear energy production are being actively pursued worldwide. In particular, nuclear transmutation technology has been drawing significant attention after the accident. This publication is timely with the following highlights: 1) Development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs), which is a brand-new reactor concept for transmutation of highly radioactive wastes; 2) Nuclear reactor systems from the point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle. How to reduce nuclear wastes or how to treat them including the debris from TEPCO's Fukushima nuclear power stations is discussed; and 3) Environmental radioactivity, radioactive waste treatment and geological disposal policy. State-of-the-art technologies for overall back-end issues of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the technologies of transmutation are presented here. The chapter authors are actively involved in the development of ADSs and transmutation-related technologies. The future of the back-end issues in Japan is very uncertain after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP and this book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of those issues.
First published in 1989, Chernobyl: The Long Shadow offers a balanced review of what happened there, why and how it happened, and what the main lessons and implications of the accident are.
It looks back on events during and after the disaster, in particular reviewing how it and the radiation fallout were dealt with in different countries and looks forward to how the incident might affect the nuclear power industry around the world. The book explores the significance of the accident within the Soviet Union, considers its impact on public confidence in nuclear power, and reviews what improvements are necessary in emergency planning throughout the rest of the world.
It is written from an inter-disciplinary perspective; based on detailedscienctific research, which is described in non-specialist terms, it considers themes like attitudes to nuclear power and political reaction to the accident itself. It sets the Chernobyl accident into a proper context.
Chernobyl: The Long Shadow will appeal to students and teachers of geography, environmental science, international politics, nuclear physics, and to anyone interested in current affairs and environmental problems.
The Cold War may have ended, but the arms race has not. In May 1998, India resumed the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Pakistan responded with tests of its own - and all of a sudden the arms race was on again. Not that it ever stopped: China, Israel, Iran and Iraq have been pursuing weapons-building programmes and the ultimate horror of nuclear weapons in the hands of terrorists draws ever near.;In this book, Michael Foot looks back over 40 years of fighting the nuclear menace and surveys the world scene at the close of the 20th century as a warning of the continuing danger of building weapons of mass destruction.
At the age of three, Gemma D'Arcy was diagnosed as having a rare and incurable form of leukaemia. This book is the story of how her mother, Susan, struggled to save Gemma's life. It is also the story of how an environmental crime has allegedly been perpetrated on the British public by the British nuclear industry. Gemma was born in West Cumbria, one of the most radioactively-contaminated areas in the world. Susan became more and more convinced that radiation from the nearby Sellafield plant where her husband worked was the cause of Gemma's disease. This book recounts Susan's public battles, her anger and sorrow and her struggle to have the hazards of nuclear reprocessing plants eliminated. Gemma died in 1990 at the age of six.
When the Soviet Union demonstrated it possessed an operational intercontinental ballistic missile with the launch of Sputnik the world watched anxiously as the US engaged in a game of nuclear one-upmanship with the USSR. In the midst of rising tensions, Nicholas Christofilos, an eccentric physicist, brought forth an outlandish and ingenious idea known as project Argus: launching atomic bombs from the South Atlantic Ocean into outer space to fry incoming Soviet ICBMs with an artificial radiation belt. This plan was the biggest, most secret, and riskiest scientific experiment in history, and classified details of this operation have been long obscured... until now. In Burning the Sky, Mark Wolverton tells the unknown and controversial story of this scheme to reveal a fascinating narrative almost completely forgotten by history - one that still has powerful resonances today. Drawing from recently declassified sources, Wolverton chronicles Christofilos's project from its inception to execution. With over a decade of experience researching and writing about the sociological and political impacts of the science of the Cold War, Wolverton is the ideal authority on this risky experiment. Meticulously researched, with the pacing of a thriller and the language of science fiction, Burning the Sky will intrigue any lover of scientific or military history and will remind readers why Project Argus remains frighteningly relevant nearly sixty years later.
This report presents the findings and recommendations from the CSIS US-EURATOM Senior Policy Panel. It also includes a background paper by the CSIS Political-Military Studies Program that discusses the consequences should the agreement collapse, assesses the options for renewal and issues a set of conclusions and recommendations.
This book is dedicated to the great scientist and outstanding individual Nikolay Wladimirovich Timofeeff-Ressovsky. The book brings together a number of brief stories/essays about Timofeeff-Ressovsky including "Stories told by himself", and scientific chapters addressing his major research areas: genetics, radiobiology, radiation ecology and epidemiology, and evolution. Timofeeff-Ressovsky contributed to several fields of biology and established new directions of scientific research. He often repeated the phrase, which would later become famous: "Science should not be approached with the ferocity of wild animals". In keeping with that philosophy, the issues discussed here are still open. Each scientific part starts with a current review; the chapters present leading scientific schools and views. The main theme discussed in the genetics part is mutation variability in the context of linear (replication, transcription, translation) and conformational template processes, and its dependence on phylogenetic group. In turn, the radiobiology chapters focus on the reorganization of DNA, cell, and population variability under low-dose irradiation, sparking indirect processes and adaptive response. The radiation ecology and epidemiology parts present data on the consequences of nuclear plants and related accidents for ecological systems and human beings. Here some approaches to estimating radiation risks are also offered. Evolution laws are demonstrated in the genomic universe, plant-microbe symbiosis, stabilizing and destabilizing (directional) selection. The last essay demonstrates the principles of organization operating in local animal populations, which are approached as social organisms of complex systemic nature. The chapter 'Radiation-Induced Aging and Genetic Instability of Mesenchymal Stem Cells: An Issue for Late Health Effects?' is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.
This book is the first comprehensive, in-depth English language study of the animals that were left behind in the exclusion zone in the wake of the nuclear meltdown of three of the four reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011, triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake of magnitude 9.0.The Japanese government designated an area of 20-kilometer radius from the nuclear power station as an exclusion zone and evacuated one hundred thousand residents, but left companion animals and livestock animals behind in the radioactive area. Consequently, about 90 percent of the animals in the exclusion zone died. This book juxtaposes policies of the Japanese government toward the animals in Fukushima with the actions of grassroots volunteer animal rescue groups that filled the void of the government.
This book presents new information on radiobiology that more clearly refutes the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption and supports radiation hormesis. Fresh light is cast on the mechanisms of radiation hormesis and the potential benefits of low-dose ionizing radiation in preventing and treating a wide variety of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. It is proposed that these effects may derive from cellular communication via electromagnetic waves directed by DNA, with each cell acting as a quantum computer. Readers will also find close analysis of the negative impacts of radiophobia on many aspects of modern life, including attitudes to imaging technologies, licensing of nuclear power reactors, and preparedness for survival of nuclear war. The book will be of interest to researchers and scientists in radiobiology, radiation protection, health physics, medical physics, and radiology. Specifically, it will provide medical physicians, radiation oncologists, radiation epidemiologists, gerontologists, cell biologists, toxicologists, and nuclear engineers with a wide range of interesting facts and enlightening novel perspectives.
Applications of EPR in Radiation Research is a multi-author contributed volume presented in eight themes: I. Elementary radiation processes (in situ and low temperature radiolysis, quantum solids); II: Solid state radiation chemistry (crystalline, amorphous and heterogeneous systems); III: Biochemistry, biophysics and biology applications (radicals in biomaterials, spin trapping, free-radical-induced DNA damage); IV: Materials science (polymeric and electronic materials, materials for treatment of nuclear waste, irradiated food); V: Radiation metrology (EPR-dosimetry, retrospective and medical applications); VI: Geological dating; VII: Advanced techniques (PELDOR, ESE and ENDOR spectroscopy, matrix isolation); VIII: Theoretical tools (density-functional calculations, spectrum simulations).
This book is the collection of papers from the latest International Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology Conference (UMH VII) held in September 2014, in Freiberg, Germany. It is divided to five sessions: Uranium Mining, Uranium and Phosphates, Clean-up technologies for water and soil. Uranium and daughter nuclides and basic research and modeling. Each session covers a wide range of related topic and provides readers with up to date research and solutions on those matters.
This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.
This book provides essential background knowledge on a wide range of hydrological processes governing contaminant transport from soil to surface water across a range of scales, from hillslope to watershed. The mathematical description of these processes is based on both well-known and unique analytical solutions of different initial and boundary problems (primarily using methods from the kinematic wave theory and the reservoir/lumped-parameter concept), supported by numerical modelling studies. Some research topics, in particular several case studies, are illustrated by monitoring and experimental data analysis to show the importance of the research's applications in environmental practice and environmental education. Specific results concern the recognition of: (a) the effect of transient rainfall-runoff-infiltration partitioning on the chemical response of drainage areas to excess precipitation under certain field conditions related to the soil, hillslope characteristics, and contaminant properties; (b) soil erosion as a key factor that enhances the potential of adsorbed chemical transport in runoff; and (c) common tendencies in radionuclide behaviour in the near-surface environment contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl (1986), Fukushima (2011) and the less known Kyshtym (1957) accidents, as well as from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere since 1952. The book's goal is to provide a conceptual foundation enabling readers to apply scientific knowledge to solve practical problems in environmental hydrology and radiology. More specifically, the book presents the state-of-the-art approaches that scientists and natural resources experts need in order to significantly improve the prediction of changes in the soil-water system chemistry due to human activities.
Biophysics is the science of physical principles underlying all processes of life, including the dynamics and kinetics of biological systems. This fully revised 2nd English edition is an introductory text that spans all steps of biological organization, from the molecular, to the organism level, as well as influences of environmental factors. In response to the enormous progress recently made, especially in theoretical and molecular biophysics, the author has updated the text, integrating new results and developments concerning protein folding and dynamics, molecular aspects of membrane assembly and transport, noise-enhanced processes, and photo-biophysics. The advances made in theoretical biology in the last decade call for a fully new conception of the corresponding sections. Thus, the book provides the background needed for fundamental training in biophysics and, in addition, offers a great deal of advanced biophysical knowledge.
This book summarizes the results of 3 years of agricultural and forestry reconstructive efforts and applied research conducted directly in the affected areas of Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake. It describes fast and effective revival methods and technologies from tsunami and radiation damages, demonstrated through the collaborative efforts of researchers, students, local farmers, forest owners, and municipalities gathered under the Tokyo University of Agriculture East Japan Assistance Project. Consisting of four parts, the first part of the book provides an overview of the damage and measures taken to overcome them by the local municipalities and the Tokyo University of Agriculture. The second part presents data and results of agricultural recovery from the tsunami-for example, monitoring systems, reconstruction models, and convenient, low-cost methods developed for the restoration of tsunami-damaged paddy fields. The third part focuses on recovery from radiation-contaminated farmlands and forests and consequent reputational damages. Included are various primary data obtained from field experiments and surveys, studies on the mechanism of contamination, and the results of radical monitoring, decontamination, and restoration techniques performed at this site. The final part is a collection of reflections of local farmers, forest owners, and students who participated in the project. The academic trials and errors recorded in this book are an invaluable contribution to disaster management and recovery processes. It is written for a wide audience, not limited to researchers and students, but also for government and state officials, municipalities, agricultural cooperative staff members, and farmers.
Every day throughout Britain, by road, by rail and by sea, there are large numbers of routine movements of radioactive cargo. Materials at all stages of the nuclear cycle, from uranium ore to nuclear waste, from nuclear warheads to radioactive isotopes used in medicine, are constantly on the move. In normal circumstances handling low-level material exposes workers to small doses of radiation, but a serious accident could lead to widespread contamination and to the major risk of additional deaths from cancer. The accident record is not good. There are repeated small accidents and many people believe that the major accident is simply waiting to happen. This book gives a thorough account of what is moved, by wham and far what purpose. It considers the risks, including that of terrorism, the safety record and the precautions. It also highlights the perils of the secrecy surrounding the industry: for example, local councils are responsible for coping with any accident, but are not told when or where nuclear movements are taking place. Martin Bond's careful work is a large step towards order in a chaotic industry. Originally published in 1992
This is an account of the events leading up to the worst nuclear disaster in history. It also examines the subsequent cover-up at which both politicians and technicians connived. The author recounts the panic and paralysis which overwhelmed the men and administrative bodies that were responsible for the plant. He goes on to describe the difficulties he encountered when trying to investigate the disaster, and the needless genetic damage that the refusal to own up to the scale of the disaster inflicted.
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