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It was our intention and goal to bring together m Biopestzcides Use and Delavery the latest advances in the science and technology of the evolving field of biopesticides In the context of crop protectton, btopesttcides are a key component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs, m which biopesticides are delivered to crops m inundative quantities, vs the mocu- tive approach, which is charactertstic of classical biological control. Although there are several definitions of biopesttcides m the literature, we chose to define them as either microbials themselves or products derived from microbials, plants, and other biological entities. In the developed, industrial countries, primarily in Western Europe and the United States, biopesticides are receiving more practical attention, smce they are viewed as a means to reduce the load of synthetic chemical pes- tides m an effort to provide for safer foods and a cleaner envtronment. In the developing countries, biopestictdes are viewed as having the potential to - ploit nattve resources to produce crop protection agents that would replace imported chemical pesticides and conserve much-needed hard currencies These trends are well represented by the dynamic growth of engineered crops expressing the delta-endotoxm insecticidal protem crystals of Bacillus thuringzenszs (B. t ) m corn, cotton, and potatoes and the development of - combinant B. t.
When Franklin published her book on cyst nematodes in 1951, the cyst nematodes were already known as serious pests of brassicas, cereals, potatoes and sugar beets. However, at that time this group of nematode, with about 12 species, was considered tobe largely temperate in distribu tion. Now a total of 105 species (including those that are considered as synonyms or species inquirende by some or all) within six genera of cyst nematodes have been described from temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions and at least five species are important constraints to crop produc tion in tropical agriculture. The previous impression of localization of cyst nematodes in the temperate region was seemingly an artifact due to a greater concentration of nematologists in the temperate regions. Based on my own experience of working in several Asian and African countries, I believe that many more undescribed species are present in the tropical countries of Asia and Africa, and probably in other tropical regions. Most growers, extension workers, and research managers in these regions are still not aware of the possible harm of presence of these nematodes in their agricultural soils. The cyst nematodes are perhaps smaller than the smallest available computer chip but they are very well programmed to survive and pro pagate despite severe hardships. These nematodes are very selective in their choice of food; about 50% of known species are parasites of plants mainly in the families Poaceae and Fabaceae."
Accurate and detailed information on the fundamental biology of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes has several important functions. It is needed to gain an understanding of their highly complex ecology and, since many plant-parasitic nematodes are major agricultural pests, it also greatly enhances attempts to implement crop protection strategies. In addition, information on physiology and biochemistry has particular relevance to studies of gene function in nematodes and the nematode "Caenorhabditis elegans" has become established as one of the most important model organisms for molecular genetic studies. Written by leading research workers from Europe, USA, Australia and New Zealand, this is the only up-to-date reference book which reviews and integrates all the current research findings on the physiology and biochemistry of these organisms, including the molecular information which has accumulated in recent years. It is essential reading for researchers, advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students and lecturers in plant nematology, parasitology, plant pathology and agricultural zoology and will also be a valuable reference source for students of invertebrate biology, crop protection and pest management.
Sound formulation is a vital aspect of microbial products used to protect plants from pests and diseases and to improve plant performance. Formulation of Microbial Biopesticides is an in-depth treatment of this vitally important subject. Written by experts and carefully edited, this important title brings together a huge wealth of information for the first time within the covers of one book. The book is broadly divided into five sections, covering principles of formulation, organisms with peroral and contact modes of action, organisms with the power of search, and future trends. Each section contains comprehensive chapters written by internationally acknowledged experts in the areas covered; the book also includes three very useful appendices, cataloguing formulation additives, spray application criteria and terminology. This outstanding book is a vitally important reference work for anyone involved in the formulation of microbial biopesticides and should find a place on the shelves of agriculture and plant scientists, microbiologists and entomologists working in academic and commercial agrochemical situations, and in the libraries of all research establishments and companies where this exciting subject is researched, studied or taught.
During this century, hundreds of billions of pounds of pesticides have been released to the global environment. How are we exposed to them? What can we do to protect ourselves? In this extraordinary analysis, John Wargo, one of the nation's leading experts in pesticide policy, traces the history of pesticide law and science, with a focus on the special hazards faced by children. By 1969, nearly 60,000 separate pesticide products were registered for use by the U.S. government, each with the expectation that pesticides could be used safely, that they quickly broke down into harmless substances, or that dangerous levels of exposure could be accurately predicted and somehow avoided. Faith in these assumptions was gradually eroded as experts grew to understand the persistence, movement, and toxicity of the chemicals involved. Nevertheless, government continues to hold the discretion to balance risks against economic benefits in its licensing decisions. The underlying legal strategy, Wargo claims, has been one that places extraordinary faith in government's ability to somehow ensure that only safe levels of contamination and exposure occur. And the effect has been systematic neglect of those exposures and risks faced by children. Wargo presents a compelling case that children are more heavily exposed to some pesticides than adults and are especially vulnerable to some adverse effects. How should the fractured body of environmental law be repaired to manage the distribution of risk? This is the central question Wargo addresses as he suggests fundamental reforms of science and law necessary to understand and contain the health risks faced by children.
The future of insect control looked very bright in the 1950s and 1960s with new insecticides constantly coming onto the market. Today, however, whole classes of pesticide chemistry have fallen by the wayside due to misuse which generated resistance problems reaching crisis proportions, severe adverse effects on the environment, and public outcry that has led to increasingly stricter regulation and legislation. It is with this background, demanding the need for safer, environmentally friendly pesticides and new strategies to reduce resistance problems, that this book was written. The authors of the various chapters have a wealth of experience in pesticide chemistry, biochemical modes of action, mechanism of resistance and application, and have presented concise reviews. Each is actively involved in thedevelopment of new groups of pesticide chemistry which led to the development of novel insecticides with special impact in controlling agricultural pests. Emphasis has been given to insecticides with selective properties, such as insect growth regulators hormone mimics, ecdysone agonists), (chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile chloronicotinyl insecticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid), botanical insecticides (neem, plant oils), pymetrozine, diafenthiuron, pyrrole insecticides, and others. The importance of these compounds, as components in integrated pest management programs and in insecticide resistance management strategies, is discussed. The data presented are essential in establishing new technologies and developing novel groups of compounds which will have impact on our future agricultural practices.
Over the past 30 years one alarming trend is the emergence of plant species resistant to agrochemicals (e.g. insecticides, herbicides, fungicides). Considering the fact that these pesticides are crucial to human health and to food, feed and fiber production, impressive research was carried out during the last decade to understand the mechanisms of resistance development. This volume reviews the latest results and examines the implications of these findings for delaying or avoiding resistance in plants to agrochemicals.
In recent decades, repeated use of herbicides in the same field has imposed selection for resistance in species that were formerly susceptible. On the other hand, considerable research in the private and public sectors has been directed towards introducing herbicide tolerance into susceptible crop species. The evolution of herbicide resistance, understanding its mechanisms, characterisation of resistant weed biotypes, development of herbicide-tolerant crops and management of resistant weeds are described throughout the 36 chapters of this book. It has been written by leading researchers based on the contributions made at the International Symposium on Weed and Crop Resistance to Herbicides held at Cordoba, Spain. This book will be a good reference source for research scientists and advanced students.
Although birds are not normally viewed as pests, in the case of cereals and soft fruits both resident and migrant species can cause significant losses to farmers. This handbook provides the background information needed for an understanding of the birds which cause the damage, their identification, biology and feeding habits. It also presents the variety of techniques necessary to assess the likelihood and extent of crop damage and so facilitate the choice of cost-effective methods and levels of control. A comprehensive reference book for policy-makers and extensionists, and also to all public and private sector management staff who are involved in loss assessment and the implementation of control methods in cereal production.
Genetics has transformed plant pathology on two occasions: first when Mendelian genetics enabled the discovery that disease resistance was a heritable trait in plants, and secondly when Flor proposed the "gene-for-gene" hypothesis to explain his observations of plant-parasite interactions, based on his work on flax rust in North Dakota starting in the 1930s. Our knowledge of the genetics of disease resistance and host-pathogen coevolution is now entering a new phase as a result of the cloning of the first resistance genes. This book provides a broad review of recent developments in this important and expanding subject. Both agricultural and natural host-pathogen situations are addressed. While most of the book focuses on plant pathology, in the usual sense of the term embracing fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens, there is also consideration of parasitic plants and a chapter demonstrating lessons to be learnt from the mammalian immune system. Three overall themes are addressed: genetic analyses and utilization of resistance; population genetics; and cell biology and molecular genetics. Chapters are based on papers presented at the British Society for Plant Pathology Presidential meeting held in December 1995, but all have been revised and updated to mid-1996. Written by leading authorities from North America, Europe and Australia, the book represents an essential update for workers in plant genetics, breeding, biotechnology and pathology.
There is a growing need for appropriate management of aquatic plants in rivers and canals, lakes and reservoirs, and drainage channels and urban waterways. This management must be based on a sound knowledge of the ecology of freshwater plants, their distribution and the different forms of control available including chemical, physical, biological and biomanipulation. This series of papers from over 20 different countries was generated from the highly successful European Weed Research Society symposia on aquatic plant management, this being the ninth. The contributions provide a valuable insight into the complexities involved in managing aquatic systems, discuss state-of-the-art control techniques such as biomanipulation using fish and waterfowl and the use of straw, and deal with patterns of regrowth and recovery post-management. Careful consideration is given to the use of chemicals, a practice which has come under scrutiny in recent years. Underpinning the development of such control techniques is a growing body of knowledge relating to the biology and ecology of water plants, including growth responses under different trophic conditions, the impact of pollution, and aspects of photosynthesis. The authorship of the papers represents the collective wisdom of leading scientists and experts from fisheries agencies, river authorities, nature conservation agencies, the agrochemical industry and both governmental and non-governmental organisations.
The soil is the medium through which pollutants originating from human activities, both in agriculture and industry, move from the land surfaces to groundwater. Polluting substances are subject to complex physical, chemical and biological transformations during their movement through the soil. Their displacement depends on the transport properties of the water-air-soil system and on the molecular properties of the pollutants. Prediction of soil pollution and restoration of polluted soils requires an under standing of the processes controlling the fate of pollutants in the soil medium and of the dynamics of the contaminants in the un saturated zone. Our book was conceived. as a basic overview of the processes governing the behavior of pollutants as affected by soil constituents and environmental factors. It was written for the use of specialists working on soil and unsaturated zone pollution and restoration, as well as for graduate students starting research in this field. Since many specialists working on soil restoration lack a back ground in soil science or a knowledge of the properties of soil pollutants, we have included this information which forms the first part of the book. In the second part, we discuss the partitioning of pollutants between the aqueous, solid and gaseous phase of the soil medium. The retention, transformation and transport of pollutants in the soils form the third section."
More than 32 years ago, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring appeared upon the scene as a landmark of literary achievement which contributed greatly to the foundation of the modern environmental movement. Rachel Carson had designed Silent Spring to shock the public into action against the misuse of chemical pesticides. More than anything else, the book also served as an ecological primer, demonstrating the interrelationship of all things and the dependence of each on a healthy environment for survival. Today, Silent Spring is generally credited with providing impetus to the whole range of anti-pollution laws that came into force in the 1970s. It is also perceived as having played a crucial role in the eventual banning of DDT as well as in the restricted use or total phasing out of the most notorious hard pesticides identified in the book. The vigorous growth of the chemical industry geared to the production of newer and ever more powerful pesticides can be traced to the introduc tion of the organochlorine insecticide DDT in the 1940s. These pesticides were meant not only to control insects but also animal pests, disease and weeds. Initially their development was based on the belief that they would provide a definitive solution to pest and vector problems."
Advances in biochemical techniques are revolutionizing the study of invertebrate ecology. Their application to pest problems is generating detailed information on the population genetics of pests, pest-predator relationships and interactions between pests and their environment.
This text provides readers with an in-depth exploration of how biological control functions and how it can be safely employed to solve pest problems and enhance nature conservation. It covers the principles behind biological control techniques and their implementation, and incorporates practical examples from the biological control of a variety of pests. It contains detailed chapters on conserving natural enemies through environmental management, importation of new natural enemies for control of pests, augmentation of natural enemies through rearing and release, and the development and application of pathogens and biopesticides.
This work provides the fundamental information necessary for the development of weed management strategies for all the major US crops using concepts that can be applied worldwide. Weed management systems are provided for cotton, peanut, soybean, wheat, barley, oat, sorghum, rice, fruits, nut crops, and more. The dynamics involved in creating the best management approaches for specific types of crops are explained.
Identify and control weeds with this colorful, expanded
edition-with bonus CD
This work offers concise, detailed information on the toxicological properties of, and safe handling practices for, pesticides. It provides an overview of the registration process, registration procedures and supplemental registration. An alphabetic listing of over 800 chemicals, including their applications - from insecticides and growth regulators to herbicides, repellents and synergists - is provided.
Pesticides have contributed impressively to our present-day agricultural productivity, but at the same time they are at the center of serious concerns about safety, health, and the environment. Increasingly, the public wonders whether the benefits of pesticides - the perfect red apple' - outweigh the costs of environmental pollution, human illness, and the destruction of animals and our habitat. Scientists and government officials are suspected of promoting commercial interests rather than protecting human welfare.
Nematode interactions are important biological phenomena and of great significance in agriculture. It is a fascinating subject which is multidisciplinary by nature, and concerns any scientist involved with plant health. There have been marked advances in our knowledge of various aspects of the subject in the last two decades. This study area has been the subject of several reviews, but there was no exclusive text on the subject. This has stressed the need to document the information, developing a unifying theme which treated nematode interactions in a holistic manner. This book is about the inter action of plant-parasitic nematodes with other plant pathogens or root symbionts, the nature of their associations, their impact on the host and con sequential interactive effects on the involved organisms. Since nematodes are at the centre of the theme, the responsibility of understanding of other plant pathogens dealt with in this book is largely delegated to the reader. I have limited the book content to interactions with biotic pathogens and root symbionts only, for various reasons. The book embodies 16 chapters, and attempts to present balanced infor mation on various aspects of nematode interactions with other plant pathogens and root symbionts. Some chapters describe general aspects of the subject. Interactions of nematodes with specific groups of organisms are addressed in the remaining chapters."
The development of pesticide resistance in arthropod pests, plant pathogens and weeds can be viewed and studied from two contrasting perspectives. At a fundamental level, resistance provides an almost ideal example of adaptation to withstand severe environmental stress. Population geneticists, biochemists and, most recently, molecular biologists have cast considerable light on the nature of this adaptation in diverse taxonomic groups, and on factors determining its selection and spread within and between populations. Unlike most evolutionary phenomena, however, resistance is also of immediate practical and economic significance. Not only has the number of resistant species continued to increase inexorably, but there has been an alarming increase in the severity and extent of some resistance problems. Cases of organisms resisting virtually all available pesticides are by no means uncommon, and pose a formidable challenge in view of present difficulties in discovering and developing novel chemicals. Although most occurrences of resistance were initially monofactorial, resistance now frequently involves a suite of coexisting mechanisms that protect organisms against the same or different pesticide groups, and may even predispose them to resist new, as yet unused chemicals.
This book is the third in a series of volumes on major tropical and sub-tropical crops. These books aim to review the current state of the art in management of the total spectrum of pests and diseases which affect these crops in each major growing area using a multi-disciplinary approach. Soybean is economically the most important legume in the world. It is nutritious and easily digested, and is one of the richest and cheapest sources of protein. It is currently vital for the sustenance of many people and it will play an integral role in any future attempts to relieve world hunger. Soybean seed contains about 17% of oil and about 63% of meal, half of which is protein. Modern research has developed a variety of uses for soybean oil. It is processed into margarine, shortening, mayonnaise, salad creams and vegetarian cheeses. Industrially it is used in resins, plastics, paints, adhesives, fertilisers, sizing for cloth, linoleum backing, fire extinguishing materials, printing inks and a variety of other products. Soybean meal is a high-protein meat substitute and is used in the developed countries in many processed foods, including baby foods, but mainly as a feed for livestock. Soybean (Glycine max), which evolved from Glycine ussuriensis, a wild legume native to northern China, has been known and used in China since the eleventh century Be. It was introduced into Europe in the eighteenth century and into the United States in 1804 as an ornamental garden plant in Philadelphia.
Practical Deer Management offers candid and comprehensive advice for anyone who has to deal with deer and the issues they present, be they gardeners suffering attacks on their flower beds, foresters looking to prevent damage to newly planted trees, or landowners with larger scale problems. While a wealth of information on deer exists already, a career in teaching countryside managers quickly made it apparent that there was a need for a straightforward and comprehensive volume that is accessible to all. Written to be clear and easily understood, Practical Deer Management looks at the deer themselves and suggests non-lethal protective measures in addition to more active management, with attention given to other considerations such as health, the law and the practical construction of infrastructure such as high seats. A humane approach is stressed throughout. Practical Deer Management is an essential handbook for anyone who has to deal with deer and the problems that they may present. 'Through this refreshing book there is the possibility for us all to find a better understanding and tolerance of all of our deer.' Ray Mears
Reference to the design of new insecticides nontoxic to the environment and the public emphasizing optimal food production with greater safety. Some 30 international experts examine topics including new types of active molecules among natural products and animal toxins; insect metabolic and organ sy
This handbook illustrates and describes the 200 kinds of common weeds found in Kansas along roadsides and in yards, gardens, and cultivated fields. Designed as a reference for the general reader with no special training in botany, it will be of value to farmers, ranchers, gardeners, or anyone who must control weeds.
A detailed line drawing of the plant and a distribution map is provided for each species. The description lists its common and scientific names and includes information on the plant's typical size, stem, leaves, flowers, particular arrangement of flowers, and habitat. Useful commentary about the weed--such as whether it is poisonous to livestock--is also given. The book includes a glossary of botanical terms and an index of plant names.
A handy system of "finding lists" enable the user, working with only three or fewer structural features of a plant, to arrive at easy, on-the-spot identification of an unknown weed.
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