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Scattering theory provides a framework for understanding the scattering of waves and particles. This book presents a simple physical picture of diffractive nuclear scattering in terms of semi-classical trajectories, illustrated throughout with examples and case studies. Trajectories in a complex impact parameter plane are discussed, and it stresses the importance of the analytical properties of the phase shift function in this complex impact plane in the asymptotic limit. Several new rainbow phenomena are also discussed and illustrated. Written by Nobel Prize winner Roy J. Glauber, and Per Osland, an expert in the field of particle physics, the book illustrates the transition from quantum to classical scattering, and provides a valuable resource for researchers using scattering theory in nuclear, particle, atomic and molecular physics.
Klaus Fuchs knew more nuclear secrets in the last two years of the Second World War than anyone else in Britain. He was taken onto the Manhattan Project in the USA as a trusted physicist - and was the conduit by which knowledge of the highest classification passed to the Soviet Union. When Truman announced at the Potsdam Conference that the US possessed a nuclear bomb, Stalin already knew. This book, by an accomplished scientist as well as historian, is the first to explain the physics as well as the spying, and because Frank Close worked, like Fuchs, at the Harwell Laboratory, it contains much important new material.
Updated and expanded edition of this well-known Physics textbook provides an excellent Undergraduate introduction to the field This new edition of Nuclear and Particle Physics continues the standards established by its predecessors, offering a comprehensive and highly readable overview of both the theoretical and experimental areas of these fields. The updated and expanded text covers a very wide range of topics in particle and nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the phenomenological approach to understanding experimental data. It is one of the few publications currently available that gives equal treatment to both fields, while remaining accessible to undergraduates. Early chapters cover basic concepts of nuclear and particle physics, before describing their respective phenomenologies and experimental methods. Later chapters interpret data through models and theories, such as the standard model of particle physics, and the liquid drop and shell models of nuclear physics, and also discuss many applications of both fields. The concluding two chapters deal with practical applications and outstanding issues, including extensions to the standard model, implications for particle astrophysics, improvements in medical imaging, and prospects for power production. There are a number of useful appendices. Other notable features include: New or expanded coverage of developments in relevant fields, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson, recent results in neutrino physics, research to test theories beyond the standard model (such as supersymmetry), and important technical advances, such as Penning traps used for high-precision measurements of nuclear masses. Practice problems at the end of chapters (excluding the last chapter) with solutions to selected problems provided in an appendix, as well as an extensive list of references for further reading. Companion website with solutions (odd-numbered problems for students, all problems for instructors), PowerPoint lecture slides, and other resources. As with previous editions, the balanced coverage and additional resources provided, makes Nuclear and Particle Physics an excellent foundation for advanced undergraduate courses, or a valuable general reference text for early graduate studies.
Covering both fundamental and advanced aspects in an accessible way, this textbook begins with an overview of nuclear reactor systems, helping readers to familiarize themselves with the varied designs. Then the readers are introduced to different possibilities for materials applications in the various sections of nuclear energy systems. Materials selection and life prediction methodologies for nuclear reactors are also presented in relation to creep, corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. An appendix compiles useful property data relevant for nuclear reactor applications.
Throughout the book, there is a thorough coverage of various materials science principles, such as physical and mechanical metallurgy, defects and diffusion and radiation effects on materials, with serious efforts made to establish structure-property correlations wherever possible. With its emphasis on the latest developments and outstanding problems in the field, this is both a valuable introduction and a ready reference for beginners and experienced practitioners alike.
CP violation is an intriguing and elusive subject, and current knowledge of it remains limited, on both the experimental and theoretical levels. Researchers lack a fundamental understanding of its origin, and this is all the more important because CP violation is related to the generation problem and mass problem, two of the basic open questions in particle physics. This book provides beginning researchers with a self-contained introduction to the subject, starting at an elementary level and taking the reader to the forefront of current research.
Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.
Nuclear physics began long before the identification of fundamental particles, with J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron at the end of the 19th century, which implied the existence of a positive charge in the atom to make it neutral. In this Very Short Introduction Frank Close gives an account of how this area of physics has progressed, including the recognition of how heavy nuclei are built up in the cores of stars and in supernovae, the identification of quarks and gluons, and the development of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Exploring key concepts such as the stability of different configurations of protons and neutrons in nuclei, Frank Close shows how nuclear physics brings the physics of the stars to Earth and provides us with important applications, particularly in medicine. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
The third, revised edition of this popular textbook and reference, which has been translated into Russian and Chinese, expands the comprehensive and balanced coverage of nuclear reactor physics to include recent advances in understanding of this topic. The first part of the book covers basic reactor physics, including, but not limited to nuclear reaction data, neutron diffusion theory, reactor criticality and dynamics, neutron energy distribution, fuel burnup, reactor types and reactor safety. The second part then deals with such physically and mathematically more advanced topics as neutron transport theory, neutron slowing down, resonance absorption, neutron thermalization, perturbation and variational methods, homogenization, nodal and synthesis methods, and space-time neutron dynamics. For ease of reference, the detailed appendices contain nuclear data, useful mathematical formulas, an overview of special functions as well as introductions to matrix algebra and Laplace transforms. With its focus on conveying the in-depth knowledge needed by advanced student and professional nuclear engineers, this text is ideal for use in numerous courses and for self-study by professionals in basic nuclear reactor physics, advanced nuclear reactor physics, neutron transport theory, nuclear reactor dynamics and stability, nuclear reactor fuel cycle physics and other important topics in the field of nuclear reactor physics.
With ninety per cent of visible matter in the universe existing in the plasma state, an understanding of magnetohydrodynamics is essential for anyone looking to understand solar and astrophysical processes, from stars to accretion discs and galaxies; as well as laboratory applications focused on harnessing controlled fusion energy. This introduction to magnetohydrodynamics brings together the theory of plasma behavior with advanced topics including the applications of plasma physics to thermonuclear fusion and plasma- astrophysics. Topics covered include streaming and toroidal plasmas, nonlinear dynamics, modern computational techniques, incompressible plasma turbulence and extreme transonic and relativistic plasma flows. The numerical techniques needed to apply magnetohydrodynamics are explained, allowing the reader to move from theory to application and exploit the latest algorithmic advances. Bringing together two previous volumes: Principles of Magnetohydrodynamics and Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, and completely updated with new examples, insights and applications, this volume constitutes a comprehensive reference for students and researchers interested in plasma physics, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion.
High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, this book is a valuable resource for research scientists and graduate students in physics and astrophysics.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the universe, which within seconds release energy comparable to what the Sun releases in its entire lifetime. The field of GRBs has developed rapidly and matured over the past decades. Written by a leading researcher, this text presents a thorough treatment of every aspect of the physics of GRBs. It starts with an overview of the field and an introduction to GRB phenomenology. After laying out the basics of relativity, relativistic shocks, and leptonic and hadronic radiation processes, the volume covers all topics related to GRBs, including a general theoretical framework, afterglow and prompt emission models, progenitor, central engine, multi-messenger aspects (cosmic rays, neutrinos, and gravitational waves), cosmological connections, and broader impacts on fundamental physics and astrobiology. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and experienced researchers in the field of GRBs and high-energy astrophysics in general.
Iran s nuclear program has generated intense controversy ever since the International Atomic Energy Agency reported in 2003 that Iran was secretly pursuing enrichment activities. Although Iranian officials insist the program is peaceful, many in the international community are skeptical of Iran s stated aims and some allege there is no greater nuclear-weapons proliferation danger in the world today.
Nuclear Iran" guides readers through the intricate maze of science and secrecy that lies at the heart of Iran s nuclear ambitions. Writing for the general reader, Jeremy Bernstein brings his knowledge as a physicist to bear on the issues, offering elucidations of the scientific principles and technical hurdles involved in creating nuclear reactors and bombs. His explanations range from the physics of fission to methods of isotope separation to the technologies required for weaponizing fissile uranium and plutonium. Iran s construction of centrifuges capable of producing weapons-grade uranium has received much media attention, and Bernstein explains how these complex devices work. He intersperses many elements of the human story into his discussions of technology, such as the fact that centrifuges were first invented by German war prisoners working in the Soviet Union.
Nuclear Iran "turns a spotlight on the controversial underground uranium-enrichment facility in Natanz and heavy water reactor in Arak, and profiles key figures in the ongoing international trade in weapons technology, including the Pakistani physicist A. Q. Khan. This succinct book is timely reading for anyone who wishes to understand the science behind the international crisis surrounding Iran s nuclear program."
This text on optics for graduate students explains how to determine
material properties and parameters for inaccessible substrates and
unknown films as well as how to measure extremely thin films. Its
14 case studies illustrate concepts and reinforce applications of
ellipsometry -- particularly in relation to the semiconductor
industry and to studies involving corrosion and oxide growth.
In 2005, Dharam Ahluwalia and Daniel Grumiller reported an unexpected theoretical discovery of mass dimension one fermions. These are an entirely new class of spin one half particles, and because of their mass dimensionality mismatch with the standard model fermions they are a first-principle dark matter candidate. Written by one of the physicists involved in the discovery, this is the first book to outline the discovery of mass dimension one fermions. Using a foundation of Lorentz algebra it provides a detailed construction of the eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator (Elko) and their properties. The theory of dual spaces is then covered, before mass dimension one fermions are discussed in detail. With mass dimension one fermions having applications to cosmology and high energy physics, this book is essential for graduate students and researchers in quantum field theory, mathematical physics, and particle theory.
This comprehensive text provides an introduction to basic nuclear physics, including nuclear decays and reactions and nuclear structure, while covering the essential areas of basic research and practical applications. Its emphasis on phenomonology and the results of real experiments distinguish this from all other texts available. Discussions of theory are reinforced with examples which illustrate and apply the theoretical formulism, thus aiding students in their reading and analysis of current literature. The text is designed to provide a core of material for students with minimal background in mathematics or quantum theory and offers more sophisticated material in separate sections.
Physics, the fundamental science of matter and energy, encompasses all levels of nature from the subatomic to the cosmic, and underlies much of the technology around us. Understanding the physics of our universe is an essential aspect of humanity's quest to understand our environment and our place within it. Doing physics enables us to explore the interaction between environment and human society, and can help us to work towards the future sustainability of the planet. This Very Short Introduction provides an overview of how this pervasive science came to be and how it works: who funds it, how physicists are trained and how they think, and how physics supports the technology we all use. Sidney Perkowitz presents the theories and outcomes of pure and applied physics from ideas of the Greek natural philosophers to modern quantum mechanics, cosmology, digital electronics and energy production. Considering its most consequential experiments, including recent results in elementary particles, gravitational waves and materials science, he also discusses outside the lab, the effects of physics on society, culture, and humanity's vision of its place in the universe. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. * Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series * Includes information on recent key discoveries including: An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of physics beyond the standard model , including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology * Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book s website * Advanced material appears in optional starred sections
This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.
Quantum physics and special relativity theory were two of the greatest breakthroughs in physics during the twentieth century and contributed to paradigm shifts in physics. This book combines these two discoveries to provide a complete description of the fundamentals of relativistic quantum physics, guiding the reader effortlessly from relativistic quantum mechanics to basic quantum field theory. The book gives a thorough and detailed treatment of the subject, beginning with the classification of particles, the Klein Gordon equation and the Dirac equation. It then moves on to the canonical quantization procedure of the Klein Gordon, Dirac and electromagnetic fields. Classical Yang Mills theory, the LSZ formalism, perturbation theory, elementary processes in QED are introduced, and regularization, renormalization and radiative corrections are explored. With exercises scattered through the text and problems at the end of most chapters, the book is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in theoretical physics.
Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purposes, every chapter has a preamble which explains which aspects of the chapter are appropriate for an introductory graduate course, including a suggested number of lectures, and which should be postponed for a more advanced course. In addition, each chapter contains a large number of problems/exercises to choose from for assigned homework. An extensive set of mathematical appendices is included for easy reference.
applications to the structure of atomic nuclei. The author systematically develops these models from the elementary level, through an introduction to tensor algebra, to the use of group theory in spectroscopy. The book's extensive and detailed appendix includes a large selection of useful formulae of tensor algebra and spectroscopy. The serious graduate student, as well as the professional physicist, will find this complete treatment of the shell model to be an invaluable addition to the literature.
This volume collects research findings presented at the 9th Edition of the Electronic Structure: Principles and Applications (ESPA-2014) International Conference, held in Badajoz, Spain, on July 2-4, 2014. The contributions cover research work on theory, methods and foundations, materials science, structure and chemical reactivity as well as environmental effects and modelling. Originally published in the journal Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, these outstanding papers are now available in a hardcover print format, as well as a special electronic edition. This volume provides valuable content for all researchers in theoretical chemistry, and will especially benefit those research groups and libraries with limited access to the journal.
Harold C. Urey (1893-1981) was one of the most famous American scientists of the twentieth century. Awarded the Nobel Prize in 1934 for his discovery of deuterium and heavy water, Urey later participated in the Manhattan Project and NASA's lunar exploration program. In this, the first ever biography of the chemist, Matthew Shindell shines new light on Urey's achievements and efforts to shape his public and private lives. Shindell follows Urey through his orthodox religious upbringing, the scientific work that won him the Nobel, and his subsequent efforts to use his fame to intervene in political, social, and scientific matters. At times, Urey succeeded, including when he helped create the fields of isotope geochemistry and cosmochemistry. But other endeavors, such as his promotion of world governance of atomic weapons, failed. By exploring those efforts, as well as Urey's evolution from farm boy to scientific celebrity, we can discern broader changes in the social and intellectual landscape of twentieth-century America. More than a life story, this book immerses readers in the struggles and triumphs of not only an extraordinary man, but also his extraordinary times.
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