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Physics: A Crash Course is the quickest way to get up to speed with the most fundamental of the sciences. Physics tells us how the universe works - it's behind most of our exciting technology, from space rockets and satellites to cell phones, from electric cars to MRI scanners. This book distils the current body of knowledge into 52 manageable chunks, allowing you to to skim-read or delve in a bit deeper. There are four chapters, each prefaced by a set of biographies of the leading physicists and timelines of key events in the history of physics: * Matter & Light outlines the forms different matter can take and the qualities of light. * Energy & Heat explores different types of energy, and the specific form of kinetic energy that is heat. * Quantum Physics brings in the central structures and implications, and developments in quantum theory. * Motion & Relativity outlines the concepts of mechanics and the other greater transformer of physics, relativity. Taking you from inside an atom to the edge of the universe. What else could it be but a crash course in physics? If you like this, you might also be interested in 30-Second Physics, 30-Second Quantum Physics and Quantum Theory: A Crash Course.
This modern introduction to particle physics equips students with the skills needed to develop a deep and intuitive understanding of the physical theory underpinning contemporary experimental results. The fundamental tools of particle physics are introduced and accompanied by historical profiles charting the development of the field. Theory and experiment are closely linked, with descriptions of experimental techniques used at CERN accompanied by detail on the physics of the Large Hadron Collider and the strong and weak forces that dominate proton collisions. Recent experimental results are featured, including the discovery of the Higgs boson. Equations are supported by physical interpretations, and end-of-chapter problems are based on datasets from a range of particle physics experiments including dark matter, neutrino, and collider experiments. A solutions manual for instructors is available online. Additional features include worked examples throughout, a detailed glossary of key terms, appendices covering essential background material, and extensive references and further reading to aid self-study, making this an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduates in physics.
Charged Particle and Photon Interactions with Matter offers in-depth perspectives on phenomena of ionization and excitation induced by charged particle and photon interactions with matter in vivo and in vitro. This reference probes concepts not only in radiation and photochemistry, but also in radiation physics, radiation biochemistry, and radiation biology as well as recent applications in medicine and material, environmental, space, and biological science and engineering. It studies reports on the interactions of high-energy photons, specifically in the vacuum ultraviolet-soft X-ray region to offer fundamental information on the primary processes of the interactions of charged particles with matter.
This modern text combines fundamental principles with advanced topics and recent techniques in a rigorous and self-contained treatment of quantum field theory.Beginning with a review of basic principles, starting with quantum mechanics and special relativity, students can refresh their knowledge of elementary aspects of quantum field theory and perturbative calculations in the Standard Model. Results and tools relevant to many applications are covered, including canonical quantization, path integrals, non-Abelian gauge theories, and the renormalization group. Advanced topics are explored, with detail given on effective field theories, quantum anomalies, stable extended field configurations, lattice field theory, and field theory at a finite temperature or in the strong field regime. Two chapters are dedicated to new methods for calculating scattering amplitudes (spinor-helicity, on-shell recursion, and generalized unitarity), equipping students with practical skills for research. Accessibly written, with numerous worked examples and end-of-chapter problems, this is an essential text for graduate students. The breadth of coverage makes it an equally excellent reference for researchers.
By illustrating a wide range of specific applications in all major industries, this work broadens the coverage of X-ray diffraction beyond basic tenets, research and academic principles. The book serves as a guide to solving problems faced everyday in the laboratory, and offers a review of the current theory and practice of X-ray diffraction, major advances and potential uses.
Updated and expanded edition of this well-known Physics textbook provides an excellent Undergraduate introduction to the field This new edition of Nuclear and Particle Physics continues the standards established by its predecessors, offering a comprehensive and highly readable overview of both the theoretical and experimental areas of these fields. The updated and expanded text covers a very wide range of topics in particle and nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the phenomenological approach to understanding experimental data. It is one of the few publications currently available that gives equal treatment to both fields, while remaining accessible to undergraduates. Early chapters cover basic concepts of nuclear and particle physics, before describing their respective phenomenologies and experimental methods. Later chapters interpret data through models and theories, such as the standard model of particle physics, and the liquid drop and shell models of nuclear physics, and also discuss many applications of both fields. The concluding two chapters deal with practical applications and outstanding issues, including extensions to the standard model, implications for particle astrophysics, improvements in medical imaging, and prospects for power production. There are a number of useful appendices. Other notable features include: New or expanded coverage of developments in relevant fields, such as the discovery of the Higgs boson, recent results in neutrino physics, research to test theories beyond the standard model (such as supersymmetry), and important technical advances, such as Penning traps used for high-precision measurements of nuclear masses. Practice problems at the end of chapters (excluding the last chapter) with solutions to selected problems provided in an appendix, as well as an extensive list of references for further reading. Companion website with solutions (odd-numbered problems for students, all problems for instructors), PowerPoint lecture slides, and other resources. As with previous editions, the balanced coverage and additional resources provided, makes Nuclear and Particle Physics an excellent foundation for advanced undergraduate courses, or a valuable general reference text for early graduate studies.
Providing a solid theoretical background in photon-matter interaction, Nonrelativistic Quantum X-Ray Physics enables readers to understand experiments performed at XFEL-facilities and x-ray synchrotrons. As a result, after reading this book, scientists and students will be able to outline and perform calculations of some important x-ray-matter interaction processes. Key features of the contents are that the scope reaches beyond the dipole approximation when necessary and that it includes short-pulse interactions. To aid the reader in this transition, some relevant examples are discussed in detail, while non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics help readers to obtain an in-depth understanding of the formalisms and processes. The text presupposes a basic (undergraduate-level) understanding of mechanics, electrodynamics, and quantum mechanics. However, more specialized concepts in these fields are introduced and the reader is directed to appropriate references. While primarily benefiting users of x-ray light-sources, the material is equally of relevance to researchers in various disciplines, such as life sciences, biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry that plan on applying these new facilities in their respective fields.
The possibility that we live in a higher-dimensional world with spatial dimensions greater than three started with the early work of Kaluza and Klein. However, in addressing experimental constraints, early model-builders were forced to compactify these extra dimensions to very tiny scales. With the development of brane-world scenarios it became possible to consider novel compactifications which allow the extra dimensions to be large or to provide observable effects of these dimensions at experimentally accessible energy scales. This book provides a comprehensive account of these recent developments, keeping the high-energy physics implications in focus. After an historical survey of the idea of extra dimensions, the book deals in detail with models of large extra dimensions, warped extra dimensions and other models such as universal extra dimensions. The theoretical and phenomenological implications are discussed in a pedagogical manner for both researchers and graduate students.
Since its conception in the 1960s, string theory has been hailed as one of the most promising routes we have to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity. This book provides a concise introduction to string theory explaining central concepts, mathematical tools and covering recent developments in physics including compactifications and gauge/string dualities. With string theory being a multidisciplinary field interfacing with high energy physics, mathematics and quantum field theory, this book is ideal for both students with no previous knowledge of the field and scholars from other disciplines who are looking for an introduction to basic concepts.
This work summarises the salient features of current and planned experiments into multiquark hadrons, describing various inroads to accommodate them within a theoretical framework. At a pedagogical level, authors review the salient aspects of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interactions, which has been brought to the fore by high-energy physics experiments over recent decades. Compact diquarks as building blocks of a new spectroscopy are presented and confronted with alternative explanations of the XYZ resonances. Ways to distinguish among theoretical alternatives are illustrated, to be tested with the help of high luminosity LHC, electron-positron colliders, and the proposed Tera-Z colliders. Non-perturbative treatments of multiquark hadrons, such as large N expansion, lattice QCD simulations, and predictions about doubly heavy multiquarks are reviewed in considerable detail. With a broad appeal across high-energy physics, this work is pertinent to researchers focused on experiments, phenomenology or lattice QCD.
Scattering theory provides a framework for understanding the scattering of waves and particles. This book presents a simple physical picture of diffractive nuclear scattering in terms of semi-classical trajectories, illustrated throughout with examples and case studies. Trajectories in a complex impact parameter plane are discussed, and it stresses the importance of the analytical properties of the phase shift function in this complex impact plane in the asymptotic limit. Several new rainbow phenomena are also discussed and illustrated. Written by Nobel Prize winner Roy J. Glauber, and Per Osland, an expert in the field of particle physics, the book illustrates the transition from quantum to classical scattering, and provides a valuable resource for researchers using scattering theory in nuclear, particle, atomic and molecular physics.
Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X-ray diffraction-related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given during more than 20 years for graduate students. It adopts a well-balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X-ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials.Both dynamical and kinematic X-ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single-scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X-rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X-ray mapping in reciprocal space, high-resolution X-ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X-ray focusing, inelastic and time-resolved X-ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard-to-find information on analytic expressions for simulating X-ray diffraction profiles in thin-film heterostructures, X-ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of Mossbauer radiation, and energy-variable X-ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X-ray diffraction techniques.Compact and self-contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X-ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear-cut illustrations, an easy-to-read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.
Uniting the usually distinct areas of particle physics and quantum field theory, gravity and general relativity, this expansive and comprehensive textbook of fundamental and theoretical physics describes the quest to consolidate the basic building blocks of nature, by journeying through contemporary discoveries in the field, and analysing elementary particles and their interactions. Designed for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and abounding in worked examples and detailed derivations, as well as including historical anecdotes and philosophical and methodological perspectives, this textbook provides students with a unified understanding of all matter at the fundamental level. Topics range from gauge principles, particle decay and scattering cross-sections, the Higgs mechanism and mass generation, to spacetime geometries and supersymmetry. By combining historically separate areas of study and presenting them in a logically consistent manner, students will appreciate the underlying similarities and conceptual connections to be made in these fields.
Quantum Field Theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding fields and the particles associated with them, and is the basis of particle physics and condensed matter research. This graduate level textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to quantum field theory, giving equal emphasis to operator and path integral formalisms. It covers modern research such as helicity spinors, BCFW construction and generalized unitarity cuts; as well as treating advanced topics including BRST quantization, loop equations, and finite temperature field theory. Various quantum fields are described, including scalar and fermionic fields, Abelian vector fields and Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED), and finally non-Abelian vector fields and Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD). Applications to scattering cross sections in QED and QCD are also described. Each chapter ends with exercises and an important concepts section, allowing students to identify the key aspects of the chapter and test their understanding.
Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book.
The clearest, most accessible explanation yet of the amazing world of quantum mechanics. How can matter behave both like a particle and a wave? Does a particle exist before we look at it or does the very act of looking bring it into reality? Are there hidden elements to reality missing from the orthodox view of quantum physics? And is there a place where the quantum world ends and our perceivable world begins? Many of science's greatest minds have grappled with these questions embodied by the simple yet elusive "double-slit" experiment. Thomas Young devised it in the early 1800s to show that light behaves like a wave, and in doing so opposed Isaac Newton's theories. Nearly a century later, Albert Einstein showed that light comes in particles, and the experiment became key to a fierce debate with Niels Bohr over the nature of reality. Richard Feynman held that the double slit embodies the central mystery of the quantum world. Hypothesis after hypothesis, scientists have returned to this ingenious experiment to help them answer the deep questions about the fabric of our universe. With his extraordinary gift for making the complicated comprehensible, Anil Ananthaswamy travels around the world and through history, down to the smallest scales of physical reality we have yet fathomed for the answers. ***PRAISE FOR THROUGH TWO DOORS AT ONCE*** A Physics Book of the Year A Forbes Best Book of the Year A Kirkus Best Book of the Year A Smithsonian Favourite Book of the Year Publisher's Weekly Best Books of Autumn 'A fascinating read and a must for anyone who would like to find out the latest experimental advances made in this most fundamental of quantum experiments.' Physics World 'Ananthaswamy cleverly comes at quantum physics from a different direction... An excellent addition to the 'Quantum physics for the rest of us' shelf.' Brian Clegg, author of Are Numbers Real? and The Quantum Age 'A challenging and rewarding survey of how scientists are grappling with nature's deepest, strangest secrets.' Wall Street Journal 'A fascinating tour through the cutting-edge physics the experiment keeps on spawning.' Scientific American 'Ananthaswamy gives an absolutely mind-boggling tour of how quantum physicists try to explain this "reality" that one of the most powerful scientific models of our era.' Smithsonian 'Offers beginners the tools they need to seriously engage with the philosophical questions that likely drew them to quantum mechanics.' Science 'At a time when popular physics writing so valorizes theory, a quietly welcome strength of Ananthaswamy's book is how much human construction comes into focus here. This is not "nature" showing us, but us pressing "nature" for answers to our increasingly obsessional questions.' Washington Post 'Ananthaswamy's book is simply an outstanding exploration of the double slit experiment and what makes it so weird.' Forbes 'A thrilling survey of the most famous, enduring, and enigmatic experiment in the history of science.' Kirkus, starred review
Statistical physics has its origins in attempts to describe the thermal properties of matter in terms of its constituent particles, and has played a fundamental role in the development of quantum mechanics. Based on lectures taught by Professor Kardar at MIT, this textbook introduces the central concepts and tools of statistical physics. It contains a chapter on probability and related issues such as the central limit theorem and information theory, and covers interacting particles, with an extensive description of the van der Waals equation and its derivation by mean field approximation. It also contains an integrated set of problems, with solutions to selected problems at the end of the book and a complete set of solutions is available to lecturers on a password protected website at www.cambridge.org/9780521873420. A companion volume, Statistical Physics of Fields, discusses non-mean field aspects of scaling and critical phenomena, through the perspective of renormalization group.
Quantum physics and special relativity theory were two of the greatest breakthroughs in physics during the twentieth century and contributed to paradigm shifts in physics. This book combines these two discoveries to provide a complete description of the fundamentals of relativistic quantum physics, guiding the reader effortlessly from relativistic quantum mechanics to basic quantum field theory. The book gives a thorough and detailed treatment of the subject, beginning with the classification of particles, the Klein Gordon equation and the Dirac equation. It then moves on to the canonical quantization procedure of the Klein Gordon, Dirac and electromagnetic fields. Classical Yang Mills theory, the LSZ formalism, perturbation theory, elementary processes in QED are introduced, and regularization, renormalization and radiative corrections are explored. With exercises scattered through the text and problems at the end of most chapters, the book is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in theoretical physics.
The past decade has witnessed dramatic developments in the fields of experimental and theoretical particle physics and cosmology. This fully updated second edition is a comprehensive introduction to these recent developments and brings this self-contained textbook right up to date. Brand new material for this edition includes the groundbreaking Higgs discovery, results of the WMAP and Planck experiments. Extensive discussion of theories of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and a new chapter on the landscape, as well as a completely rewritten coda on future directions gives readers a modern perspective on this developing field. A focus on three principle areas: supersymmetry, string theory, and astrophysics and cosmology provide the structure for this book which will be of great interest to graduates and researchers in the fields of particle theory, string theory, astrophysics and cosmology. The book contains several problems, and password-protected solutions will be available to lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9781107048386.
Describing advanced detectors and their visualization and investigation techniques, this book presents the major applications in nuclear and high-energy physics, astrophysics, medicine and radiation measurements.
CP violation is an intriguing and elusive subject, and current knowledge of it remains limited, on both the experimental and theoretical levels. Researchers lack a fundamental understanding of its origin, and this is all the more important because CP violation is related to the generation problem and mass problem, two of the basic open questions in particle physics. This book provides beginning researchers with a self-contained introduction to the subject, starting at an elementary level and taking the reader to the forefront of current research.
Fundamental concepts of phase transitions, such as order parameters, spontaneous symmetry breaking, scaling transformations, conformal symmetry and anomalous dimensions, have deeply changed the modern vision of many areas of physics, leading to remarkable developments in statistical mechanics, elementary particle theory, condensed matter physics and string theory. This self-contained book provides a thorough introduction to the fascinating world of phase transitions and frontier topics of exactly solved models in statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, such as renormalization groups, conformal models, quantum integrable systems, duality, elastic S-matrices, thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and form factor theory. The clear discussion of physical principles is accompanied by a detailed analysis of several branches of mathematics distinguished for their elegance and beauty, including infinite dimensional algebras, conformal mappings, integral equations and modular functions. Besides advanced research themes, the book also covers many basic topics in statistical mechanics, quantum field theory and theoretical physics. Each argument is discussed in great detail while providing overall coherent understanding of physical phenomena. Mathematical background is made available in supplements at the end of each chapter, when appropriate. The chapters include problems of different levels of difficulty. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students will find this book a rich and challenging source for improving their skills and for attaining a comprehensive understanding of the many facets of the subject.
High energy laboratories are performing experiments in heavy ion collisions to explore the structure of matter at high temperature and density. This elementary book explains the basic ideas involved in the theoretical analysis of these experimental data. It first develops two topics needed for this purpose, namely hadron interactions and thermal field theory. Chiral perturbation theory is developed to describe hadron interactions and thermal field theory is formulated in the real-time method. In particular, spectral form of thermal propagators is derived for fields of arbitrary spin and used to calculate loop integrals. These developments are then applied to find quark condensate and hadron parameters in medium, including dilepton production. Finally, the non-equilibrium method of statistical field theory to calculate transport coefficients is reviewed. With technical details explained in the text and appendices, this book should be accessible to researchers as well as graduate students interested in thermal field theory.
Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory and applications of slow-neutron scattering, this detailed book equips readers with the fundamental principles of neutron studies, including the background and evolving development of neutron sources, facility design, neutron scattering instrumentation and techniques, and applications in materials phenomena. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience in this field, this text explores the implications of slow-neutron research in greater depth and breadth than ever before in an accessible yet rigorous manner suitable for both students and researchers in the fields of physics, biology, and materials engineering. Through pedagogical examples and in-depth discussion, readers will be able to grasp the full scope of the field of neutron scattering, from theoretical background through to practical, scientific applications.
This textbook offers a modern approach to the physics of stars, assuming only undergraduate-level preparation in mathematics and physics, and minimal prior knowledge of astronomy. It starts with a concise review of introductory concepts in astronomy, before covering the nuclear processes and energy transport in stellar interiors, and stellar evolution from star formation to the common stellar endpoints as white dwarfs and neutron stars. In addition to the standard material, the author also discusses more contemporary topics that students will find engaging, such as neutrino oscillations and the MSW resonance, supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, advanced nucleosynthesis, neutron stars, black holes, cosmology, and gravitational waves. With hundreds of worked examples, explanatory boxes, and problems with solutions, this textbook provides a solid foundation for learning either in a classroom setting or through self-study.
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