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Overzealous and indiscriminate use of many synthetic pesticides during recent decades in the control of plant pests has resulted in a number of environmental and toxicological problems. Reducing the release of synthetic chemicals into the environment requires that alternative sources of chemicals are developed that can be used safely in the management of plant pests. Botanical antimicrobials derived from plants are currently recognised as biodegradable, systemic, eco-friendly and non-toxic to mammals and are thus considered safe. Their modes of action against pests are diverse. Natural compounds are well suited to organic food production in industrialised countries and can play greater roles in the protection of food crops in developing countries Some plant based antimicrobials (e.g. neem products, pyrethoids and essential oils) are already used to manage pest populations on a large scale. Plant scientists and agriculturists now devote significant attention to discovery and further development and formulation of novel plant products with antimicrobial activity.This book is the first to bring together relevant aspects of the basic and applied sciences of natural pesticides and discussed modern trends in the use of natural products in pest management.
Methyl Bromide is a naturally occurring compound but also a man-made product, widely used as a fumigant in agriculture, horticulture and the preservation of structural materials. It is also believed to play a significant role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Since 1991, a fierce debate has raged on the relative merits of scientific, political, environmental and economic arguments for and against the use of this chemical. This book does not set out to convince the reader of a predetermined view point. Its purpose is to set out as much of the scientific debate as is possible to date and let the reader weigh up the available evidence. In this volume are covered the major relevant fields of science including agriculture, atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, environmental sciences, chemistry, biology and toxicology, as well as two chapters on potential alternatives to methyl bromide. The authors who have contributed to this book are international experts who have played pivotal roles in the international debate on methyl bromide.
Long-Long Misis Bilong Plaua (A. Millar).
History of Orchids in Europe, from Antiquity to the 17th Century (P. Jacquet).
Interactions Between Orchids and Ants (R. Peakall).
Resupination (R. Ernst & J. Arditti).
Physiology of Orchid Flowers (P. Avadhani, et al.).
Orchid Cut-Flower Production in ASEAN Countries (C. Hew).
Fly Pollination in the Orchidaceae (D. Christensen).
Reflects on insect pests' evolution by evaluating existing theories, documenting case studies of diverse pest species and presenting new concepts regarding the problem of variation and implications for pest management strategies. Leading experts offer contributions which deal with variations in genetic markers and ecologically meaningful traits as well as future perspectives in entomology and biosystematics.
This title presents Southern yeomanry's challenges to Progressivism. This first full-length study of the cattle tick eradication program in the United States offers a new perspective on the fate of the yeomanry in the twentieth-century South during a period when state and federal governments were both increasing and centralizing their authority. As Claire Strom relates the power struggles that complicated efforts to wipe out the Boophilus tick, she explains the motivations and concerns of each group involved, including large- and small-scale cattle farmers, scientists, and officials at all levels of government. In the remote rural South - such as the piney woods of south Georgia and north Florida - resistance to mandatory treatment of cattle was unusually strong and sometimes violent. Cattle often ranged free, and their owners raised them mostly for local use rather than faraway markets. Cattle farmers in such areas, shows Strom, perceived a double threat in tick eradication mandates. In addition to their added costs, eradication schemes, with their top-down imposition of government expertise, were anathema to the yeomanry's notions of liberty. Strom contextualizes her southern focus within the national scale of the cattle industry, discussing, for instance, the contentious place of cattle drives in American agricultural history. Because Mexico was the primary source of potential tick reinfestation, Strom examines the political and environmental history of the Rio Grande, giving the book a transnational perspective. Debates about the political and economic culture of small farmers have tended to focus on earlier periods in American history. Here Strom shows that pockets of yeoman culture survived into the twentieth century and that these communities had the power to block (if only temporarily) the expansion of the American state.
This book documents and illustrates major developments in the use of nematodes for the biological control of insects and slugs. It covers the use of three main types of nematodes: entomopathogenic nematodes, entomophilic nematodes and slug-parasitic nematodes. The biology, commercial production, formulation and quality control, application technology, strategy and safety of each of these three nematode groups is discussed. The book also examines the application of nematodes in different cropping systems, and the efficacy of nematodes against specific pests. The potential of predatory nematodes to control plant-parasitic nematodes and mycophagous nematodes to control fungal pathogens is also reviewed.
POSTHARVEST PATHOGENS AND DISEASE MANAGEMENT
Bananas arise as one of the most popular fruits consumed all around the world. Banana belongs to the genus Musa from the family Musaceae. It is original from tropical regions and presents a strong ability to protect itself from the oxidative stress caused by extreme climatic conditions such as intense sunshine and high temperature. For this protection, bananas increase the production of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which protect the fruit from the oxidative damage. This book provides current research on the cultivation, consumption and crop diseases of bananas. Chapter One addresses the biochemical characterisation of Musa spp. genotypes, with emphasis on bioactive secondary metabolites of interest to human nutrition. Chapter Two focuses on the composition of bananas, including macronutrients, micronutrients and bioactive compounds, as well as the effect of postharvest treatments and storage conditions in the quality of bananas. Chapter Three reviews sustainable management of banana waste through renewable energy and bio-fertiliser generation. Chapter Four reviews some of the recently reported valuable uses of banana pseudstem sap (BPS), for growth of sustainable agricultural process, food technology and value-added medicinal products, and in textiles for improving certain functional attributes. The final chapter examines banana as an important food allergen source.
Despite a history of several decades of pesticide regulation, continuous innovation, and considerable practical experience with using pesticides in agriculture, the environmental impact of pesticide use continues to be of serious concern.
Harold Maxwell-Lefroy, the founder of Rentokil, was a maverick and a man of enormous drive and energy. From an early age he was fascinated with the insect world, and his thorough understanding of species' life cycles and habits, in its practical application, was to change the face of agriculture in several parts of the world. He was among the first really to apply the scientific method to dealing with insect pests, and the agriculture of the Caribbean and India still owes him an enormous debt. His book Indian Insect Pests is still in print, an invaluable resource to Indian agriculturalists. In the Caribbean he saved the sugar crop which had been ravaged by pests, and was then sent to India as the official entomologist. Here his energy and drive led to an education programme for Indian farmers that for the first time showed them that the devastating consequences of insect pests were avoidable, along with the destruction of livelihoods that had always been an occupational hazard. He became the first Professor of Entomology at Imperial College and developed patented anti-pest chemical treatments that led him to create Rentokil towards the end of his life - trademark rules barred him from calling it Entokil, as he had wanted to. He went on to save the roof of Westminster Hall from the death-watch-beetle infestation that would certainly have led to its collapse. But he was also an inveterate risk-taker, who drove without regard for his own safety, and applied the same principles to his scientific practice. He died at the young age of 48, overcome by the poisonous gases he was developing - without the proper breathing equipment. Rentokil is his most tangible legacy, but it all began with one man's single-minded dedication to the application of science.
Whiteflies are one of the major insect pests of greenhouse production systems worldwide, feeding on a wide-range of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops. Whiteflies cause both direct damage by feeding on plant parts such as leaves as well as indirect damage by vectoring certain plant viral and bacterial diseases. In addition, since whiteflies feed within the phloem sieve tubes with their piercing-sucking mouthparts, they may excrete honeydew, a clear, sticky liquid that serves as a growing medium/food source for certain black sooty mould fungi. This book examines the biological control of whiteflies as well as aphids, which are serious pests of agricultural crops, particularly in cereal crops including winter wheat. Aphids induce stress to the wheat crop by damaging plant foliage, lowering the greenness of plants, and affecting productivity. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and prevent effectively wheat aphid for crop management. Additional chapters provide remote sensing data on aphid monitoring and prediction; and changes in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes in South Africa.
The objectives of this Code are to establish voluntary standards of conduct for all public and private entities engaged in or associated with the management of pesticides, particularly where there is inadequate or no national legislation to regulate pesticides.
This book presents a set of modern protocols forming a solid background for who want to start or improve research programme on phytoplasmas. Chapters guide readers through detailed techniques for maintaining phytoplasma collections, border inspection, detection of different phytoplasma strains, new pipelines to produce phytoplasma genome draft, protocols for phytoplasma gene expression analyses, and methods for the investigation of the phloem tissue. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Phytoplasmas: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
Fungicides are chemical agents that inhibit or eliminate mycelial growth or fungal spores. The chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of a fungicide determines its suitability for control of a determined disease. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the classification, role in disease management and toxicity effects of fungicides. Topics discussed in this compilation include plant-derived biofungicides; tricyclazole and azoxystrobin in rice blast management; fungicides and their role in disease management; classification of fungicides; and effective fungicides for cereal crops protection against toxicogenic fungi causing fusarium head blight.
Urban pest management has recently faced dramatic change: advances in research and formulation technology now shape the products available and how they are applied. Bringing together ideas from both academic and private enterprises, this book covers methods of pest control, their impacts on human health and the environment, and strategies for integrated management that limits the use of harmful chemicals, providing a practical resource for researchers and policymakers in pest management, urban health, medical entomology and environmental science.
Phylogeography involves knowledge of the spatial distribution of related individuals and historical information on the relationship within and among populations and species. The phylogeography of many groups has been studied over recent decades, and this field of knowledge is now becoming important in solving the problems of pest control in agriculture and forestry. This book examines how the nature of the genetic variation within and between pest populations is of paramount importance in the design of pest control programmes and their success.
For centuries, man and mole have taken from the soil in their bid to survive. This has resulted in bitter conflict between these adversaries and one that continues today. Whatever the season, whatever the weather, wherever the mole! Mole catchers have worked to remove moles. Journey through history with the mole catchers of old as you learn of their lives, their work, and their struggle to survive with the pressure of change. Learn of the demands and needs inflicted upon the mole and how it adapts to survive, discover how it exploits the efforts of man, and how they deal with his plight to rid the land of them. Follow Jeff Nicholls through a typical year in the life of a mole catcher and explore the secrets of success to be mole free. Understand the relationship between man and mole both in alliance and conflict, and unearth your passion towards the little man in black. Jeff Nicholls has previously written books on mole catching but this is his most personal composition, providing the knowledge to compete on a level playing field and fully understand the rules of engagement. It will be a mole catcher's handbook for many years to come containing everything you ever need to know.
This book describes a dynamic bioeconomic simulation model that represents the biological, economic, and regulatory features of a specific invasion management problem-the invasion of California strawberries by the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and the pesticide use restrictions imposed by California regulators to manage pesticide resistance. In agriculture, invasive species represent a unique challenge for public policymakers and economists analysing optimal pest control policies. To accurately evaluate policies involving invasive species, economic models must describe the inter-temporal features of producer responses to invader biology, seasonal changes in demand, and the policies themselves. Responses to externalities from pest control, such as pesticide resistance or pest movement, complicate finding the optimal policy and must be accounted for. The model described at length in this book has three components: the population dynamics of the greenhouse whitefly, a population-yield damage function, and grower profit maximisation. This book consists of public domain documents which have been located, gathered, combined, reformatted, and enhanced with a subject index, selectively edited and bound to provide easy access.
Citrus greening, a disease that reduces yield, compromises the flavor, color, and size of citrus fruit and eventually kills the citrus tree, is now present in all 34 Floridian citrus-producing counties. Caused by an insect-spread bacterial infection, the disease reduced citrus production in 2008 by several percent and continues to spread, threatening the existence of Florida's $9.3 billion citrus industry. A successful citrus greening response will focus on earlier detection of diseased trees, so that these sources of new infections can be removed more quickly, and on new methods to control the insects that carry the bacteria. In the longerterm, technologies such as genomics could be used to develop new citrus strains that are resistant to both the bacteria and the insect.
Greater use of biological control utilizing natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanisms, is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical pesticides, which are becoming less readily available due to increasing resistance problems and the prohibition of some substances. This book addresses the challenges of insufficient information and imperfectly understood regulatory processes involved in biological alternatives through an interdisciplinary approach providing an internationally comparative analysis on the registration of biopesticides and the best way forward. An essential read for researchers, students and professionals in political and biological sciences.
Citrus pests are a serious issue for crop growers, causing problems in yield and economic losses. "Citrus Mites" is a comprehensive study of mites harmful to citrus plants from all citrus growing regions around the world. Providing a useful resource for identifying citrus crop pests, the text will also address methods of removal from plants, describe symptoms of damage caused by pests and discuss methods of eradication and control, making it essential for horticulturalists, pomologists and acarologists as well as practitioners, researchers and students of crop protection and pest management.
With increasing concern about the environmental impact of synthetic pesticide use, including their impact on beneficial insects, the problem of insect resistance and the lack of new products, there has been an increasing interest in developing alternative biopesticides to control insects and other pests. This collection reviews the wealth of research on identifying, developing, assessing and improving the growing range of biopesticides. Part 1 of this collection reviews research on developing new biopesticides in such areas as screening new compounds, ways of assessing effectiveness in the field and improving regulatory approval processes. Part 2 summarises advances in different types of entomopathogenic biopesticide including entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes and the use of Bt genes in insect-resistant crops. Part 3 assesses the use of semiochemicals such as pheromones and allelochemicals, peptide-based and other natural substance-based biopesticides.
The fifth and last volume in the 'Distortions to Agricultural Incentives' series focus on distortions to agricultural incentives from a global perspective. During the 1960s and 1970s most developing countries imposed anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Since the 1980s, however, many developing countries began to reverse that policy trend. This book brings together the first-ever comprehensive and consistent set of estimates of the changing extent of those distortions over the past half-century. Those estimates show when each country s reforms began, how rapidly and completely they have progressed, how much of the improved incentives for farmers is due to reform of agricultural as compared with non-agricultural policies, which have overshot to become agricultural protectionists like many high-income countries, and to what extent an anti-trade bias remains. Also provided are analytical narratives of the evolution of farm versus non-farm policies in each of dozens of countries, covering in aggregate around 90 percent of agricultural output and 95 percent of the world economy. Such a comprehensive coverage exposes also the different degrees to which the key agricultural product markets have been and still are distorted. The book concludes with new estimates of the effects of reforms since the early 1980s and of current policies agricultural vs industrial on such things as global goods markets, national economic welfare, and net farm incomes in all the major developing and high-income countries."
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