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Provides comprehensive coverage of the interpretation of LC MS MS mass spectra of 1300 drugs and pesticides * Provides a general discussion on the fragmentation of even-electron ions (protonated and deprotonated molecules) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes * This is the reference book for the interpretation of MS MS mass spectra of small organic molecules * Covers related therapeutic classes of compounds such as drugs for cardiovascular diseases, psychotropic compounds, drugs of abuse and designer drugs, antimicrobials, among many others * Covers general fragmentation rule as well as specific fragmentation pathways for many chemical functional groups * Gives an introduction to MS technology, mass spectral terminology, information contained in mass spectra, and to the identification strategies used for different types of unknowns
Weeds remain a major obstacle to increased yields. Past reliance on herbicides is no longer sufficient with increasing concerns about environmental effects, regulation and resistance. This has led to the development of integrated weed management (IWM) which includes herbicides as part of a broader array of cultural, physical and biological methods of control. This volume reviews key research on the use of IWM in sustainable agriculture. Parts 1 and 2 introduce weed ecology and IWM principles, including surveillance, risk assessment and planning an IWM programme. Part 3 summarises the role of herbicides in IWM whilst Part 4 reviews the range of cultural and physical methods of weed control. The final part of the book surveys biological techniques for weed control. With its eminent editor and international range of expert authors, this will be a standard reference for weed scientists, the agricultural community and the pesticide industry as well as government and non-governmental agencies supporting a more sustainable agriculture.
The history of pathogens and vectors, unique symptoms of diseases and economic importance of important viral diseases have been dealt with in the introductory chapter of this book. While highlighting the role of arthropods, nematodes, and fungi; other agents of the spread of plant pathogens have also been included. Important aspects of insect vectors with direct bearing on transmission, i.e. vector identification, biology, feeding apparatus, and mechanism of spread including control of pathogens through vectors are covered comprehensively. As aphids and other hemipterous insects are major insect vectors, the book stresses on this order. There is a focus on the transmission of determinants under different categories of the transmission mechanism. The transmission determinant paradigm comprising coat protein and helper component has been expounded with recent cases. A brief description of new diseases at least one from each genus of plant viruses has been included in this compendium to elucidate the interaction of vector and virus. Phytoplasmal etiology of pathogens has been detailed separately on account of their importance. The transmission of plant viruses through insects with biting and chewing type of mouth parts has been discussed in detail as separate chapter. The latest research in the field of mites, nematodes, and fungi as vectors of plant viruses has been included. How the phytotoxemia is different from other crop disorders, has been critically explained with support from suitable and common examples of crop disorders. The book also highlights the effects of plant viruses on their vectors. An account of classification of plant viruses has also been given for better understanding of subject matter. Likewise, the information on the electron microscope along with its use has been included so as to define the procedure of examining sub-microscopic entities. The latest developments in the management of plant pathogens through vector management have been discussed with special reference to the use of biotechnology, crop protection, and plant resistance. The book will be of value to the teachers and to researchers. It will also be useful for extension workers in managing crop disorders. Students and researchers of entomology, plant pathology, plant protection and virology disciplines will obtain the latest in the field, through this book.
Australia's introduced vertebrate pest species cost at least $1 billion annually in economic, environmental and social impacts. The Guide to Introduced Pest Animals of Australia is a comprehensive, practical guide to 60 introduced pest animal species present in Australia, including 27 mammals, 18 birds, nine freshwater fish, two amphibians and four reptiles. It contains descriptive information to identify each species in the field, including distinctive physical characteristics, size, weight, colouration, diet, breeding behaviour, habitat preferences, and information about footprints, dung, scats and audible animal calls. Each species profile is accompanied by practical management information, maps and high-quality photographs - allowing readers to learn about pest species in their local area, what problems they might cause, and what control options exist for management. This guide also contains a number of emerging highrisk pest species that may pose a significant threat to our natural environment, economy, agriculture and human health. Whether you are a farmer, natural resource manager, public land manager, pest controller, teacher, student, field naturalist or wildlife ecologist, this easy-to-use guide will help you identify Australia's most significant introduced pest animals in your local area.
Ce document fait partie d'une serie de guides elabores dans le cadre du programme sous-regional en Gestion integree de la production et des depredateurs en Afrique de l'Ouest, coordonne par l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO). Le programme utilise l'approche par Champ ecole des producteurs ou Champ ecole paysans (CEP)
The field of Phytobacteriology is rapidly advancing and changing, because of recent advances in genomics and molecular plant pathology, but also due to the global spread of bacterial plant diseases and the emergence of new bacterial diseases. So, there is a need to integrate understanding of bacterial taxonomy, genomics, and basic plant pathology that reflects state-of-the-art knowledge about plant-disease mechanisms. This book describes seventy specific bacterial plant diseases and presents up-to-date classification of plant pathogenic bacteria. It would be of great help for scientists and researchers in conducting research on ongoing projects or formulation of new research projects. The book will also serve as a text book for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of disciplines of Phytobacteriology and Plant Pathology. Contains latest and updated information of plant pathogenic bacteria till December 2018 Describes seventy specific bacterial diseases Presents classification of the bacteria and associated nomenclature based on Bergey's Manual Systematic Bacteriology and International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology Discusses practical and thoroughly tested disease management strategies that would help in controlling enormous losses caused by these plant diseases Reviews role of Type I-VI secretion systems and peptide- or protein-containing toxins produced by bacterial plant pathogens Briefs about plants and plant products that act as carriers of human enteric bacterial pathogens, like emphasizing role of seed sprouts as a common vehicle in causing food-borne illness Dr B. S. Thind was ex-Professor-cum-Head, Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, India. He has 34 years of experience in teaching, research, and transfer of technology. He has conducted research investigations on bacterial blight of rice, bacterial stalk rot of maize, bacterial blight of cowpea, bacterial leaf spot of green gram, bacterial leaf spot of chillies and bacterial soft rot of potatoes. He also acted as Principal Investigator of two ICAR-funded research schemes entitled, "Detection and control of phytopathogenic bacteria from cowpea and mungbean seeds from 1981 to 1986 and "Perpetuation, variability, and control of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice" from 1989 to 1993, and also of a DST funded research scheme "Biological control of bacterial blight, sheath blight, sheath rot, and brown leaf spot of rice" from 1999 to 2002. He also authored a manual entitled, "Plant Bacteriology" and a text book entitled, "Phytopathogenic Procaryotes and Plant Diseases" published by Scientific Publishers (India). He is Life member of Indian Phytopathological Society, Indian Society of Plant Pathologists, Indian Society of Mycology and Plant Pathology, and Indian Science Congress Association.
This second edition provides updated information on the comprehensive morphology, distribution, and biology of significant pest species of the orders Acarina, Thysanoptera, Orthopetera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera, respectively. Further emphasis is given to their monitoring methods, biological control, and cultural practices. Special attention to the subject of economic entomology makes this book indispensable for field entomologists. With the addition of 15 color plates, this is a convenient handbook for the identification and managemnt of more than 300 pests. It is an essential reference and a useful teaching tool, benefiting students of Middle Eastern agriculture and entomology.
Hemp is enjoying a worldwide resurgence. This unique book combines a review of the hemp pest and disease literature published over the past 50 years with up-to-date information on modern biological control techniques. Each pest and disease organism is presented in the same format, covering economic impact, geographical and host-plant range, plant symptoms, taxonomic description, life history, and differential diagnosis. Important cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical controls are highlighted with charts, illustrations and explicit instructions. Easy-to-use keys are included for rapid identification of the most common pests. Introductory chapters describe the general principles of plant protection, requirements for healthy plant growth, and taxonomy of parasites and pathogens.
This book describes entomopathogenic and slug parasitic nematodes as potential biocontrol agents in crop insect and slug pest management. Addressing research on these two nematodes from tropical, subtropical and temperate countries, it covers the new techniques and major developments regarding mass production, formulation, application, commercialization and safety measures. Plans for future strategies to make these beneficial nematodes cost-effective and expand their use by including them in integrated pest management programmes in different agro-ecosystems are also discussed. Biocontrol Agents: Entomopathogenic and Slug Parasitic Nematodes provides a comprehensive review of the topic and is an essential resource for researchers, industry practitioners and advanced students in the fields of biological control and integrated pest management.
This book is a compilation of information on all basic aspects of mealybugs, as well as management strategies for mealybug species affecting different crop plants in different countries. It highlights the latest information on morphology, cytogenetics, taxonomy, molecular characterization, biology, damage, ecology, natural enemies, ant association, control measures, insecticide resistance and pheromones - essential aspects which will equip researchers to pursue further research on mealybugs. The book examines current trends in the management of mealybugs for a variety of agricultural and horticultural crops, forest plants and mulberry in different countries, while also addressing the negative effects of chemical control methods and presenting success stories of mealybug control that utilize their natural enemies. It offers a valuable guide for crop growers, government officials and other stakeholders in the industry, as well as researchers and students engaged in related research and development activities.
This book provides an overview of all documented releases of exotic (non-European) invertebrate biological control agents into the environment in Europe and summarizes key information on the target species as well as on the biological control agent released. It covers the period from 1897 to the end of 2009 and is largely based on the BIOCAT database, which contains records of the introduction of insect natural enemies, namely parasitoids and predators, for the control of insect pests worldwide. The content is covered in four sections: Introduction and Summary; European Insect Biocontrol Agents Released in Europe; Weed Control; and Discussion. Providing a representative picture of the history of releases of exotic biological control agents into the environment in Europe, this book is a key resource for researchers and practitioners operating in the areas of biological control and pest management, and those involved in the regulation of the deliberate release of exotic organisms.
The Beans and the Peas: From Orphan to Mainstream Crops presents a comprehensive overview of food legume crops previously known as "orphans" that are increasingly becoming mainstream as their production opportunities have been improved through genetic improvement and biotechnology and their role as an important nutrient source gains urgency. Pulse seeds contain from 16 to 50% protein in addition to 15 essential minerals, providing one of the most efficient solutions to protein calorie malnutrition in combination with cereals. Presenting progress in the development of improved varieties, matching production and protection technologies, genetic and genomic resources, and plant metabolism, this book provides valuable information in a single resource.
Soybeans are one of the most widely-grown crops in the world. As the world's main source of vegetable protein, they have a wide range of food and non-food uses. Current yields need to increase significantly to meet growing demand but in a way that reduces input use, does not damage the environment and is resilient to climate change. This collection reviews the wealth of research addressing this challenge. Volume 2 reviews advances in understanding and managing the range of diseases and pests that continue to cause significant crop losses. Part 1 discusses fungal, viral and bacterial diseases as well as developments in disease-resistant varieties, integrated pest and weed management. Part 2 summaries research on developing the food and non-food uses of soybean, from improving nutritional properties to uses in animal feed. With its distinguished editor and international team of authors, this will be a standard reference for soybean scientists, growers, government and non-government agencies supporting soybean cultivation. It is accompanied by a companion volume that reviews advances in breeding and cultivation techniques.
The objectives of this Code are to establish voluntary standards of conduct for all public and private entities engaged in or associated with the management of pesticides, particularly where there is inadequate or no national legislation to regulate pesticides.
Plant pathogenic fungi cause devastating damage to crop production worldwide. The growing global population necessitates reduced crop losses to improve food security, and the control of fungal plant pathogens is vital to help maintain food production. Providing a concise and balanced review of fungicides used in crop protection, this book describes the science of fungicide use, selection and resistance within the context of farming situations. Major updates and additions reflecting the emergence of two new classes of fungicides (strobilurins and SDHI) and the increased incidence of fungicide resistance are included in this new edition, which also discusses legislative requirements to reduce fungicide applications, and current trends in fungicide use.
This book explores the specifically human dimensions of the problem posed by a new generation of invasive pests and pathogens to tree health worldwide. The growth in global trade and transportation in recent decades, along with climate change, is allowing invasive pests and pathogens to establish in new environments, with profound consequences for the ecosystem services provided by trees and forests, and impacts on human wellbeing. The central theme of the book is to consider the role that social science can play in better understanding the social, economic and environmental impacts of such tree disease and pest outbreaks. Contributions include explorations of how pest outbreaks are socially constructed, drawing on the historical, cultural, social and situated contexts of outbreaks; the governance and economics of tree health for informing policy and decision-making; stakeholder engagement and communication tools; along with more philosophical approaches that draw on environmental ethics to consider 'non-human' perspectives. Taken together the book makes theoretical, methodological and applied contributions to our understanding of this important subject area and encourages researchers from across the social sciences and humanities to bring their own disciplinary perspectives and expertise to address the complexity that is the human dimensions of forest and tree health. Chapters 5 and 11 are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
Invasive species are among the greatest challenges to environmental sustainability and agricultural productivity in the world. One of the most promising approaches to managing invasive species is voluntary citizen stewardship. However, in order for control measures to be effective, private citizens often need to make sustained and sometimes burdensome commitments. Community-Based Control of Invasive Species is based on five years of research by leading scholars in natural resource and human behavioural sciences, which involved government and citizen groups in Australia and the United States. It examines questions including, 'how can citizens be engaged in voluntarily managing invasive species?', 'what communication strategies will ensure good motivation and coordination?' and 'how can governing bodies support citizens in their efforts?'. With chapters on institutional frameworks, changing governance, systems thinking, organisational learning, engagement, communication and behavioural change, this book will be a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners involved in natural resources management.
This book is a compendium of current information on all aspects of these economically important parasites. It provides comprehensive coverage of their biology, management, morphology and diagnostics, in addition to up-to-date information on molecular aspects of taxonomy, host-parasitic relationships and resistance. Written by a team of international experts, Cyst Nematodes will be invaluable to all researchers, lecturers and students in nematology, parasitology, agriculture and agronomy, industries with an interest in chemical and biological control products for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, and any courses, quarantine and advisory services.
Thanks to the application of new technologies such as whole-genome sequencing, analysis of transcriptome and proteome of insect pest to agriculture, great progress has been made in understanding the life style, reproduction, evolution and nuisance to crops caused by insect pests such as aphids, planthoppers, and whiteflies. We believe that time has come to summarize progress and to have a glance over the horizon. In this Book experts in the field discuss novel means to increase the different kinds of resistances of plants to better limit the effects of pest, to understand and disturb the hormonal regulation of embryogenesis, molting, metamorphosis and reproduction, to determine the function of insect genes in diverse processes such as metabolism, interaction with plants, virus transmission, development, and adaptation to a changing environment. The knowledge presented here is discussed with the aim of further improving control strategies of insect pestsman";mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-bidi;mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:NL;mso-fareast-language:NL;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">.
This introductory text explores the structure/solubility relationships of organic compounds, explains how to extract pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables, analyzes the extract for pesticide content using gas chromatography, and uses the data collected as a basis for discussion about the issues surrounding pesticide regulation. Intended for use in the laboratory portion of an introductory environmental chemistry or general chemistry course.
The management of tropical forest ecosystems is essential to the health of the planet. This book addresses forest insect pest problems across the world's tropics, addressing the pests' ecology, impact and possible approaches for their control. Fully updated, this second edition also includes discussions of new areas of interest including climate change, invasive species, forest health and plant clinics. This work is an indispensible resource for students, researchers and practitioners of forestry, ecology, pest management and entomology in tropical and subtropical countries.
Biological controls that utilize natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanisms, is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical pesticides. Chemical pesticide methods are becoming less readily available due to increasing resistance problems and the prohibition of some substances. This book addresses the challenges of insufficient information and imperfectly understood regulatory processes in using biopesticides. It takes an interdisciplinary approach providing internationally comparative analyses on the registration of biopesticides and debates future biopesticide practices.
Agriculture plays a pivotal role in the economy of tropical Asia, but arthropod pests are major constraints to production. This book consolidates the research on pests of South and Southeast Asia, providing useful data for the establishment of sustainable pest management programs. It covers the main arthropod pests of twenty five major crops, with color photographs of their adult and immature stages, their distribution, biology, disease vectors, symptoms of the damage they cause and their natural enemies.
Sheep and goats are farmed throughout the world for meat, fiber, milk and leather. These small ruminants are very susceptible to external parasites, which has significant implications for their health and welfare as well as the quality and value of the end products for which they are farmed. This book gives practical guidance on preventing and controlling ectoparasites that contribute to disease and infection in sheep and goats, discussing types of parasites, the diseases they cause and what methods of control are available, as well as wider implications such as animal welfare and environmental impacts.
Microbes, including fungi, are always adapting to different environmental conditions and phytopathologists are continually faced with the management of new diseases and the resurgence of old ones. Amidst growing concerns about the environment and food security, the development of management strategies that minimize crop losses and promote sustainable agriculture is increasingly important."Management of Fungal Plant Pathogens" presents a review of research into pathogenic fungi in a diverse selection of economically important crops, including fruits and cereals. The establishment and management of fungal plant disease using conventional and ecofriendly methods is discussed with an emphasis on the use of microorganisms and biotechnology. Chapters also examine the role of microbes in growth promotion, bioprotectors and bioremediators and presents practical strategies for using microbes as well as botanicals in sustainable agriculture.
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