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Dear Comrades! Since the accident at the Chernobyl power plant, there has been a detailed analysis of the radioactivity of the food and territory of your population point. The results show that living and working in your village will cause no harm to adults or children. So began a pamphlet issued by the Ukrainian Ministry of Health-which, despite its optimistic beginnings, went on to warn its readers against consuming local milk, berries, or mushrooms, or going into the surrounding forest. This was only one of many misleading bureaucratic manuals that, with apparent good intentions, seriously underestimated the far-reaching consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear catastrophe. After 1991, international organizations from the Red Cross to Greenpeace sought to help the victims, yet found themselves stymied by post-Soviet political circumstances they did not understand. International diplomats and scientists allied to the nuclear industry evaded or denied the fact of a wide-scale public health disaster caused by radiation exposure. Efforts to spin the story about Chernobyl were largely successful; the official death toll ranges between thirty-one and fifty-four people. In reality, radiation exposure from the disaster caused between 35,000 and 150,000 deaths in Ukraine alone. No major international study tallied the damage, leaving Japanese leaders to repeat many of the same mistakes after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011. Drawing on a decade of archival research and on-the-ground interviews in Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus, Kate Brown unveils the full breadth of the devastation and the whitewash that followed. Her findings make clear the irreversible impact of man-made radioactivity on every living thing; and hauntingly, they force us to confront the untold legacy of decades of weapons-testing and other nuclear incidents, and the fact that we are emerging into a future for which the survival manual has yet to be written.
An examination of how garbage reveals the relationships between the global and the local, the economic and the ecological, and the historical and the contemporary. Garbage, considered both materially and culturally, elicits mixed responses. Our responsibility toward the objects we love and then discard is entangled with our responsibility toward the systems that make those objects. Histories of the Dustheap uses garbage, waste, and refuse to investigate the relationships between various systems-the local and the global, the economic and the ecological, the historical and the contemporary-and shows how this most democratic reality produces identities, social relations, and policies. The contributors first consider garbage in subjective terms, examining "toxic autobiography" by residents of Love Canal, the intersection of public health and women's rights, and enviroblogging. They explore the importance of place, with studies of post-Katrina soil contamination in New Orleans, e-waste disposal in Bloomington, Indiana, and garbage on Mount Everest. And finally, they look at cultural contradictions as objects hover between waste and desirability, examining Milwaukee's efforts to sell its sludge as fertilizer, the plastics industry's attempt to wrap plastic bottles and bags in the mantle of freedom of choice, and the idea of obsolescence in the animated film The Brave Little Toaster. Histories of the Dustheap offers a range of perspectives on a variety of incarnations of garbage, inviting the reader to consider garbage in a way that goes beyond the common "buy green" discourse that empowers individuals while limiting environmental activism to consumerist practices.
An integrated, holistic model for infrastructure planning and design in developing countries. Many emerging nations, particularly those least developed, lack basic critical infrastructural services-affordable energy, clean drinking water, dependable sanitation, and effective public transportation, along with reliable food systems. Many of these countries cannot afford the complex and resource-intensive systems based on Western, single-sector, industrialized models. In this book, Hillary Brown and Byron Stigge propose an alternate model for planning and designing infrastructural services in the emerging market context. This new model is holistic and integrated, resilient and sustainable, economical and equitable, creating an infrastructural ecology that is more analogous to the functioning of natural ecosystems. Brown and Stigge identify five strategic infrastructure objectives and illustrate each with examples of successful projects from across the developing world. Each chapter also highlights exemplary preindustrial systems, demonstrating the long history of resilient, sustainable infrastructure. The case studies describe the use of single solutions to solve multiple problems, creating hybridized and reciprocal systems; "soft path" models for water management, including water reuse and nutrient recovery; post carbon infrastructures for power, heat, and transportation such as rural microhydro and solar-powered rickshaws; climate adaptation systems, including a multi-purpose tunnel and a "floating city"; and the need for community-based, equitable, and culturally appropriate projects.
An exploration of the need for innovative mechanisms of governance in an era when human actions are major drivers of environmental change. The onset of the Anthropocene, an era in which human actions have become major drivers of change on a planetary scale, has increased the complexity of socioecological systems. Complex systems pose novel challenges for governance because of their high levels of connectivity, nonlinear dynamics, directional patterns of change, and emergent properties. Meeting these challenges will require the development of new intellectual capital. In this book, Oran Young argues that to achieve sustainable outcomes in a world of complex systems, we will need governance systems that are simultaneously durable enough to be effective in guiding behavior and agile enough to adapt to rapidly changing circumstances. While some insights from past research on governance remain valid in this setting, Young argues that we need new social capital to supplement mainstream regulatory approaches that feature rule making with an emphasis on compliance and enforcement. He explores the uses of goal setting as a governance strategy, the idea of principled governance, and the role of what is often called good governance in meeting the challenges of the Anthropocene. Drawing on his long experience operating on the science/policy frontier, Young calls for more effective collaboration between analysts and practitioners in creating and implementing governance systems capable of producing sustainable outcomes in a world of complex systems.
Peter Lindert evaluates environmental concerns about soil degradation in two very large countries-China and Indonesia-where anecdotal evidence has suggested serious problems. In this book Peter Lindert evaluates environmental concerns about soil degradation in two very large countries -- China and Indonesia -- where anecdotal evidence has suggested serious problems. Lindert does what no scholar before him has done: using new archival data sets, he measures changes in soil productivity over long enough periods of time to reveal the influence of human activity. China and Indonesia are good test cases because of their geography and history. China has been at the center of global concerns about desertification and water erosion, which it may have accelerated with intense agriculture. Most of Indonesia's lands were created by volcanoes and erosion, and its rapid deforestation and shifting slash-burn agriculture have been singled out for international censure. Lindert's investigation suggests that human mismanagement is not on average worsening the soil quality in China and Indonesia. Human cultivation lowers soil nitrogen and organic matter, but has offsetting positive effects. Economic development and rising incomes may even lead to better soil. Beyond the importance of Lindert's immediate findings, this book opens a new area of study -- quantitative soil history -- and raises the standard for debating soil trends.
Springer/Praxis have a successful mini program of books on various aspects of light scattering, and now have a journal "Light Scattering Review" under consideration proposed by Alex Kokhanovsky. The atmospheric air contains not only gases but also various types of airborne particles (known as aerosols) ranging from dust grains to microbes. These small particles influence atmospheric visibility, the thermodynamics of the atmosphere, and they are also of great importance in any consideration of climate change problems. Aerosols may also be responsible for the loss of harvest, health problems among humans and ecological disasters. Therefore, it is of great importance to study aerosol properties on a global scale. Such studies ultimately should be based on global observations using instruments positioned on the space platforms.
This is such a timely book. Combining extraordinary historical insight with the sharpest analysis of where we are now, Walt Patterson carves out the most applied and practical of 'road maps' as to where we need to go if we are to deliver a genuinely sustainable electricity system for the future. As we go into a period of considerable turbulence, primarily because of the impacts of climate change, Keeping The Lights On will undoubtedly be seen as a very well informed Guidebook. JONATHON PORRITT CBE, CHAIR, UK SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION A very important and timely book. Walt Patterson persuasively challenges traditional assumptions about how we think of energy and electricity, and presents an exciting vision of an innovative and sustainable future. NICK MABEY, CHIEF EXECUTIVE, E3G (THIRD GENERATION ENVIRONMENTALISM), FORMER SENIOR ADVISER IN THE UK PRIME MINISTER S STRATEGY UNIT Walt has got this exactly right. It should be compulsive reading, if not compulsory reading, for all politicians and other players that determine or have a role to play in energy policy and, more importantly, in tackling climate change. Knowing what we know now, you would not implement such a wasteful and polluting electricity system as centralized power generation. As Walt has indicated, we do have to overcome the grid mindset of those who should know better. ALLAN JONES MBE, CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER, LONDON CLIMATE CHANGE AGENCY What can I say? Clearly thought out, simply written, and straight to the heart of the major issues in energy today. I can t think of anyone else who could bring together the technology, the economics, and the basic human relationship with energy that Walt has here. This is really great stuff. RONAN PALMER, CHIEF ECONOMIST, UK ENVIRONMENT AGENCY Fashions come and fashions go in the energy world. Security of supply, climate change and market liberalization have all vied for our attention. It s good to have one voice that s stayed constant over thirty years of turbulence and change. Keeping The Lights On distils Walt Patterson s thinking over the last three decades. As ever, he provokes us to re-examine our own thinking about energy policy. Essential reading as we face up to new challenges. PROFESSOR JIM SKEA OBE, RESEARCH DIRECTOR, UK ENERGY RESEARCH CENTRE 'Even more important now than when first released.' Energy News In Keeping The Lights On, Walt Patterson starts from a simple premise: that we are making a mess of energy, and this is endangering the planet. Using accessible, everyday language Patterson describes how we could do much better, outlining a different way to think about energy, what we want from it and how we get it. Drawing on over 35 years of work from one of the leading voices in the field, Keeping The Lights On explains how we could go about improving energy security and services while reducing costs and vulnerability, globally and rapidly. The book discusses the timely and heated debates surrounding energy and power, and emphasizes that electricity is about infrastructure; we have to stop treating it as a commodity. The result is a comprehensive introduction to the most important issues, providing the reader with innovative and expert ideas and solutions. Published with Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Making the case that we can use nuclear power to combat climate change even as we reduce the risks of nuclear terror. Humanity faces two existential threats: nuclear annihilation and catastrophic climate change. Both have human origins, and both are linked to the use of nuclear energy. Inherent in the use of atomic fission is the risk that the technology and materials can be diverted to terrorists or hostile nations and used to make nuclear weapons. The key question is whether we can use nuclear energy to reduce the threat of climate change without increasing the risk that nuclear weapons will be used. In Double Jeopardy, Daniel Poneman argues that the world needs an "all-of-the-above" energy policy, one that advances the goal of decarbonizing the environment through all available means-including nuclear power. Poneman makes a compelling case that we can enhance the ability of nuclear power to combat climate change even as we reduce the risks of nuclear terror. Doing so will require well-crafted laws and policies, implemented with an ethos of constant vigilance and embedded in a culture that weaves safety and security goals into the fabric of our nuclear programs. This will enable government and industry to work together to maximize energy and climate benefits while minimizing safety and security risks.
How the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative created a new paradigm in climate policy by requiring polluters to pay for their emissions for the first time. In 2008, a group of states in the northeast United States launched an emissions trading program, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI). With RGGI, these states-Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont-achieved what had been considered politically impossible: they forced polluters to pay the public for their emissions. The states accomplished this by conducting auctions of emissions "allowances"; by 2014, they had raised more than $2.2 billion in revenues. In this first in-depth examination of RGGI, Leigh Raymond describes this revolutionary and influential policy model and explains the practical and theoretical implications for climate policy. Other cap-and-trade schemes had been criticized for providing private profits rather than public benefits, allowing private firms to make money by buying and selling valuable "rights to pollute." RGGI, by contrast, directed virtually all emissions auction revenues to programs benefiting the public at large. By reframing the issue in terms of public benefits, environmental advocates emphasized the public ownership of the atmospheric commons and private corporations' responsibility to pay for their use of it. Raymond argues that this kind of "normative reframing" is significant not only for environmental policy making but also for theories of the policy process, helping to explain and predict sudden policy change.
In a world torn apart by wars over oil, politicians have increasingly begun to look for alternative energy sources - and their leading choice is nuclear energy. Among the myths that have been spread over the years about nuclear-powered electricity are that it does not cause global warming or pollution, that it is inexpensive, and that it is safe. In fact, nuclear power contributes to global warming, and the true cost of nuclear power is prohibitive, with tax payers picking up most of the tab - as well as phenomenally dangerous.
With an increase of global security concerns over potential
terrorist acts, the threat of WMDs, and increasing political issues
with nations seeking nuclear capability, the need to track, detect,
and safeguard nuclear material globally has never been greater.
"Nuclear Safeguards, Security and Nonproliferation" is a
comprehensive reference that covers cutting-edge technologies used
to trace, track, and safeguard nuclear material. It is a
contributed volume with sections contributed by scientists from
leading institutions such as Los Alamos National Labs, Sandia
National Labs, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Labs, and Texas A&M
University, and the Monterey Institute of International Studies.
The book is divided into 3 sections and includes 30 chapters on
such topics as - the security of nuclear facilities and material,
the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, improvised nuclear
devices, how to prevent nuclear terrorism. International case
studies of security at nuclear facilities and illegal nuclear trade
activities provide specific examples of the complex issues
surrounding the technology and policy for nuclear material
protection, control and accountability. Specific cases include
analysis of the timely issues in the nuclear programs of countries
such as North Korea, Iran, and Kazakstan among others. Nuclear
Security is a must-have volume for the dozens of private and public
organizations involved in driving Homeland Security, domestic, and
international policy issues relating to nuclear material security,
non-proliferation, and nuclear transparency.
The most contaminated nuclear plant in the country, Rocky Flats was an environmental disaster and the site of rampant worker unrest. Although it was estimated that it would take 70 years and $36 billion to clean up and close the facility, something stunning happened. Now on its way to becoming a wildlife refuge, the project is running 60 years ahead of schedule and $30 billion under budget. In "Making the Impossible Possible," Kim Cameron explains how this remarkable performance was achieved -- and how it can be replicated. Using numerous first-hand accounts and public records, Cameron draws a number of leadership guidelines that can be applied to any business. This fascinating and thoroughly researched case study concludes by revealing the ten leadership principles responsible for the Rocky Flats turnaround -- and in doing so, provides a means for other organizations to harness the lessons of this astonishing success.
The rising demand for energy, the higher costs of oil and gas, and the association of fossil fuels with adverse climate change have all brought a renewed interest in nuclear energy. Nuclear power, however, is itself controversial, because of its costs, its environmental effects and the security risks it poses. This book discusses these critical issues surrounding nuclear power in relation to Asia. It discusses also the politics of nuclear power and the activities of civil society organisations concerned about nuclear issues. Throughout the book the perspectives are included of both proponents and opponents of nuclear power on the key controversial issues.
In the United States there are several thousand devices containing high-activity radiation sources licensed for use in areas ranging from medical uses such as cancer therapy to safety uses such as testing of structures and industrial equipment. Those radiation sources are licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and state agencies. Concerns have been raised about the safety and security of the radiation sources, particularly amid fears that they could be used to create dirty bombs, or radiological dispersal device (RDD). In response to a request from Congress, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked the National Research Council to conduct a study to review the uses of high-risk radiation sources and the feasibility of replacing them with lower risk alternatives. The study concludes that the U.S. government should consider factors such as potential economic consequences of misuse of the radiation sources into its assessments of risk. Although the committee found that replacements of most sources are possible, it is not economically feasible in some cases. The committee recommends that the U.S. government take steps to in the near term to replace radioactive cesium chloride radiation sources, a potential "dirty bomb" ingredient used in some medical and research equipment, with lower-risk alternatives. The committee further recommends that longer term efforts be undertaken to replace other sources. The book presents a number of options for making those replacements.
The relationship between infrastructure governance and the ways we read and represent waste systems, examined through three waste tracking and participatory sensing projects. Waste is material information. Landfills are detailed records of everyday consumption and behavior; much of what we know about the distant past we know from discarded objects unearthed by archaeologists and interpreted by historians. And yet the systems and infrastructures that process our waste often remain opaque. In this book, Dietmar Offenhuber examines waste from the perspective of information, considering emerging practices and technologies for making waste systems legible and how the resulting datasets and visualizations shape infrastructure governance. He does so by looking at three waste tracking and participatory sensing projects in Seattle, Sao Paulo, and Boston. Offenhuber expands the notion of urban legibility-the idea that the city can be read like a text-to introduce the concept of infrastructure legibility. He argues that infrastructure governance is enacted through representations of the infrastructural system, and that these representations stem from the different stakeholders' interests, which drive their efforts to make the system legible. The Trash Track project in Seattle used sensor technology to map discarded items through the waste and recycling systems; the Forager project looked at the informal organization processes of waste pickers working for Brazilian recycling cooperatives; and mobile systems designed by the city of Boston allowed residents to report such infrastructure failures as potholes and garbage spills. Through these case studies, Offenhuber outlines an emerging paradigm of infrastructure governance based on a complex negotiation among users, technology, and the city.
There is a growing recognition amongst those involved with the creation and distribution of nuclear power of the value and positive impact of ergonomics, recognition heightened by the realization that safety incidents are rarely the result of purely technical failure. This work provides insights into plant design, performance shaping factors, the fostering of a safety culture, training, selection, alarm design, team performance and data collection.
This book constitutes the Proceedings of a meeting held in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, 18-20 July 1989, which was the eighteenth in a series of Workshops on Nuclear Forces held in the framework of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. This particular series of Workshops was initiated in January 1980, that is, immediately after the NATO "double-track" decision of December 1979 that in the short run led to the deployment in Europe of new US nuclear-armed missiles ground launched cruise missiles and medium-range ballistic missiles (Pershing II) but that was also instrumental in setting into motion the process that led to the total elimination of all US and Soviet ground-based missiles having ranges from 500 to 5500km."
The Fukushima Effect offers a range of scholarly perspectives on the international effect of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear meltdown four years out from the disaster. Grounded in the field of science, technology and society (STS) studies, a leading cast of international scholars from the Asia-Pacific, Europe, and the United States examine the extent and scope of the Fukushima effect. The authors each focus on one country or group of countries, and pay particular attention to national histories, debates and policy responses on nuclear power development covering such topics as safety of nuclear energy, radiation risk, nuclear waste management, development of nuclear energy, anti-nuclear protest movements, nuclear power representations, and media representations of the effect. The countries featured include well established 'nuclear nations', emergent nuclear nations and non-nuclear nations to offer a range of contrasting perspectives. This volume will add significantly to the ongoing international debate on the Fukushima disaster and will interest academics, policy-makers, energy pundits, public interest organizations, citizens and students engaged variously with the Fukushima disaster itself, disaster management, political science, environmental/energy policy and risk, public health, sociology, public participation, civil society activism, new media, sustainability, and technology governance.
This collection of factual reports, short stories, poems and drawings expresses in a deeply personal voice the devastating effects of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Swedish journalist and author Braw draws on declassified documents and interviews in Japan and the US to reveal how the US occupation authorities established elaborate systems of censorship and disinformation among the Japanese press, scientists, and even novelists and poets, about the bombing of Hi
This collection of factual reports, short stories, poems and drawings expresses in a deeply personal voice the devastating effects of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The events described in this book span most of the period, from the end of the Second World War until close to the end of the century, when New Zealand began to think for itself, and stand on its own feet as an independent nation. It follows an important thread in the development of New Zealand foreign policy, in the contexts of intergovernmental negotiation and, as it must in a democracy such as ours, the expression of the popular will. The story begins with post-War investigations of possible peaceful uses of nuclear technology in New Zealand, and proceeds through many of the issues that have galvanised society - US and British nuclear tests in the Pacific, confrontations with France, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone, nuclear-powered ship visits and ANZUS, the Nuclear Free legislation. Malcolm Templeton is uniquely qualified to write this book, with his career in Foreign Affairs, and the immersion in official poapers which has produced his previous books on New Zealand's pro-British stand in the Suez Crisis, on the shift in our attitude to human rights and race relations in South Africa, and on our Antarctic policy. He is a former New Zealand Foreign Service officer, who held a number of senior positions, including that of permanent representative to the United Nations, and Deputy Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Since then he has drawn on official archives to record some major aspects of New Zealand's diplomatic history, producing numerous papers and articles, and several books, including A Wise Adventure: New Zealand in Antarctica 1920-1960. Co-published with the New Zealand Institute of International Affairs.
The end of the U.S.-Soviet standoff and the increasing risk of political adventurers such as Saddam Hussein developing nuclear capability have profoundly altered the shape of global nuclear danger. In Reducing Nuclear Danger, three of America's top experts on nuclear affairs offer a thoughtful prescription for effective international action to cut existing nuclear arsenals and to prevent further proliferation. They argue that the United States must take a cooperative leadership role to achieve worldwide control of nuclear weapons. The immediate tasks to this end are to execute the already agreed-upon reductions in U.S. and Russian forces, ensure that Russia remains the only nuclear state of the former Soviet Union, and substantially strengthen the international efforts against the spread of nuclear weapons. The authors favor adopting a strict doctrine of using nuclear weapons only as a "defensive last resort", along with other specific changes in current policy. Prominent in their prescriptions is an eventual drastic reduction of the current Russian-American warhead ceilings. They also advocate a new policy for American leaders - toward other nations as well as the American people - of open public explanation of nuclear danger. This important and insightful book on the current nuclear danger should be read by all citizens with an interest in resolving what remains our greatest global risk, at a time of unprecedented opportunity.
Understanding radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is
essential to the sustainable development of the nuclear industry
and key to assessing potential environmental risks reliably.
Minimising those risks is essential to enhancing public confidence
in nuclear technology. Scientific knowledge in this field has
developed greatly over the last decade.Radionuclide behaviour in
the natural environment provides a comprehensive overview of the
key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and
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