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Ants that commonly invade homes, damage structures, inflict painful bites, or sting humans or their pets are considered pest ants. This illustrated identification guide highlights forty species of ants that pose difficulties in urban settings. Included are well-known invasive troublemakers such as the red imported fire ant and Argentine ant, as well as native species. After an introductory chapter on the evolution, biology, and ecology of pest ants, the book follows a taxonomic arrangement by subfamily. Each subfamily chapter includes separate illustrated keys to both the genera and species of that group to enable entomologists and pest control professionals to identify pest ants correctly. The species accounts cover biology, distribution, and methods for excluding and/or removing ants from human structures and landscapes. The authors focus on the ants' biology and nesting behavior, life cycles, and feeding preferences; an intimate understanding of these factors enables the implementation of the least toxic control methods available. A chapter on control principles and techniques encompasses chemical strategies, habitat and structural modifications, biological control, and integrated pest management methods. Urban Ants of North America and Europe also contains valuable information on the diagnosis and treatment of human reactions to ant stings and bites. This comprehensive reference work on these economically significant ants includes the scientific, English, French, Spanish, and German names for each species and a summary of invasive ant species in the United States and Europe.
This booklet describes the background to the Black and Yellow Sigatoka diseases (causal agents Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola respectively) and the traditional method of diagnosis by fungal isolation. A new, laboratory based molecular biological technique is presented, which gives rapid and sensitive identification of the pathogens, directly from infected banana leaves. The method, developed at NRI, is based on the amplification of fungal DNA by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Protocols for DNA extraction and PCR are given, together with details of reagents and their availability. Suitable for use in plant pathology laboratories equipped for basic molecular biology by researchers who require accurate identification to species level for these pathogens of significant economic importance.
The third edition of this highly successful manual is not only a revised text but has been extended to meet the interpretive needs of Raman users as well as those working in the IR region. The result is a uniquely practical, comprehensive and detailed source for spectral interpretation. Combining in one volume, the correlation charts and tables for spectral interpretation for these two complementary techniques, this book will be of great benefit to those using or considering either technique.
In addition to the new Raman coverage the new edition offers:
EPA's Pesticide Fact Sheet Database presents a comprehensive source of information on several hundred pesticides and pesticide formulations. Pesticides are quickly and easily located using keywords that describe criteria under which the pesticides can be found. On-line help screens facilitate your access of key features in the database. Reports automatically print to paper or disk files on command, putting critical information at your fingertips within seconds. The database is available on 3.5" and 5.25" diskettes and can be used on IBM or IBM-compatible equipment. DOS 2.0 or higher, 640k internal memory (RAM), and a hard drive with 5MB of available disk space are required to run the program. Twelve critical technical areas are covered in addition to the address and telephone number of an EPA contact for every chemical. These technical areas include the following: Chemical Descriptors, which include chemical name, CAS Number, synonyms and trade names, year of registration, and U.S. and foreign producers; Use Patterns and Formulations, which include application sites, methods, and rates of application; Chemical Characteristics, which includes molecular weight and formula, m.p., b.p., solubility, vapor pressure, and stability; Acute Toxicological Data, which includes LD-50 data for oral, dermal, and inhalation routes of exposure, skin and eye irritation, and sensitization; Chronic Toxicological Data, including oncogenicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive effects; Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics, which includes mechanism of pesticide action, metabolism, and foliar absorption; Environmental Characteristics, which includes hydrolysis, photodegradation, aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, mobility, volatility, and bioaccumulation; Ecological Characteristics, including avian, fish, freshwater invertebrate toxicology, and honey bee acute contact toxicology; Tolerance Assessments for Agricultural Crops, including corn, wheat, and nuts; Regulatory Position and Rational Summaries; Required Labeling Regulations and Restrictions; and Major Data Gap Summaries. EPA's Pesticide Fact Sheet Database will be invaluable to environmental consultants, agriculture specialists, toxicologists, industrial hygienists, pesticide worker unions, lawyers and regulators, entomologists, ecologists, and pesticide chemists.
In The Great Gypsy Moth War, Robert J. Spear presents the untold story behind the importation and release of the gypsy moth in North America and the astonishing series of coincidences that brought the state of Massachusetts to a decade-long war against this tenacious insect. Spear traces the events leading up to the beginning of the war in 1890, notes the causes of its failure, and shows the terrible legacy it left as the precedent for all subsequent insect-eradication campaigns. During the Civil War, when the supply of cotton from southern fields was disrupted, the owners of northern textile mills looked elsewhere for raw fiber. One source was silk. Among those experimenting with silkworm production was a Frenchman named Etienne Leopold Trouvelot, who had settled outside of Boston. It was Trouvelot who imported the gypsy moths and inadvertently allowed them to escape. Soon the invasion was on and a counteroffensive was required. Spear reveals the turbulent undercurrents in the eradication campaign when the enthusiasm of the entomologists in charge turned into desperation on the discovery that their alien adversary was much tougher than they thought. Fighting a war they could not win and dared not lose, the leaders of the campaign resorted to political maneuvering, cheap tricks, and outright misrepresentation to maintain a facade of success, urging the Commonwealth to continue funding the war long after any chance of victory had faded. More than just reviewing the important events of this historic episode, Spear tells the story in an engaging way, often through the firsthand accounts of those who were directly involved. Much of what Spear has written is new, the recounting is lively, and the information he presents shows that almost all of the previous beliefs about the campaign to eradicate the gypsy moths are myths. In the process, he also traces the rise of modern economic entomology and the birth of the pesticide industry.
Residues of drugs and chemicals in edible tissues of food-producing
animals are a major public health concern. Until now, information
on applications of pharmacokinetic principles to drug and chemical
residue avoidance has been spread throughout literature. For the
first time, this handbook brings this information together in a
convenient and concise volume.
Weeds are plants growing in the wrong place. By using several techniques to control weeds you reduce the chance that weed species will adapt to the control techniques, which is likely if only one technique is used. For example, if a herbicide is used over a long period of time, a weed species can build up a resistance to the chemical. A long-term integrated weed management plan, that considers all available management control techniques or tools to control weeds, can be developed for a particular area. Any integrated weed management plan or strategy should focus on the most economical and effective control of the weeds and include ecological considerations. The long term approach to integrated weed management should reduce the extent of weeds and reduce the weed seed stock in the soil. It should consider how to achieve this goal without degrading the desirable qualities of the land, such as its native ecology or agricultural crops. Controlling weeds is particularly important in the first few months after plantation when the plants are small and there's little shade. In commercial plantations where plants are grown on bare soil, sowing a ground cover can reduce the use of herbicides. Weed management is most successful when it involves an integrated approach using a variety of methods. There is a need to develop equipment better adapted to more environmentally-friendly situations. This book deals with the appearance and management of plants with different traits occurring as weeds on arable land.
The book deals with the present state and problems of integrated pest management (IPM) as relating to stakeholder acceptance of IPM and how IPM can become a sustainable practice. The book covers the implementation of integrated pest management in USA, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Netherlands, China, India, Indonesia, Australia, Africa, and its impact in reducing pesticide use in agriculture. The book also deals with the impact of transgenic crops on pesticide use.
The major objective of this book is to highlight the significance of phytonematodes in horticulture. Detailed and latest information on major aspects of phytonematodes associated exclusively with horticultural crops, which is the need of the day, is lacking. Hence, the book has been written mainly with the objective of providing its readers, comprehensive information on the advanced aspects related to phytonematodes associated with horticultural crops. It also provides basic information on plant parasitic nematodes since it is required for a better understanding of advanced topics. Several popular topics, information on which is already available in plenty, have been avoided. Thus, book explicates both the essential fundamental and advanced aspects pertaining to nematodes associated with horticultural crops. The book is conveniently divided into 13 chapters, which cover latest information on the major fundamental and advanced aspects related to phytonematodes including the role of phytonematodes in horticultural industry, phylogenetic and evolutionary concepts in nematodes, major phytonematodes associated with horticultural crops and their diagnostic keys, symptoms caused by phytonematodes and disease diagnosis, nematode population threshold levels, crop loss assessment, nematode diseases of horticultural crops and their management, nematode disease complexes, genetics of nematode parasitism, important nematological techniques and nematodes of quarantine importance. An exclusive chapter on novel methods of nematode management has been included mainly to provide the information on the latest molecules and novel modes of managing nematodes attacking horticultural crops. Routine nematode management aspects, information on which is already available, have not been discussed; instead, this topic reflects the changing scenario of future nematode management. Hence, this book can serve as a friendly guide to meet the requirements of the students, teachers and researchers interested in these 'hidden enemies' of the grower, apart from the research and extension personnel working under Public organizations, officials of State departments of Horticulture, Forestry, field workers and all those concerned and working with plant parasitic nematodes. Appropriate diagrams, convincing tables and suitable graphs/illustrations have been furnished at right places. A complete bibliography has also been included.
A companion to 'Urban Pest Management', this book builds on the issues of insect pests in urban settings to discuss control strategies that look beyond products. From an environmental and health perspective, it is not always practical to spray chemicals indoors or in urban settings, so this work discusses sustainable control and best practice methods for managing insects that are vectors of disease, nuisance pests and the cause of structural damage.
Plant virus disease is a worldwide threat to agriculture. Environment-Friendly Antiviral Agents for Plants systematically describes the basic theory, new ideas, and new methods to discover novel antiviral agents through research on plant immune activation. The cutting-edge research methodology, technology and progress on novel antiviral agent innovation are systematically described. With abundant illustrations and figures, the book is intended for researchers and practitioners in the fields of pesticide science, plant protection, organic chemistry, fine chemicals, applied chemistry, environment chemistry and agriculture science.
Dr. Baoan Song and Dr. Song Yang are professors at the Center for R&D of Fine Chemicals, Guizhou University, China; Mr. Linhong Jin and Dr. Pinaki S. Bhadury are associate professors there.
"Insects are the most species-rich and important organisms on earth, and that's why there are many university courses dedicated to the topic of Insects and Society. But, surprisingly, this is the first textbook specifically created for those courses. The content in this textbook is not only ideal for introductory courses, but it also is great for K12 instructors, insatiably curious children, and indeed anyone fascinated by insects and their impact on people." - Robert K. D. Peterson, Ph.D., Professor of Entomology, Montana State University and Past President, Entomological Society of America "Society is undervaluing the role of insects as pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning and services. Addressing this deficit is a major merit of this book." - Teja Tscharntke, Professor and Head of the Agroecology Research Group at the University of Goettingen, Germany Insects are all around us, outweighing humanity by 17 times. Many are nuisances; they compete with us for food and carry some of our most devastating diseases. Many common pests have been transported worldwide by humans. Yet, some recent reports suggest dramatic declines in some important groups, such as pollinators and detritivores. Should we care? Yes, we should. Without insect pollinators we'd lose 35% of our global food production; without detritivores, we would be buried in un-decayed refuse. Insects are also critical sources for nutritional, medical and industrial products. A world without insects would seem a very different and unpleasant place. So why do insects inspire such fear and loathing? This concise, full-color text challenges many entrenched perceptions about insect effects on our lives. Beginning with a summary of insect biology and ecology that affect their interactions with other organisms, it goes on to describe the various positive and negative ways in which insects and humans interact. The final chapters describe factors that affect insect abundance and approaches to managing insects that balance their impacts. The first textbook to cater directly to those studying Insect and Society or Insect Ecology modules, this book will also be fascinating reading for anyone interested in learning how insects affect human affairs and in applying more sustainable approaches to "managing" insects. This includes K-12 teachers, undergraduate students, amateur entomologists, conservation practitioners, environmentalists, as well as natural resource managers, land use planners and environmental policy makers.
"Weed Biology and Climate Change" will provide a synthesis of what is known regarding the probable impact of environmental change on weed biology. Chapters will look at impacts of weed biology on agriculture, invasive species that limit ecological diversity and weeds that serve as health risks. In addition it looks at current weed management strategies and how they will be affected by global climate change. The book covers an increasingly important area in plant science, crop science and ecological research, and will be essential reading for anyone exploring the biological impacts of a changing environment.
The fungal genus Botrytis is the focus of intensive scientific research worldwide. The complex interactions between this pathogen and the plants it infects and the economic importance of the diseases caused by Botrytis (principally grey mould) on more than 1400 species of cultivated plants pre- and post-harvest, render this pathogen of particular interest to farmers, advisers, students and researchers in many fields worldwide. This 20-chapter book is a comprehensive treatise covering the rapidly developing science of Botrytis and reflecting the major developments in studies of this fungus. It will serve as a source of general information for specialists in agriculture and horticulture, and also for students and scientists interested in the biology of this fascinating, multifaceted phytopathogenic fungal species.
RHS Can Anything Stop Slugs assists with all of the most common problems encountered in a garden - as well as some slightly more unusual ones. The RHS's Chief Horticulturist, Guy Barter, provides expert advice, responding to the questions posed by thousands of gardeners every year. This entertaining and informative guide provides a wealth of information. Feature boxes of interesting facts enable you to really get to grips with the issue at hand. As the cause of a problem is not always apparent, the main symptom is used as the starting point in each section, enabling you to troubleshoot all your garden problems. This is not a dull reference book full of lists - it is an easy-to-read and amusing look at how we battle with nature in our gardens, showing you how to either come out top or to surrender with dignity.
This book reviews interagency research and development of classical (importation) biological control of Bemisia tabaci (biotype B) conducted in the USA from 1992- 2002. The successful discovery, evaluation, release, and establishment of at least five exotic B. tabaci natural enemies in rapid response to the devastating infestations in the USA represents a landmark in interagency cooperation and coordination of multiple disciplines. The review covers all key aspects of the classical biocontrol program, beginning with foreign exploration and quarantine culture, through dev- opment of mass rearing methodology, laboratory and field evaluation for efficacy, to field releases, integration with other management approaches, and monitoring for establishment and potential non-target impacts. The importance of morphological and molecular taxonomy to the success of the program is also emphasized. The book's contributors include 28 USDA, state department of agriculture, and univ- sity scientists who participated in various aspects of the project. Bemisia tabaci continues to be a pest of major concern in many parts of the world, especially since the recent spread of the Q biotype, so the publication of a review of the biological control program for the B biotype is especially timely. We anticipate that our review of the natural enemies that were evaluated and which have established in the USA will benefit researchers and IPM practitioners in other nations affected by B. tabaci.
Weeds, insects, rodents, and pathogens are major problems in agricultural and urban environments; there is a clear need to augment chemical methods of control with biological methods. Until now these efforts have had limited success because of insufficient virulence of the host-specific organisms used. Naturally occurring biological agents are in evolutionary balance with their hosts, and attaining the level of control typically desired would lead to extinction of both the control agent and its host.In this book, the main researchers involved in enhancing fungal, bacterial, virus and insect biological control agents on different targets review progress in overcoming the barrier of insufficient virulence. This multi-disciplinary group, with backgrounds in many facets of biotechnology and crop protection, reviews their work and that of others, and describes the approaches, the successes and the remaining barriers in an integrated manner.
"Optimising Pesticide Use" brings together the wide range of scientific disciplines necessary to ensure best practice through monitoring what is used and improving how it is formulated and applied. The book provides: an in depth exploration of pesticide optimisation from the view point of industry and research scientist; a case study on the development of a new range of active chemistries from bacteria; and a discussion of complementary pest control methods. This text will provide essential information to workers in the pesticide industry and regulatory community who need to be aware of current thinking and advancements in the optimal use of pesticidal compounds and systems, as well as environmental organisations and aid development organisations.
Lacewings are predatory insects that attack and kill large numbers of insect pests. Lacewings in the Crop Environment addresses both the theoretical and practical aspects of lacewing biology and their use in crop protection. After beginning with a section on lacewing systematics and ecology, the book reviews lacewings as predators in a wide variety of commercially important crops and examines the principles of using lacewings in pest control. The possible impact of genetically modified crops on lacewing populations is also discussed. Finally, a fascinating array of case studies of lacewing use in many crops from around the world is presented, and future uses of lacewings speculated upon. This essential and practical handbook will appeal to students, researchers of biological control, integrated pest management and agricultural science, and field workers using lacewings in pest management programs worldwide.
As ready reference for the student, instructor, and those
practitioners that deal with perennial weeds on a daily basis, this
book uses 28 weed species to illustrate the ways in which perennial
weeds propagate vegetatively.
The author has taken care to use examples of perennial weeds
that are troublesome on a national scale, or representative of
principal agricultural regions within the United States and
This organised and well-written one-of-a-kind text uses both
tables and text to assist the reader in identifying each weed
species. The text also includes 67 illustrations that highlight
reproduction, over-wintering, and perennating parts. "Perennial
Weeds" also corrects some misconceptions in the weed science
literature as to whether the perennating organ is a root or a
Not just another identification guidebook, "Perennial Weeds"
takes the reader through root systems and rhizome anatomy to
discuss exactly how perennial weeds propagate, so that eradication
can be achieved in the most environmentally sound ways.
This book provides the reader with a wealth of information concerning the propagation of perennial grass-like and broadleaf weeds. It emphasises why perennial weeds are so difficult to control and offers suggestions for their control.
As ravagers of crops and carriers of diseases affecting plants, humans and animals, insects present a challenge to a growing human population. In Pest and Vector Control, H.F. van Emden and Mike Service describe the available options for meeting this challenge, discussing their relative advantages, disadvantages and future potential. Methods such as chemical and biological control, host tolerance and resistance are discussed, intergrating--often for the first time--information and experience from the agricultural and medical/veterinary fields. Chemical control is seen as a major component of insect control, both now and in the future, but this is balanced with an extensive account of associated problems, especially the development of pesticide-tolerant populations. The authors are leading authorities in their respective fields and two of the best known entomologists of their generation.
Provides a timely and comprehensive review of all methods of
remediation of land and water contaminated by pesticides with
contributions from experts in industry, government and academia.
The 48 million Americans of all ages who enjoy feeding wild birds and spend more than $3 billion a year on bird food alone all share a common enemy--the squirrel. For 25 years, Outwitting Squirrels has been leading the charge to help bird lovers defend their feeders from these fast, greedy, incredibly crafty creatures who pillage birdfeeders before owners' very eyes. This classic defense manual for the besieged bird feeder has been fully updated to deal with the more tech-savvy, 21st-centruy squirrel. It provides 101 cunning strategies, both serious and hilarious, for outsmarting these furry, but not so cute, creatures. Author Bill Adler, Jr. discusses the different bird personalities and the best seed to attract them. He rates birdfeeders based upon how squirrel-proof, or squirrel-vexing they are, and discusses creative anti-squirrel structures and devices. Spooker poles, Perrier bottles, baffled fishing line, Teflon spray, Vaseline, water bombs, cayenne pepper, and Nixalite--the author has tried them all and he regales readers with his squirrel adventures and misadventures.
The Grasses and Native Plants manual is a reference manual on diseases which attack grasses, forage, native flowers, and weeds. The manual identifies various types of diseases which are known to invade these plants located throughout North, Central, and South America. The recordings include diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and nematodes. Causal disease agents are described and illustrated in some cases and diseases and disease control measures are also discussed. A manual such as this is never finished since new reports of diseases are continuously reported.
Pests and diseases inflict a devastating impact on the quantity and quality of food production. Pesticides play a vital role in crop protection, although their excessive use poses a potential health hazard and a threat to food security and human and environmental safety. This book overviews developments on pesticides and pests that are relevant to agriculture in the Indian sub-continent, Asia and the world at large. These topics impact free world trade both directly and indirectly. The volume brings together the latest information about chemical, botanical, biorational pesticides and bioagents, international specifications for pesticide formulations, pesticide-environment interaction, and amendments to prevent leaching losses of pesticides in soil, among other topics. The issues of pest resistance, herbicide resistant or tolerant crops, and the changing global climate are also addressed. This book is a valuable collection of chapters that will serve as a reference point for students, scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders interested in pesticides and pest control.
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