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This Volume comprises 14 chapters in an attempt to provide the reader with available information on safe and effective use of entomopathogens. Chapters in this book dealing with soil-borne entomopathogens and their phylogeny also provide a review on most updated information of their isolation and molecular identification. Employing fungal pathogens in biological control programmes plays a key role, and conidial thermotolerance and oxidative stress are examined in separate chapters. Entomopathogenic bacteria are able to kill their hosts quickly. An important contribution concerns informations provided upon bacterial cytotoxic factors on insect haemocytes. Nematodes are biological control agents safe to the environment. The information with respect to their direct and indirect effects on non-target organisms is provided. Viruses as highly specific, virulent candidates for use as biological insecticides are safe to non-target species. A separate chapter on the role of granuloviruses in IPM contributes a wealth of information. Biopesticides in combination with synthetic insecticides are reported as effective, economic, and eco-friendly. Understanding their interactions will certainly promote their uses. Finally, emphasis has been given on reviewing synergistic and antagonistic interactions of microbial and chemical pesticides, in other chapters.
Dramatic progress in molecular biology and genetic engineering has recently produced an unparalleled wealth of information on the mechanisms of plant and pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular levels. Completely revised and expanded, Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition offers fresh insight into the interplay of signaling systems in plant and pathogen interactions. The book delineates the battle between plant and fungal pathogen and the complex signaling systems involved. See what's new in the Second Edition: -Chapter on the role of disease resistance genes in signal perception and emission -Chapter on cell death signaling in disease susceptibility and resistance -Revised material on phytoalexins, toxins, and signal perception and transduction in fungal pathogenesis -17 additional families of pathogenesis-related proteins and antifungal proteins The book describes the weapons used by fungal pathogens to evade or suppress the host defense mechanisms. It covers each fungal infection process from initial contact and penetration to the subsequent invasion and symptom development. The author explains complex signaling systems in the plant-pathogen interface with flow charts and provides drawings elucidating the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. He includes figures that highlight cutting-edge breakthroughs in molecular science and tables documenting important findings in the field of molecular plant pathology. These features and more make this book not only the most up to date resource in the field, but also the most important.
This book is a compilation of information on insect/mite/vertebrate pests and fungal/bacterial/viral/mycoplasma/nematode diseases of tropical root and tuber crops such as cassava, sweet potato, yams, taro, Amorphophallus, yam bean and tannia. The book highlights the distribution, symptoms and damage, biology, survival and spread of each pest and describes management methods. It also sheds light on different eco-friendly pest management strategies including physical, cultural, chemical, biological, host resistance and integrated methods. The book is written in a lucid style using easy-to-understand language and offers adoptable recommendations involving eco-friendly control measures. It serves as a useful reference source for policy makers, research and extension workers, practicing farmers and students. The material can also be used for teaching post graduate courses in state agricultural universities.
Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
A complete overview of the technologies and products for microbial-based pest control. It documents the use of genetically altered Bt and transgenic crops, microbial formulations, and synergistic interactions of microbials with synthetic chemicals, as well as the management of Bt foliar applications and Bt genes in transgenic crops. The book includes case studies and pathogen, products and manufacturers indices.
Environmental pollution resulting from widespread pesticide application has become a serious worldwide problem. Plant Pathogenesis and Disease Control is an important new reference that addresses this problem by exploring the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of plant pathogenesis and emphasizing the use of "pest control agents" rather than "pesticides" for plant disease control. Topics examined include pathogenicity, the resistance of plants against pathogens, the offensive and defensive struggle between hosts and parasites, methods for using natural defense mechanisms to develop environmentally sound disease control agents, and the use of modern biotechnology for plant disease control. The book will be an essential reference for phytopathologists, plant biochemists, pesticide chemists, mycologists, plant cell technologists, and agricultural researchers.
This book presents experiences and successful case studies of integrated pest management (IPM) from developed and developing countries and from major international centres and programmes. In nearly 40 chapters, the following themes are addressed: Emerging issues in IPM, such as biotechnology, pesticide policies, socio-economic considerations, country experiences from Africa, Asia, North and South America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, regional and international experiences, including FAO, the World Bank and CGIAR System-wide IPM Program.
Covering the most important pathogens, this handbook provides clear, concise descriptions of the symptoms and cycles of diseases and disorders, and the pests that commonly prey on potato crops, their distribution and importance, and advice on their control. The text is illustrated with some 235 superb color photographs of affected crops to aid in the rapid and accurate identification of disease. It provides a practical reference for professionals and students involved with potato production, handling, and storage worldwide.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are recognized as one of the greatest threats to crop production throughout the world. Estimated annual crop losses of $8 billion in the United States and $78 billion worldwide are attributed to plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes not only cause damage individually but form disease-complexes with other microorganisms thereby increasing crop loss. Nematode diseases of crops are difficult to control because of their insidious nature and lack of specific diagnostic symptoms which closely resemble those caused by other plant pathogens and abiotic diseases. Future developments of sustainable management systems for preventing major economical agricultural losses due to nematodes is focused on strategies that limit production costs, enhance crop yields, and protect the environment. This book presents a first compendium and overview for nematode problems and their management across North America. Each chapter provides essential information on the occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes, their major crop hosts, impact on crop production and sustainable management strategies for each region of the continent including, Canada, Mexico and all states of the USA. For each region, a thematic overview of changes in crop production affected by plant parasitic nematodes and their management strategies over time will provide invaluable information on the important role of plant parasitic nematodes in sustainable agriculture.
How to achieve sustainable agricultural production without compromising environmental quality, agro-ecosystem function and biodiversity is a serious consideration in current agricultural practices. Farming systems' growing dependency on chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, nutrients etc.) poses serious threats with regard to crop productivity, soil fertility, the nutritional value of farm produce, management of pests and diseases, agro-ecosystem well-being, and health issues for humans and animals. At the same time, microbial inoculants in the form of biofertilizers, plant growth promoters, biopesticides, soil health managers, etc. have gained considerable attention among researchers, agriculturists, farmers and policy makers. The first volume of the book Microbial Inoculants in Sustainable Agricultural Productivity - Research Perspectives highlights the efforts of global experts with regard to various aspects of microbial inoculants. Emphasis is placed on recent advances in microbiological techniques for the isolation, characterization, identification and evaluation of functional properties using biochemical and molecular tools. The taxonomic characterization of agriculturally important microorganisms is documented, along with their applications in field conditions. The book exploresthe identification, characterization and diversity analysis of endophytic microorganisms in various crops including legumes/ non-legumes, as well as the assessment of their beneficial impacts in the context of promotingplant growth. Moreover, it provides essential updates onthe diversity and role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Further chaptersexamine in detailbiopesticides, thehigh-density cultivation of bioinoculants in submerged culture, seed biopriming strategies for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, andPGPR as abio-control agent. Given its content,the book offers a valuable resource for researchers involved in research and development concerningPGPR, biopesticides and microbial inoculants.
Invasive species have a critical and growing effect upon natural areas. They can modify, degrade, or destroy wildland ecosystem structure and function, and reduce native biodiversity. Landscape-level solutions are needed to address these problems. Conservation biologists seek to limit such damage and restore ecosystems using a variety of approaches. One such approach is biological control: the deliberate importation and establishment of specialized natural enemies, which can address invasive species problems and which should be considered as a possible component of restoration. Biological control can be an effective tool against many invasive insects and plants but it has rarely been successfully employed against other groups. Safety is of paramount concern and requires that the natural enemies used be specialized and that targeted pests be drivers of ecological degradation. While modern approaches allow species to be selected with a high level of security, some risks do remain. However, as in all species introductions, these should be viewed in the context of the risk of failing to reduce the impact of the invasive species. This unique book identifies the balance among these factors to show how biological control can be integrated into ecosystem restoration as practiced by conservation biologists. Jointly developed by conservation biologists and biological control scientists, it contains chapters on matching tools to management goals; tools in action; measuring and evaluating ecological outcomes of biological control introductions; managing conflict over biological control; and includes case studies as well as an ethical framework for integrating biological control and conservation practice. Integrating Biological Control into Conservation Practice is suitable for graduate courses in invasive species management and biological control, as well as for research scientists in government and non-profit conservation organizations.
Herbicides constitute about 60% of the total pesticides consumed globally. In India, the use of herbicides started initially in tea gardens and picked up in the 1970s, when the high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced. Presently, 67 herbicides are registered in the country for controlling weeds in crops including cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre and tuber crops, and also in the non-crop situations. These chemicals are becoming increasingly popular because of their efficiency and relatively low cost compared with manual or mechanical weeding operations. The contribution of herbicide to total pesticide use, which was only 10-15% during the first decade of the 21st century, has now increased to about 25% with an annual growth rate of 15-20%, which is much higher than insecticides and fungicides. Though the application of herbicides is minimizing yield loss to a great extent, their residues in the food chain and surface and groundwater create some environmental nuisance particularly to non-target organisms. Research on pesticide residues in India was started during 1970s, when such chemicals were introduced on a greater scale along with high-yielding variety seeds, irrigation and chemical fertilizers for increasing food production. However, the herbicide residue research was not given much emphasis until 1990s. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research initiated a national level programme known as All India Coordinated Research Project on Weed Management through the NRC-Weed Science as the main centre along with some centers of ICAR Institutes and state agricultural universities. Over the last two decades, adequate information was generated on estimation, degradation and mitigation of herbicide residues, which were documented in annual reports, bulletins, monographs and scientific articles. However, there was no consolidated compilation of all the available information providing a critical analysis of herbicide residues. Accordingly, an effort has been made in the publication to compile the available information on herbicide residues in India. This is the first report of its kind which presents the findings of herbicide residues and their interactions in the biotic and abiotic environment. There are 16 chapters contributed by the leading herbicide residue scientists, each describing the present status of herbicide use, crops and cropping systems, monitoring, degradation and mitigation, followed by conclusions and future lines of work. This book will be useful to the weed scientists in general and herbicide residue chemists in particular, besides the policy makers, students and all those concerned with the agricultural production in the country.
Handbook of Major Palm Pests: Biology and Management contains the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on the red palm weevil and the palm borer moth, two newly emergent invasive palm pests which are adversely affecting palm trees around the world. It provides state-of-the-art scientific information on the ecology, biology, and management of palm pests from a global group of experts in the field. An essential compendium for anyone working with or studying palms, it is dedicated to the detection, eradication, and containment of these invasive species, which threaten the health and very existence of global palm crops.
Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), is an important palm species cultivated in the arid regions of the world since pre-historic times and traditionally associated with the life and culture of the people in the Middle-East and North Africa which are the pre-dominant date palm growing regions worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN estimates that there are over 100 million date palms with an annual production of over 7.5 million tonnes A recent report on the arthropod fauna of date palm, enlists 112 species of insects and mites associated with date palm worldwide including 22 species attacking stored dates. Enhanced monoculture of date palm in several date palm growing countries coupled with climate change, unrestrained use of chemical insecticides and extensive international trade is likely to impact the pest complex and the related natural enemies in the date agro-ecosystems. In view of the importance of date palm as an emerging crop of the future and the need to develop and deploy ecologically sound and socially acceptable IPM techniques, this book aims to comprehensively address issues related to the biology and sustainable management of major insect and mite pests of date palm by assessing the current IPM strategies available, besides addressing emerging challenges and future research priorities. The issues pertaining to the role of semiochemicals in date palm IPM involving new strategies revolving around "attract and kill" and "push-pull" technologies, phytoplasmas and their insect vectors with implications for date palm, innovative methods for managing storage pests of dates and knowledge gaps in devicing sustainable strategies for the management of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) are also addressed
HPLC is the principal separation technique for identification of the pesticides in environmental samples and for quantitative analysis of analytes. At each stage of the HPLC procedure, the chromatographer should possess both the practical and theoretical skills required to perform HPLC experiments correctly and to obtain reliable, repeatable, and reproducible results. Developed to serve as a detailed practical guide, High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis is a comprehensive source of information and training on state-of-the-art pesticide residue methods performed with the aid of HPLC. The book presents the pros and cons of HPLC as a flexible and versatile separation and analysis tool with multiple purposes and advantages in investigations of pesticides for food and plant drugs standardization, promotion of health, protection of new herbal medicines, and more.
Pests of Fruit Crops: A Colour Handbook, Second Edition provides an up-to-date illustrated account of the various pests of fruit crops throughout Europe, many of which (or their close relatives) are also present in non-European countries. In fact, several pose problems on fruit crops worldwide. This authoritative book focuses on insect and mite pests affecting fruit, hop and nut crops in both temperate and subtropical climates. Pome fruits, stone fruits, cane fruits, strawberries, bush fruits, hops, grapevines, citrus fruits, nuts, figs and olives all receive attention. For ease of reference, this new edition has been significantly rearranged so that, under genera, species of pests are now listed alphabetically, and nomenclature has been updated. The pests, most of which are illustrated, are described, and details are given of their life histories, distribution and status. Damage caused is also indicated. The work is profusely illustrated with over 1,150 superb colour photographs, and is an essential and invaluable source of reference for both professional and lay readers-including extension workers, consultants, scientists, students, fruit growers and private gardeners. To help readers locate information on pests of interest, alternative names for genera and species, and frequently used colloquial names are cross-referenced in the pest index.
The leading reference on this topic has just gotten better. Building on the success of the previous two editions, all the chapters have been updated to reflect the latest developments in the field, and new chapters have been added on picolinic acids, oxathiapiprolin, flupyradifurone, and other topics. This third edition presents the most important active ingredients of modern agrochemicals, with one volume each for herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. The international team of first-class authors from such renowned crop science companies as Bayer, Syngenta, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont (now Corteva Agriscience), and BASF, address all crucial aspects from the general chemistry and the mode of action to industrial-scale synthesis, as well as from the development of products and formulations to their application in the field. A comprehensive and invaluable source of timely information for all of those working in modern biology, including genetics, biochemistry and chemistry, and for those in modern crop protection science, whether governmental authorities, researchers in agrochemical companies, scientists at universities, conservationists, or managers in organizations and companies involved in improvements to agricultural production.
The book provides comprehensive information on a wide range of topics from biology, physiology, genetics to the use of genomic tools in weed science. The book covers information at a more advanced level than the previously published books in weed science. It covers not only weed genetics and genomics research, but also weed management from an ecological perspective. Furthermore, the book also gives a broad coverage of novel mechanisms of weed resistance to herbicides. More importantly, it includes next generation sequencing techniques and bioinformatics of herbicide resistant genes in weeds.
The brown recluse is a fascinating spider very well adapted to dwelling in houses and other buildings. Because of this very quality and the ghastly reputation associated with the medical consequences of its bite, it has become infamous throughout North America. Although recluse spiders can cause serious skin injuries and, in very rare cases, death, the danger posed by this spider is often exaggerated as a result of arachnophobia and the misdiagnosis of non-spider-related conditions as brown recluse bites. These misdiagnoses often occur in areas of North America where the spider does not exist, making legitimate bites improbable. One of the greatest factors that keeps the myths alive is misidentification of common (and harmless) spiders as brown recluses. With this book, Richard S. Vetter hopes to educate readers regarding the biology of the spider and medical aspects of its bites, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnoses, and to quell misplaced anxiety.In The Brown Recluse Spider, Vetter covers topics such as taxonomy, identification, misidentification, life history characteristics and biology, medical aspects of envenomations, medical conditions misdiagnosed as brown recluse bites, other spider species of medical consideration (several of which have been wrongly implicated as threats to human health), and the psychology behind the entrenched reasons why people believe so deeply in the presence of the spider in the face of strong, contradictory information. Vetter also makes recommendations for control of the spider for households in areas where the spiders are found and describes other species of recluse spiders in North America. Although The Brown Recluse Spider was written for a general audience, it is also a valuable source of information for arachnologists and medical personnel.
This book focuses on pests (insect and mite) and diseases (fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode) in protected horticulture (fruits, vegetables and ornamentals) using physical, cultural, chemical, biological, host resistance, and integrated methods. It opens with chapters describing the setting in which integrated pest and disease control operates, i.e., the greenhouse and its environment. Subsequent chapters present the basic strategies and tactics of different control methods including integrated control, with special reference to greenhouse crops. Further chapters include the different facets of biological pest and disease control - its scientific bases, its development in practice, its commercialization and quality control. The concluding chapters of the book highlight the present status of integrated pest and disease control for the most important greenhouse crops (fruits, vegetables and flower crops) worldwide. The book's final chapter explores future challenges for researchers assigned to identify non-pesticide methods and integrate sustainable pest management technologies that can contribute to increased productivity, such as breeding for durable resistance, biological control and devising integrated methods that will have minimal adverse environmental and social impacts. Among productivity-enhancing technologies, protected cultivation has a tremendous potential to increase the yield of vegetables and flower cro ps by several fold. Pests and diseases are one of the major challenges to protected cultivation. Year-round warm temperatures and relatively high humidity together with abundant food make the protected environment of greenhouses highly attractive to pests and diseases. Nevertheless, very little attention has been paid to the manipulation of greenhouse environments expressly to avoid disease epidemics and insect infestations, which together can easily account for 30% of crop losses. This book will be of immense value to all members of the scientific community involved in teaching, research and extension activities on protected horticulture. It also offers a useful reference guide for policymakers and practicing farmers, and can be used as a textbook for postgraduate courses.
Millets and sorghum are extremely important crops in many developing nations and because of the ability of many of them to thrive in low-moisture situations they represent some exciting opportunities for further development to address the continuing and increasing impact of global temperature increase on the sustainability of the world s food crops. The main focus of this thorough new book is the potential for crop improvement through new and traditional methods, with the book s main chapters covering the following crops: sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail milet, proso millet, little millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet, tef and fonio. Further chapters cover pests and diseases, nutritional and industrial importance, novel tools for improvement, and seed systems in millets. Millets and Sorghum provides full and comprehensive coverage of these crucially important crops, their biology, world status and potential for improvement, and is an essential purchase for crop and plant scientists, and food scientists and technologists throughout the developed and developing world. All libraries in universities and research establishment where biological and agricultural sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.
This book provides a timely review of concepts in plant disease management involving microbial soil suppressiveness and organic amendments. Topics discussed include the impact of suppressive soils on plant pathogens and agricultural productivity, the enhancement of soil suppressiveness through the application of compost and the development of disease suppressive soils through agronomic management. Further chapters describe diseases caused by phytopathogens, such as Pythium, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, interaction of rhizobia with soil suppressiveness factors, biocontrol of plant parasitic nematodes by fungi and soil suppressive microorganisms.
In today's world, food security is an important issue. Food shortages push prices up, impacting upon the health and well-being of hundreds of millions of rural poor across the globe. One way to increase food security is to decrease the amount of yield lost to pests. The Pesticide Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the fight against pests, covering chemical pesticides, biocontrol agents and biopesticides. It also covers interrelated topics such as pesticide toxicity, legislation and regulation, handling, storage and safety aspects, IPM techniques, resistance management, interaction of pesticides with soil and the environment. An important reference for policy makers, advisers and students and researchers of crop science, this book also includes useful notes on commonly known plant diseases and pests.
Currently, the major challenge of humanity is focused on population growth through agricultural production in order to meet the demand for food. The food crunch is mainly due to pest and disease. Traditional methods, synthetic insecticides and microbicides cause health hazards to human beings, domestic animals and also affect our immediate environments. Serious concerns were implemented by both developing and developed countries as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Bio-intensive Integrated Pest Management (BIPM) systems where biopesticides play an important role worldwide. The available books are limited to particular aspects of biopesticides. Hence, it is imperative to bring out a holistic documentation which will provide the reader information on all aspects of biopesticides. The book consists of five sections namely microbials, botanicals, natural enemies semio- chemicals and biotechnology and equipments, bioinformatics tools and IPM. In Section I, microbial deals with utilization of Bacillus in control of phytonematodes; biological control of pest and diseases with fluorescent pseudomonads, entomopathogenic fungus and entomopathogenic nematodes in pest management, microbial viral insecticides and microbial elicitors to induce immunity for plant disease control in chilli and tomato. Importance of plant essential oils, botanicals in endocrine disruption, relevance of botanicals and use of plant volatile on pest management has been discussed in Section II. Importance and role of reduviidae, weaver ants, ground beetles, Odonatas, spiders in biological control has been discussed in Section III. In addition, genetic improvement of biocontrol agents for sustainable pest management has also been highlighted. In Section IV, classical practices and pheromone, kairomonal enhancement to natural enemies and use of transgenic plants in insect control are highlighted. Equipment and their application methodologies for application of biopesticides; relevance of bioinformatics in biopesticides management; pest management of soybean, bio fouling and eco friendly antifoulants have been highlighted in Section V. Each chapter has objectives and conclusion along with recommendations.
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