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South Africa's Bomb kept the world guessing for years. Six-and-a- half nuclear bombs had been secretly built and destroyed, former South African President F.W. de Klerk announced in 1993. No other country has ever voluntarily destroyed its nuclear arsenal.
From 1975 Nic von Wielligh was involved in the production of nuclear weapons material, the dismantling of the nuclear weapons and the provision of evidence of South Africa's bona fides to the international community. The International Atomic Energy Agency declared South Africa's Initial Report to be the most comprehensive and professional that they had ever received. In this book the nuclear physicist and his daughter Lydia von Wielligh-Steyn tell the gripping story of the splitting of the atom and the power it releases. It is an account of ground-breaking research and the scientists responsible; it deals with uranium enrichment, the arms race and South Africa's secret programme.
The Bomb: South Africa's Nuclear Programme is a story of nuclear explosions, espionage, smuggling of nuclear materials and swords that became ploughshares.
In the wake of California's energy crisis, policymakers' rush to satisfy growing demand requirements may run the risk of naively ignoring the larger issues and dangers associated with increased reliance on nuclear power. A connection between national nuclear power programs and nuclear proliferation can be found in the strategic initiatives of North Korea, Iraq, Iran, India, and Pakistan. In response to this threat, the Nuclear Control Institute has assembled a consortium of experts to underscore the connection that exists between nuclear power and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. They evaluated proliferation risks and proposed viable alternative energy sources. This volume includes the analysis of such respected thinkers as Pulitzer Prize-winning author Richard Rhodes; Rep. Edward Markey (D-Mass); Amory Lovins, CEO of the Rocky Mountain Institute; and Ambassador Robert Galucci, dean of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service.
Seismic Risk Analysis of Nuclear Power Plants addresses the needs of graduate students in engineering, practicing engineers in industry, and regulators in government agencies, presenting the entire process of seismic risk analysis in a clear, logical, and concise manner. It offers a systematic and comprehensive introduction to seismic risk analysis of critical engineering structures focusing on nuclear power plants, with a balance between theory and applications, and includes the latest advances in research. It is suitable as a graduate-level textbook, for self-study, or as a reference book. Various aspects of seismic risk analysis - from seismic hazard, demand, and fragility analyses to seismic risk quantification, are discussed, with detailed step-by-step analysis of specific engineering examples. It presents a wide range of topics essential for understanding and performing seismic risk analysis, including engineering seismology, probability theory and random processes, digital signal processing, structural dynamics, random vibration, and engineering risk and reliability.
The main outcomes of RILEM TC-226-CNM are summarized in this book. Key input was provided by researchers from countries that are main contributors in the R&D, design, construction, operation, and regulation of waste nuclear reinforced concrete facilities. Nuclear power plants and many of the facilities and structures used for the management of radioactive waste materials generated by the fuel cycle use concrete in their construction. RILEM TC 226 CNM covered several areas including functional and performance requirements for concrete structures; degradation processes; phenomenological modelling, field experiences, tests approaches, instrumentation and monitoring methods dedicated to performance assessments; service-life models; aging Management of Nuclear Power Plants, repair techniques; codes and standards specific to radioactive waste facilities.
An investigation into our complicated 7-decade-long relationship with nuclear technology, from the bomb to nuclear accidents to nuclear waste.
From Hiroshima to Chernobyl, Fukushima to the growing legacy of lethal radioactive waste, humanity's struggle to conquer atomic energy is rife with secrecy, deceit, human error, blatant disregard for life, short-sighted politics, and fear. Fallout is an eye-opening odyssey through the first eight decades of this struggle and the radioactive landscapes it has left behind. We are, he finds, forever torn between technological hubris and all-too-human terror about what we have created.
At first, Pearce reminds us, America loved the bomb. Las Vegas, only seventy miles from the Nevada site of some hundred atmospheric tests, crowned four Miss Atomic Bombs in 1950s. Later, communities downwind of these tests suffered high cancer rates. The fate of a group of Japanese fishermen, who suffered high radiation doses from the first hydrogen bomb test in Bikini atoll, was worse. The United States Atomic Energy Commission accused them of being Red spies and ignored requests from the doctors desperately trying to treat them.
Pearce moves on to explore the closed cities of the Soviet Union, where plutonium was refined and nuclear bombs tested throughout the '50s and '60s, and where the full extent of environmental and human damage is only now coming to light. Exploring the radioactive badlands created by nuclear accidents--not only the well-known examples of Chernobyl and Fukushima, but also the little known area around Satlykovo in the Russian Ural Mountains and the Windscale fire in the UK--Pearce describes the compulsive secrecy, deviousness, and lack of accountability that have persisted even as the technology has morphed from military to civilian uses.
Finally, Pearce turns to the toxic legacies of nuclear technology: the emerging dilemmas over handling its waste and decommissioning of the great radioactive structures of the nuclear age, and the fearful doublethink over the world's growing stockpiles of plutonium, the most lethal and ubiquitous product of nuclear technologies.
For any reader who craves a clear-headed examination of the tangled relationship between a powerful technology and human politics, foibles, fears, and arrogance, Fallout is the definitive look at humanity's nuclear adventure.
The magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, claiming over 20,000 lives. It crippled the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, whose hydrogen-air explosions contaminated wide areas around Fukushima with radionuclides. The number of evacuees initially totaled 328,903, but has been reduced to 263,392 as of February 13, 2014. More than half of the evacuees (132,500) consist of Fukushima residents, and 67% of whom have experienced mental or physical disorders. Indeed, refugee life is so difficult that many Fukushima families have been affected by suicide, divorce, separation of family members, migration and settlement to other places, mental illness, etc. The difficulty is caused by the fear of low-dose radiation induced by the LNT model which claims that radiation cancer risk is linearly proportional to dose without any threshold. Careful scrutiny of the model, however, clearly indicates that the linearity is invalid; low dose radiation is not hazardous, but is even beneficial or hormetic because of the adaptive response to radiation. This book provides ample evidence to negate the LNT model. This book is primarily compiled to get rid of the spell of the LNT model and release Fukushima people from undue torture. The book would also be useful to the public in general who have CT scans and have concerns. In addition, the people who use radiation world-wide such as nuclear power plant workers, radiation researchers, radiologists, and X-ray operators would be relieved to learn from reading this book that the alleged risk of low-dose radiation is illusionary and that the low-dose radiation is even beneficial. Policy makers of nuclear energy and radiation who are working for governmental and/or regulatory agencies are also recommended to read this book. Severe guidelines from a safety standpoint sometimes entrap people into a fear-stricken situation rather than save them, as no one was killed by radiation directly, but more than 1,000 people have been killed by the fear of radiation secondarily in Fukushima. By the same token, this book is recommended to civil activists and journalists who emphasise dangers of low-dose radiation and raise fear of low-dose radiation. It is the time to shed new scientific light on the outdated LNT model.
With the World desperate to find energy sources that do not emit carbon gasses, nuclear power is back on the agenda and in the news, following the increasing cost of fossil fuels and concerns about the security of their future supply. However, the term 'nuclear power' causes anxiety in many people and there is confusion concerning the nature and extent of the associated risks. Here, Maxwell Irvine presents a concise introduction to the development of nuclear physics leading up to the emergence of the nuclear power industry. He discusses the nature of nuclear energy and deals with various aspects of public concern, considering the risks of nuclear safety, the cost of its development, and waste disposal. Dispelling some of the widespread confusion about nuclear energy, Irvine considers the relevance of nuclear power, the potential of nuclear fusion, and encourages informed debate about its potential. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This title is a crucial linchpin in Atomic Revival studies. Michon Mackedon recounts Nevada's relationship with the nuclear industry and a host of players including the Atomic Energy Commission, the Department of Energy, scientists, military, and journalists. With 'an awareness born of deceit' shared by other Nevadans, Mackedon considers the manipulated language and imagery doled out by the atomic industry to make the unsafe appear safe and the unthinkable, thinkable.
Computer Security as a discipline is challenged by increasing threat vectors targeting a dynamic technological environment. This publication establishes guidance addressing the challenge of applying computer security measures to instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear facilities. The measures are intended to protect these I&C systems throughout their entire lifecycles against malicious acts perpetrated by threat actors. The technical basis and methodologies for the application of these computer security measures are considered. The publication also addresses the application of such measures to the development, simulation and maintenance environments of these I&C systems. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and nuclear safety. This Technical Guide references and takes into account other Safety Guides and IAEA Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design.
This publication provides detailed guidelines for the safety assessment of nuclear power structures against mechanical impact, explosion and fire caused by human induced external events. It covers the characterization of loading, the assessment of structural integrity using both simplified methods and more elaborated methodologies, and the assessment of induced vibration. The acceptance criteria provided in the publication are for different failure modes: overall stability, overall bending and shear, local failure modes and induced vibrations. The process of analysing fire consequences is also included.
In the 1950s, Soviet nuclear scientists and leaders imagined a
stunning future when giant reactors would generate energy quickly
and cheaply, nuclear engines would power cars, ships, and
airplanes, and peaceful nuclear explosions would transform the
landscape. Driven by the energy of the atom, the dream of communism
would become a powerful reality. Thirty years later, that dream
died in Chernobyl. What went wrong? Based on exhaustive archival
research and interviews, "Red Atom" takes a behind-the-scenes look
at the history of the Soviet Union's peaceful use of nuclear power.
It explores both the projects and the technocratic and political
elite who were dedicated to increasing state power through
technology. And it describes the political, economic, and
environmental fallout of Chernobyl.
When the Nuclear Safety Commission in Japan reviewed safety-design guidelines for nuclear plants in 1990, the regulatory agency explicitly ruled out the need to consider prolonged AC power loss. In other words, nothing like the catastrophe at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was possible-no tsunami of 45 feet could swamp a nuclear power station and knock out its emergency systems. No blackout could last for days. No triple meltdown could occur. Nothing like this could ever happen. Until it did-over the course of a week in March 2011. In this volume and in gripping detail, the Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, a civilian-led group, presents a thorough and powerful account of what happened within hours and days after this nuclear disaster, the second worst in history. It documents the findings of a working group of more than thirty people, including natural scientists and engineers, social scientists and researchers, business people, lawyers, and journalists, who researched this crisis involving multiple simultaneous dangers. They conducted over 300 investigative interviews to collect testimony from relevant individuals. The responsibility of this committee was to act as an external ombudsman, summarizing its conclusions in the form of an original report, published in Japanese in February 2012. This has now been substantially rewritten and revised for this English-language edition. The work reveals the truth behind the tragic saga of the multiple catastrophic accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.It serves as a valuable and essential historical reference, which will help to inform and guide future nuclear safety and policy in both Japan and internationally.
Written by an expert in the field, this book is perfect for those who would like to know what happened at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Part 1 of the book studies how core melts occurred in Fukushima Daiichi units 1, 2, and 3, respectively, based on evidence from the Three-Mile Island core melt accident and fuel behavior experiments performed in the 1970s under the cooperation between the United States, Germany, and Japan. This information explains the accident processes without contradicting data from Fukushima, which was published in the TEPCO report. The hydrogen explosions in units 1, 3, and 4 are also explained logically in conjunction with the above core melt process. Part 2 clarifies how the background radiation level of the site doubled: The first rise was just a leak from small openings in units 1 and 3 associated with fire-pump connection work. The second rise led to direct radioactive material release from unit 2. Evacuation dose adequacy and its timing are discussed with reference to the accident process, and the necessity for embankments surrounding nuclear power plants to increase protection against natural disasters is also discussed. New proposals for safety design and emergency preparedness are suggested based on lessons learned from the accident as well as from new experiences. Finally, a concept for decommissioning the Fukushima site and a recovery plan are introduced.
This publication covers relevant aspects of open phase conditions (OPC) initiated in the transmission systems or on-site plant electrical systems. It provides details on the methods that can be used to identify vulnerability to OPC in the existing electrical protective schemes. The technical guidance provided will help to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants and to address vulnerability to OPC in the plant electrical systems. The publication will serve as a useful guidance, with a focus on electrical power systems, for all personnel involved in the design, manufacture, qualification, operation, maintenance, management and licensing of nuclear facilities.
This publication gives the general roadmap on how to perform the design and evaluation of the protection of nuclear power plants against human induced external hazards, consistent with IAEA Safety Standards. The publication concentrates on an overall view of the methodology and on the important considerations for its application to existing and new nuclear power plants. Topics covered include elements of the design/evaluation approach, developed in five phases: event identification; load characterization; design and assessment approaches; plant performance assessment and acceptance criteria; and operator response. The publication provides an approach to the assessment of extreme human induced external events which is fully consistent with the methods used for evaluation of nuclear facilities subjected to extreme natural events, such as earthquakes and floods.
This publication describes the procedures for calculating the margins of nuclear power plants in relation to human induced external hazards. It focuses on plant and systems performance evaluations. A two level approach for margin assessment is provided. The first level consists of a deterministic procedure in which, for each scenario, the existence of at least one undamaged success path to comply with the fundamental safety function is investigated. This procedure can be subsequently extended to calculate probability measures such as conditional core damage probability and the conditional probability of spent fuel damage. In the most elaborated stage, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques are introduced, giving consideration to the probabilistic aspects of the hazards and of the capacity of structures, systems and components (fragility). Event tree and fault tree models are used to compute PSA metrics, such as core damage frequency, large-early release frequency and frequency of spent fuel damage.
This Safety Guide is applicable to the predisposal management of radioactive waste derived from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education, including disused sealed radioactive sources. It focuses on waste generated at facilities such as hospitals and research centres, where radioactive waste is not usually generated in bulk quantities. It covers the managerial, administrative and technical issues associated with the safe management of radioactive waste, from its generation to its acceptance at a disposal facility or its release from regulatory control.
The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an essential element of the international operating experience feedback system for nuclear power plants. Its fundamental objective is to contribute to improving safety of commercial nuclear power plants which are operated worldwide. IRS reports contain information on events of safety significance with important lessons learned which assist in reducing recurrence of events at other plants. This sixth publication, covering the period 2012 - 2014, follows the structure of the previous editions. It highlights important lessons based on a review of the approximately 240 event reports received from the participating countries over this period.
The intellectual adventure of developing the atomic bomb at Los Alamos has been well documented, but the fact is that 90% of the Manhattan Project expenditures went to produce the exotic nuclear explosive materials required. That is the story told here, a story of the brilliant harnessing of American industry to build a coordinated network of huge production plants using technology that was being developed even as the plants themselves were rising. It is the story of multiple, complex production methods being pursued simultaneously without knowing any of them would ultimately work, a story of daring gambles and their ultimate redemption. It is the story of the frantic building of subsequent, larger plants that were worked to the limits of their safe operation during the Cold War arms race. This is a story told by the author in historical narrative and new high-resolution photographs of fast-disappearing relics.
Control of nuclear material comprises the administrative and technical measures applied to ensure that nuclear material is not misused or removed from its assigned location without approval and/or without proper accounting. This publication, which builds upon the Implementing Guide IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.25-G , focuses on the control of nuclear material during storage, use and movement using a facility's nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) system. It describes practical measures for controlling nuclear material for nuclear security purposes during all activities at a facility, including movements, and how to use a graded approach in applying such measures. The technical guidance provided is targeted at States and their competent authorities on how to use individual elements of the NMAC system, but will be also useful for persons responsible for designing, operating and assessing nuclear security systems, physical protection of nuclear facilities, nuclear security management, operators and managers of NMAC systems; as well as for those preparing associated regulations; and persons responsible for computer security at nuclear facilities.
The impact of the changing global strategic landscape on energy markets is being felt across the world, and is the subject of ongoing debate within industry and governments alike. These changes affect not only the evolution of oil markets and their influence on production rates and pricing, but also a host of other factors, including energy security, the effects of global economic crises and the growing market presence of Arabian Gulf producers, both in terms of their conventional reserves and their development of alternative and renewable sources. The ECSSR 17th Annual Energy Conference, Global Energy Markets: Changes in the Strategic Landscape, held at the Centre on November 1-2 2011, and the papers compiled in this volume provide a variety of informed views on these trends and their consequences for both producers and consumers in the Middle East and elsewhere. The effects of geo-strategic developments on energy markets and the formulation of energy policies in the GCC states and abroad are explored in detail, as are the economic viability and outlook of renewable energy sources, both in light of CO2 emissions constraints and the involvement of Gulf hydrocarbon producers in the development of renewables. The potential benefits and risks of nuclear energy are explored, as is public sentiment toward nuclear development worldwide-particularly following recent events in Japan, the repercussions of which continue to be felt both in politics and industry. The ongoing effects of the global economic crisis are also discussed, particularly with reference to their consequences for energy markets worldwide.
The impact of the changing global strategic landscape on energy markets is being felty across the world, and is the subject of ongoing debate within industry and governments alike. These changes affect not only the evolution of oil markets and their influence on production rates and pricing, but also a host of other factors, including energy security, the effects of global economic crises and the growing market presence of Arabian Gulf producers, both in terms of their conventional reserves and their development of alternative and renewable sources. The ECSSR 17th Annual Energy Conference, Global Energy Markets: Changes in the Strategic Landscape, held at the Centre on November 1-2 2011, and the papers compiled in this volume provide a variety of informed views on these trends and their consequences for both producers and consumers in the Middle East and elsewhere. The effects of geo-strategic developments on energy markets and the formulation of energypolicies in the GCC states and abroad are explored in detail, as are the economic viability and outlook of renewable energy sources, both in light of CO2 emissions constraints and the involvement of Gulf hydrocarbon producers in the development of renewables. The potential benefits and risks of nuclear energy are explored, as is public sentiment toward nuclear development worldwide-particularly following recent events in Japan, the repercussions of which continue to be felt both in politics and industry. The ongoing effects of the global ecnomic crisis are also discussed, particularly with reference to their consequences for energy markets worldwide.
The future heralds a potential crisis in power supply in view of growing global and domestic demand for fossil fuel energy, particularly in supplying power for seawater desalination in the case of the Gulf region. The possibility of fossil fuel depletion on the one hand, and the increasing rate of development in the Gulf countries on the other, has prompted the Gulf states to consider the development of peaceful nuclear energy as an alternative source of power generation. Here, leading energy experts from academic, professional and technical backgrounds examine the inherent risks and opportunities associated with the development of nuclear energy in the Gulf. They examine key related issues such as: climate change, security infrastructure and the role of international cooperation in the field of nuclear technology and long-term development.
The near meltdown in 1979 at Three Mile Island, America, plunged the nuclear power industry into a crisis of confidence that threatened its very existence. This work analyzes how the industry managed to stabilize itself through a complete transformation in the safety standards, operation and management of nuclear facilities in America. After describing the poor quality of safety before disaster shook the industry into action, the book documents the emergence of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and reveals how this industry organization became a major force behind improvements in nuclear safety. In his account of INPO's beginnings and its functions, the author shows how, contrary to conventional wisdom, industry self-regulation can be remarkably effective. For Rees, what happened for the nuclear power industry suggests a new form of regulation - communitarian regulation - that has important implications for the role of private and public control of other key industries.
This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements that support Principle 3 of the Fundamental Safety Principles in relation to establishing, sustaining and continuously improving leadership and management for safety and an integrated management system. It emphasizes that leadership for safety, management for safety, an effective management system and a systemic approach (i.e. an approach in which interactions between technical, human and organizational factors are duly considered) are all essential to the specification and application of adequate safety measures and to the fostering of a strong safety culture. Leadership and an effective management system will integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality, human-and-organizational factors, societal and economic elements. The management system will ensure the fostering of a strong safety culture, regular assessment of performance and the application of lessons from experience. The publication is intended for use by regulatory bodies, operating organizations and other organizations concerned with facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.
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