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A fresh translation of one of the most recognized texts of the premodern world: The Analects is a must-read for those interested in China's past, present, and future. This new translation by renowned East Asian scholar Moss Roberts offers a fresh interpretation of this classic work, sharpening and clarifying Confucius's positions on ethics, politics, and social organization. While no new edition of The Analects will wholly transform our understanding of Confucius's teachings, Roberts's translation attends to the many nuances in the text that are often overlooked, allowing readers a richer understanding of Confucius' historic and heroic attempt to restore order and morality to government. This edition features a critical introduction by the translator as well as notes on key terms and historical figures, a topical index, and suggestions for further reading in recent English and Chinese scholarship to extend the rich contextual background of the translation. This ambitious new edition of The Analects will enhance the understanding of specialists and newcomers to Confucius alike.
Through a cultural analysis of the symbols of death - flesh, blood, bones, souls, time numbers, food and money - Chinese Death Rituals in Singapore throws light upon the Chinese perception of death and how they cope with its eventuality. In the seeming mass of religious rituals and beliefs, it suggests that there is an underlying logic to the rituals. This in turn leads Kiong to examine the interrelationship between death and the socioeconomic value system of China as a whole.
Hagiographies or idealized biographies which recount the lives of saints, bodhisattvas and other charismatic figures have been the meeting place for myth and experience. In medieval Europe, the 'lives of saints' were read during liturgical celebrations and the texts themselves were treated as sacred objects. In Japan, it was believed that those who read the biographies of lofty monks would acquire merit. Since hagiographies were written or compiled by 'believers', the line between fantasy and reality was often obscured. This study of the bodhisattva Gyoki - regarded as the monk who started the largest social welfare movement in Japan - illustrates how Japanese Buddhist hagiographers chose to regard a single monk's charitable activities as a miraculous achievement that shaped the course of Japanese history.
At the core of Daoism are ancient ideas concerning the Way, the fundamental process of existence (the Dao). Humans, as individuals and as a society, should be aligned with the Dao in order to attain the fullness of life and its potential. This book presents the history of early Daoism, tracing the development of the tradition between the first and the fifth centuries CE. This was an era of political instability and social turmoil in China but it was also a period of cultural efflorescence, which saw the appearance of new forms of literature and the integration of Buddhism in Chinese society and culture. Several Daoist movements emerged during this period, the best known being the Celestial Masters in the second century. Other relatively well-known lineages include the Upper Clarity and the Numinous Treasure lineages that appeared in the fourth century. The labels applied to these lineages refer to either textual or ritual categories and are very difficult to determine socially, and they obscure the social reality of early medieval China. The author argues that these lineages should be understood not as schools but as narrowly defined associations of masters and disciples, and he describes these diverse social groupings as "communities of practice." Shedding new light on a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, the formation of Daoism as a new religion in early medieval China, this book presents a major step forward in Daoist Studies.
Naturalism, Human Flourishing, and Asian Philosophy: Owen Flanagan and Beyond is an edited volume of philosophical essays focusing on Owen Flanagan's naturalized comparative philosophy and moral psychology of human flourishing. Flanagan is a philosopher well-known for his naturalized approach to philosophical issues such as meaning, physicalism, causation, and consciousness in the analytic school of Western philosophy. Recently, he develops his philosophical interest in Asian philosophy and discusses diverse philosophical issues of human flourishing, Buddhism and Confucianism from comparative viewpoints. The current volume discusses his philosophy of human flourishing and his naturalized approaches to Buddhism and Confucianism. The volume consists of five sections with eleven chapters written by leading experts in the fields of philosophy, religion, and psychology. The first section is an introduction to Flanagan's philosophy. The introductory chapter provides a general overview of Flanagan's philosophy, i.e., his philosophy of naturalization, comparative approach to human flourishing, and detailed summaries of the following chapters. In the second section, the three chapters discuss Flanagan's naturalized eudaimonics of human flourishing. The third section discusses Flanagan's naturalized Buddhism. The fourth section analyzes Flanagan's interpretation of Confucian philosophy (specifically Mencius's moral sprouts), from the viewpoint of moral modularity and human flourishing. The fifth section is Flanagan's responses to the comments and criticisms developed in this volume.
Zhenwu, or the Perfected Warrior, is one of the few Chinese Deities that can rightfully claim a countrywide devotion. Religious specialists, lay devotees, the state machine, and the cultural industry all participated, both collaboratively and competitively, in the evolution of this devotional movement. This book centres on the development and transformation of the godhead of Zhenwu, as well as the devotional movement focused on him. Organised chronologically on the development of the Zhenwu worship in Daoist rituals, state religion, and popular practices, it looks at the changes in the way Zhenwu was perceived, and the historical context in which those changes took place. The author investigates the complicated means by which various social and political groups contested with each other in appropriating cultural-religious symbols. The question at the core of the book is how, in a given historical context, human agents and social institutions shape the religious world to which they profess devotion. The work offers a holistic approach to religion in a period of Chinese history when central, local, official, clerical and popular power are constantly negotiating and reshaping established values.
This book, first published in 1932, was written by a Western expert on Korea, and was the first to thoroughly investigate and document the old religious practices of Korea. No book like this could be written again from original sources, for all of the data has passed away, and archival records are not necessarily complete. It is a key text in the study of Korean religion.
Daoism is one of the major religious traditions of the East, but in the past has not been as well known as Buddhism and Hinduism. With the increased interest in Eastern religions, and alternative spiritual traditions, interest in Daoism is increasing. Introducing Daoism is a lively and accessible introduction to this fascinating religion. Introducing Daoism presents Daoism's key concepts and major practices in an integrated historical survey. From Daoism's origins in antiquity, through the Tang, Ming, and Quing dynasties, and into the present day, Livia Kohn explores Daoism's movements and schools, including: Daoist philosophy, the organized religion, and Daoist health practices. Each chapter introduces the main historical events of the period, the leading figures in Daoism, and Daoist scriptures and practices, as well as covering a wealth of fascinating topics such as Chinese cosmology, Daoist understanding of the body, rituals and doctrine, meditation, mythology, and poetry. Livia Kohn examines the connections between the defining concepts, history, and practices of Daoism, and key issues in Asian and Western comparative religions, making this the essential text for students studying Daoism on World Religions courses. Illustrated throughout, the book also includes text boxes, summary charts, a glossary which includes Chinese characters, and a list of further reading to aid students' understanding and revision. The accompanying website for this book can be found at www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415439978.
In a society that has seen epochal change over a few generations, what remains to hold people together and offer them a sense of continuity and meaning? In Songs for Dead Parents, Erik Mueggler shows how in contemporary China death and the practices surrounding it have become central to maintaining a connection with the world of ancestors, ghosts, and spirits that socialism explicitly disavowed. Drawing on more than twenty years of fieldwork in a mountain community in Yunnan Province, Songs for Dead Parents shows how people view the dead as both material and immaterial, as effigies replace corpses, tombstones replace effigies, and texts eventually replace tombstones in a long process of disentangling the dead from the shared world of matter and memory. It is through these processes that people envision the cosmological underpinnings of the world and assess the social relations that make up their community. Thus, state interventions aimed at reforming death practices have been deeply consequential, and Mueggler traces the transformations they have wrought and their lasting effects.
The Daoist canon is the definitive fifteenth century compilation of texts concerning ritual, alchemical and meditation practices within Daoist religion. Many of these texts are undated and anonymous, so dating them is essential for a clear understanding of the development of Chinese alchemy, and the place of these texts in history.
Ho Peng Yoke's Explorations in Daoism brings together an extraordinary compendium of data on alchemical knowledge in China, describing the methods used for dating important alchemical texts in the Daoist canon, and reconstructing and translating a number of alchemical texts that exist only in fragments scattered throughout the Daoist canon, pharmacopoeia and other compendia.
This book provides a clear guide for students and scholars about the methods required for dating and reconstituting texts using techniques that can be applied to other areas of traditional Chinese culture also. As such, this book will appeal to those interested in Chinese alchemy, the history of science, Daoism and Chinese history.
In this important book, a leading authority on Japanese religions brings together for the first time in English his extensive work on the subject. The book is important both for what it reveals about Japanese religions, and also because it demonstrates for western readers the distinctive Japanese approaches to the study of the subject and the different Japanese intellectual traditions which inform it. The book includes historical, cultural, regional and social approaches, and explains historical changes and regional differences. It goes on to provide cultural and symbolic analyses of festivals to reveal their full meanings, and examines Japanese religions among Japanese and non-Japanese communities abroad, exploring the key role of religion in defining Japanese ethnic identity outside Japan.
First published in 1932. One of the most astonishing features of the Confucian teaching to the modern reader is its anticipation of the Spencerian formula of evolution and its adaptation of this to a programme of progress. This volume shows that Confucius' teaching is still relevant in many of its features, not merely for China but also for the West. Contents include: The background of Confucian political philosophy; the state and its origin; political unity and organization; the principle of benevolent government; law and justice; democracy and representation, social evolution.
First published in 1934. Unlike previous translations, this translation of Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching is based not on the medieval commentaries but on a close study of the whole of early Chinese literature.
For its extensive research and novel interpretations, Dasan's Noneo gogeum ju (Old and New Commentaries of the Analects) is considered in Korean Studies a crystallization of Dasan's study of the Confucian classics. Dasan (Jeong Yak-yong: 1762-1836) attempted to synthesize and supersede the lengthy scholarly tradition of the classical studies of the Analects, leading to work that not only proved to be one of the greatest achievements of Korean Confucianism but also definitively demonstrated innovative prospects for the study of Confucian philosophy. It is one of the most groundbreaking works among all Confucian legacies in East Asia. Originally consisting of forty volumes in traditional bookbinding, Noneo gogeum ju contains one hundred and seventy-five new interpretations on the Analects, hundreds of arguments about the neo-Confucian commentaries on the Analects, hundreds of references to scholarly works on the Analects, thousands of supporting quotations from various East Asian classics for the author's arguments, and hundreds of philological discussions. This book is the fourth volume of an English translation of Noneo gogeum ju and includes the translator's comments on the innovative ideas and interpretations of Dasan's commentaries.
"Shinto - A Short History "provides an introductory outline of the
historical development of Shinto from the ancient period of
Japanese history until the present day.
How to cleanse the nine openings of the body for detoxification and
This book presents a concise, balanced overview of China's oldest and most revered philosophy. In clear, straightforward language, Paul R. Goldin explores how Confucianism was conceived and molded by its earliest masters, discusses its main tenets, and considers its history and relevance for the modern world. Goldin guides readers through the philosophies of the three major classical Confucians - Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi - as well as two short anonymous treatises, the "Great Learning" and the "Classic of Filial Piety." He also discusses some of the main Neo-Confucian philosophers and outlines transformations Confucianism has undergone in the past century.
In this guide to the healing practices of the Eight Immortals, Master Mantak Chia and Johnathon Dao share the legends of each Immortal teacher and detail the many ways to apply their wisdom through nutrition, exercises, supplements, detoxification methods, spiritual practices, and energy work. They explain how the first Immortal, born during the 8th century AD, is associated with oxygen, considered in the Taoist healing perspective as the body's primary nutrient. They discuss how oxygen deficiency is the main culprit in cancer and virus and provide a number of oxygen therapies including the use of hydrogen peroxide and deep breathing to stimulate the metabolism and immune system. The second Immortal Healer centers on water, and the authors explain how chronic dehydration can lead to a host of ailments and offer advice for rehydrating. The other teachings of the Immortal Healers include Nutrition; Detoxification; Avoiding environmental poisons; Exercise; Maintenance of the energy body; and Emotional pollution and spiritual hygiene. By following these Eight Immortal Healers, you can take control of your health, remove the root causes of the chronic ailments that inhibit well-being and longevity, and choose to live life to the fullest in happiness and radiant health.
Routledge is now re-issuing this prestigious series of 204 volumes originally published between 1910 and 1965. The titles include works by key figures such asC.G. Jung, Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Otto Rank, James Hillman, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney and Susan Isaacs. Each volume is available on its own, as part of a themed mini-set, or as part of a specially-priced 204-volume set. A brochure listing each title in the "International Library of Psychology" series is available upon request.
This work offers an understanding of the nature and manifestations of Shinto through the many historic festivals (matsuri). It approaches the classification of matsuri through discussions on Shinto, Buddhism, the Shinto-Buddhist synthesis, shrines and temples, deities, Buddhas and Deity-Buddhas, with the intention of enhancing an understanding of the nature of Japanese religion, and therefore Western conceptual undestanding of Japanese society itself. Photographs provide a pictoral data base of both contemporary life and times past.
This book traces the development of the samurai, in the way they regarded themselves and their role in society. From their origins as provincial men-at-arms they gradually evolved into a very powerful group who had an almost mythical status. Their concept of chilvarous behaviour and strict code based on the central principle of loyality to death and beyond, hitherto largely ignored by scholars, has since earned them a worldwide appeal. The warrior ethic is examined in relation to the three traditional religious influences - Buddhism, Shinto and Confucianism. As warriors the "bushi" contravened the most important tenets of the main religions, that of taking life, which was strictly forbidden in both Buddhism and Shinto. Therefore ways had to be found to justify their actions to harmonize with these religions. The book analyses the attitudes of the samurai themselves towards such characteristic features of their life as the sword and sword-fighting techniques, the taking of heads of fallen enemies on the battlefield, honourable suicide ("seppuku") and human sacrifice ("junshi" and hito-bashira") the cult of the god of war, hachiman, and of Buddhist deities of warlike aspect, as well
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