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A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. A pesticide may be a chemical substance, biological agent (such as a virus or bacteria), antimicrobial, disinfectant or device used against any pest. Pests include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms) and microbes that compete with humans for food, destroy property, spread or are a vector for disease or cause a nuisance. Many pesticides are poisonous to humans. This book presents the latest research in the field.
Many farmers in sub-Saharan Africa suffer heavily from crop losses due to stem borer pests. Insecticides are often unaffordable; therefore, maize plants must be made resistant to pests. The 'Insect Resistant Maize for Africa' (IRMA) project in Kenya was aimed at developing new maize varieties both by conventional methods and by biotechnologically incorporating the ?-endotoxin produced by the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. The author gives an impartial and chronological account of this exemplary project between 1999 and 2008, supplemented by discussions of agricultural development policy and descriptions of Kenyan smallholders and the project team. Taking critical and rational positions on the use of modern plant breeding techniques, biotechnology and development policy, this book is of interest to researchers and students, development agencies, NGOs and biotechnology companies.
This volume focuses on integrated pest and disease management (IPM/IDM) and biocontrol of some key diseases of perennial and annual crops. It continues a series originated during a visit of prof. K. G. Mukerji to the CNR Plant Protection Institute in Bari (Italy), in November 2005. Both editors aim at a series of five volumes embracing, in a multi-disciplinary approach, advances and achievements in the practice of crop protection, for a wide range of plant parasites and pathogens. Two volumes of the series were already produced, dedicated to general concepts in IPM and to management and biocontrol of nematodes of grain crops and vegetables. This Volume deals, in particular, with diseases due to bacteria, phytoplasma and fungi. Every day, in any agroecosystem, farmers face problems related to plant diseases. Since the beginning of agriculture, indeed, and probably for a long time in the future, farmers will continue to do so. Every year, plant diseases cause severe losses in the global production of food and other agricultural commodities, worldwide. Plant diseases are not limited to episodic events occurring in single farms or crops, and should not be regarded as single independent cases, affecting only farms on a local scale. The impact of plant disease epidemics on food shortage ignited, in the last two centuries, deep cultural, social and demographic changes, affecting million human beings, through i. e. migration, death and hunger.
Pesticide resistance has had a substantial impact on crop production and has been an important driver of change in modern agriculture, animal production and human health. Focusing specifically on arthropods, this book provides a comprehensive review of relevant issues in pesticide resistance. Detailed listings and references to all documented reports of resistance from around the world are included.
Pest management has long been a problem for farmers worldwide and new techniques are continually being developed to reduce the adverse effects of pest populations. The use of areawide pest management has increased dramatically over the past decade and offers potential advantages to traditional and more localized approaches. Suppression over a broad area can reduce re-infestation of previously treated areas and the specific pest management techniques may be more effective when applied over larger areas. Providing the first comprehensive discussion of areawide pest management, this book will explore the theoretical development and implementation of techniques from a worldwide perspective. Areas covered include history and development, biological and ecological impacts and recent case studies of pest management programs.
A significant amount of the world's economy is based upon the international trade of agricultural produce. For the producing countries, a growing concern is the potential economic and ecological damage that invasive species could cause. While threats can be decreased through the regulation of items potentially carrying invasive species, the effect of such restrictions on international trade also needs to be considered. A balance must therefore be met that permits the transfer of produce while filtering out unwanted pests. Drawing on the author's extensive experience, the social and financial implications of phytosanitary trade barriers are reviewed. This book offers valuable and comprehensive coverage of pest related barriers and strategies for their implementation.
Following several decades of popularity after the Second World War, the use of synthetic herbicides is now experiencing a backlash within the agriculture industry. The increase in organic farming and concerns about potential negative effects on human health and the environment is creating a demand for pesticide-free food and alternative weed management techniques. International research has now explored the potential, limitations and impacts of non-chemical alternatives and the effect of different strategies on the entire agro- or natural ecosystem. Through the re-evaluation of techniques previously considered uneconomical or impractical, this text provides a comprehensive examination of non-chemical weed management.
The impacts of increasing climatic variability and change are global concerns but in Bangladesh, where large numbers of people are chronically exposed and vulnerable to a range of natural hazards, they are particularly critical. This resource book, Climate variability and change: adaptation to drought in Bangladesh, has been tested and prepared as a reference and guide for further training and capacity building of agricultural extension workers and development professionals to deal with climate change impacts and adaptation, using the example of drought-prone areas of Bangladesh. It also presents suggestions for a three-day training course that would be readily adaptable for any areas of Bangladesh affected by climate-related risks. The information presented on climate change adaptation would enable participants to prepare, demonstrate and implement location-specific adaptation practices and, thus, to improve the adaptive capacity of rural livelihoods to climate change in agriculture and allied sectors.
By providing multiple economic goods and ecosystem services, Latin American forests play a key role in the environmental, social and economic welfare of the region's countries. From the tropical forests of Central America to the Mediterranean and temperate vegetation of the southern cone, these forests face a myriad of phytosanitary problems that negatively impact on both conservation efforts and forest industry. This book brings together the perspectives of several Latin American researchers on pest and disease management. Each chapter provides modern views of the status and management alternatives to problems as serious as the impact of introduced exotic insects and diseases on Pinus and Eucalyptus plantations throughout the continent, and the emergence of novel insect outbreaks in tropical and temperate native forests associated with global warming. It is a valuable guide for researchers and practitioners working on forest health in Latin America and around the world.
Biological control, the management of pests by the use of living
organisms, has a long history of application to agriculture around
the world. However, the effective use of beneficial organisms is
constrained by environmental, legal, and economic restrictions,
forcing researchers to adopt increasingly multi-disciplinary
techniques in order to deploy successful biological control
programs. It is this complex process, including the mindset and the
social environment of the researcher as well as the science being
pursued, that this book seeks to capture. Chapters reveal the
personal experiences of scientists from the initial search for
suitable control agents, to their release into ecosystems and
finally to the beneficial outcomes which demonstrate the great
success of biological control across diverse agro-ecosystems.
The annual Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues was held in Rome, Italy, from 3 to 12 October 2006. The FAO Panel of Experts had met in Preparatory Sessions from 28 September to 2 October. The meeting was held in pursuance of recommendations made by previous meetings and accepted by the governing bodies of FAO and WHO that studies should be undertaken jointly by experts to evaluate possible hazards to humans arising from the occurrence of pesticide residues in foods. During the meeting, the FAO Panel of Experts was responsible for reviewing pesticide use patterns (good agricultural practices), data on the chemistry and composition of the pesticides and methods of analysis for pesticide residues and for estimating the maximum residue levels that might occur as a result of the use of the pesticides according to good agricultural practices. The WHO Core Assessment Group was responsible for reviewing toxicological and related data and for estimating, where possible, acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the pesticides for humans. This report in two volumes contains information on ADIs, maximum residue levels and general principles for the evaluation of pesticides. The recommendations of the joint meeting, including further research and information, are proposed for use by Member Governments of the respective agencies and other interested parties. Vol 2 is Pesticides Residues in Food No. 189/2, ISBN 978-92-5-105723-0]
Due to the nature of agricultural commodities as carriers of exotic pests, importing countries have employed varying methods of pest control for postharvest products. Thermal treatments are emerging as effective, environmentally-friendly alternatives to traditional methods, eliminating chemical residues and minimizing damage to produce. This book provides comprehensive information of these increasingly important treatments, covering temperature measurement, heat transfer, physiological responses of plants, insects and pathogens to heat, and an introduction to current and potential quarantine treatments based on hot air, hot water, and radio frequency energy.
This book provides an invaluable review of the current methodologies used for assessing the environmental impacts of invertebrate biological agents used to control pests in agriculture and forestry. It explores methods to evaluate post-release effects and the environmental impact of dispersal, displacement and establishment of invertebrate biological control agents. It covers methodology on screening for contaminants, the use of molecular methods for species identification and the determination of interbreeding. The book also discusses the use and application of information on zoogeographical zones, statistical methods and risk-benefit analysis. It gives practical advice on how to perform science-based risk assessments and on how to use new technology and information.
Many international forums have identified the need for comprehensive, scientific methods for the pre-release testing and post-release monitoring of transgenic plants to ensure their environmental safety and sustainable use. In response to this requirement, a GMO Guidelines Project was established under the aegis of the International Organization for Biological Control, to develop biosafety testing guidelines for transgenic plants. This second volume focuses on transgenic cotton in Brazil and addresses both environmental and agricultural impacts. It draws out some general risk assessment guidelines and demonstrates the need for case-by-case analysis.
This practical guide covers the commonly used detection methods for seed-transmitted viruses and viroids that affect both tropical and temperate crops. It contains 25 complete step-by-step procedures for biological, serological and molecular techniques to detect and identify such viruses. Combining helpful practical notes with more detailed explanations of the principles behind the techniques, the book describes the general characteristics of seed-transmitted viral diseases and discusses outlines for the organization and interpretation of seed health assays. The techniques reviewed are also applicable to non-seed-transmitted viral agents.
Heliothis and Helicoverpa are the most important constraints to increasing the production and productivity of crops worldwide. They cause an estimated loss of US$5 billion, despite application of pesticides costing over US$1 billion annually. Therefore, there is a need to have a critical look at the available information to develop ecologically sound and economically feasible approaches for minimizing the losses due to these pests. This book covers various aspects of information on bio-ecology, temporal and spatial distribution, key mortality factors, population dynamics and early warning system, host plant resistance, mechanism and inheritance of resistance, introgression of resistance genes from closely related wild relatives of crops, transgenics, molecular marker-assisted selection, bio-control agents including natural enemies and bio-pesticides, natural plant products, chemical control and insecticide resistance management, and integrated management of Heliothis / Helicoverpa. An attempt has been made to pinpoint the gaps in our knowledge of Heliothis and Helicoverpa management and identify the areas for future research thrusts. infestations, it is imperative that we follow an integrated approach. This integration will involve agronomic and cultural management, host plant resistance, transgenics, biological control and judicious use of chemical pesticides. Many potential elements of Heliothis and Helicoverpa management described in this book will form the basis for minimizing the crop losses due to these pests, reduce pesticide application, thus resulting in sustainable crop production in future. This book will serve as a useful source of information for researchers, extension workers, research planners and administrators.
Western Corn Rootworm, "Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte," has been a major economic pest of maize in the Americas for many years. However, since the early 1990s, it has become an increasing threat to crops in Europe and is expected to spread to all maize growing areas of the continent. This book provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge of the biology and ecology of this insect pest and how it might be managed in order to limit its damage as it spreads into new agroecological areas. Cultural, biotechnical and biological control measures are addressed, as are ecological baseline data such as population dynamics, economic thresholds and aspects of its behavior. The book also examines the potential of plant protection techniques currently used in North America to be applied in Europe.
This book provides the first coherent examination of the vast literature on the diversity of organisms that constitute the natural enemies of terrestrial molluscs. In a series of review chapters, it provides an authoritative synthesis of current research on predators, parasites and pathogens and how they might be used to control mollusc pests.
This book has been developed from the keynote addresses delivered at the third IOBC International Symposium (co-organized with CILBA) that was held in Montpellier in October 2002, to address recent developments in genetics and evolutionary biology as applied to biological control. Chapters are organized around the following themes: Genetic structure of pest and natural enemy populations, Molecular diagnostic tools in biological control, Tracing the origin of pests and natural enemies, Predicting evolutionary change in pests and natural enemies Compatibility of transgenic crops and natural enemie, Genetic manipulation of natural enemies. The authors identify new issues for each of the major approaches in applied biological control. These include the (1) use of molecular genetics to trace the origin of target pests in classical biological control, (2) potential of mass-reared, transgenic agents in augmentative biological control, and (3) compatibility of transgenic crops and natural enemies in conservational biological control.
The use of biological control agents has been increasing worldwide and there are now many companies mass-producing such organisms, particularly for the control of insect pests. However, there is a great need for quality control in the production and use of these natural enemies, which include insect parasitoids and predators, fungi and viruses. This book has been written by leading scientists from Europe and North America to provide both background theory and practical guidance on this subject.
This book is a unique review of weed science. The sample material reflects the exciting developments in weed research coming out of Scandinavian and other parts of the world research that is of international interest and relevance. The book discusses factors that effect weed occurrence in different crops and cropping systems and the response of these weeds to specified management measures. Weeds of different traits are discussed and their response to varying growing methods and weed control measures are examined in detail.One of the book 's key strengths is its focus on the fundamental principles of weed development and the interaction between weed and crop. The discussion of these important topics are thoroughly covered and supported by experimental data from the author 's own work and the published work of many other scientists. This book, with its fundamental focus on principles, will be valid for scientists and students for many years to come.
"Insects are the most species-rich and important organisms on earth, and that's why there are many university courses dedicated to the topic of Insects and Society. But, surprisingly, this is the first textbook specifically created for those courses. The content in this textbook is not only ideal for introductory courses, but it also is great for K12 instructors, insatiably curious children, and indeed anyone fascinated by insects and their impact on people." - Robert K. D. Peterson, Ph.D., Professor of Entomology, Montana State University and Past President, Entomological Society of America "Society is undervaluing the role of insects as pivotal drivers of ecosystem functioning and services. Addressing this deficit is a major merit of this book." - Teja Tscharntke, Professor and Head of the Agroecology Research Group at the University of Goettingen, Germany Insects are all around us, outweighing humanity by 17 times. Many are nuisances; they compete with us for food and carry some of our most devastating diseases. Many common pests have been transported worldwide by humans. Yet, some recent reports suggest dramatic declines in some important groups, such as pollinators and detritivores. Should we care? Yes, we should. Without insect pollinators we'd lose 35% of our global food production; without detritivores, we would be buried in un-decayed refuse. Insects are also critical sources for nutritional, medical and industrial products. A world without insects would seem a very different and unpleasant place. So why do insects inspire such fear and loathing? This concise, full-color text challenges many entrenched perceptions about insect effects on our lives. Beginning with a summary of insect biology and ecology that affect their interactions with other organisms, it goes on to describe the various positive and negative ways in which insects and humans interact. The final chapters describe factors that affect insect abundance and approaches to managing insects that balance their impacts. The first textbook to cater directly to those studying Insect and Society or Insect Ecology modules, this book will also be fascinating reading for anyone interested in learning how insects affect human affairs and in applying more sustainable approaches to "managing" insects. This includes K-12 teachers, undergraduate students, amateur entomologists, conservation practitioners, environmentalists, as well as natural resource managers, land use planners and environmental policy makers.
Nematodes that are parasites of insects are no longer a laboratory curiosity. They have begun to be accepted as environmentally benign alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides, for the control of insect pests. Nematode worms are now applied as biological control agents against insect pests of numerous horticultural and agricultural crops.This book provides a comprehensive review of entomopathogenic nematology. It begins by reviewing fundamental biology and setting a taxonomic foundation for nematodes and their bacterial symbionts. Several chapters are devoted to functional processes involved in parasitism and to nematode ecology. Later chapters describe technological advances and control methodologies.
Mollusc species currently constitute a major threat to sustainable agriculture. This threat is associated with cultivation of new crops, intensification of agricultural production systems and the spread through human trade and travel of species adapted to these modified environments. In some crops, their significance is only now becoming apparent with the decline in the importance of other pest groups which can be effectively controlled. The book focuses on: toxicology of chemicals, deployment of molluscicides in baits, specific crop situations worldwide, current pest status of mollusc species and progress towards development of solutions.
Diseases caused by Ganoderma species cause major losses of palms and other perennial crops throughout the world, and these are particularly significant in Asia. Successive replanting of crop monocultures can be rapidly exploited by soil-borne fungi such as Ganoderma, and the problem will become more serious in the 21st century, as more areas become due for second or even third replanting. Environmental considerations will reduce exploitation of new forest areas, making further replanting of these crops inevitable. Thus, appropriate, integrated management systems for these diseases are vital. However, the development of such control measures has been hampered in the past by a limited knowledge of the nature and inter-relationships of populations of different hosts and the mechanisms of disease establishment and spread.This book aims to address these limitations through enhanced knowledge of the biology and taxonomy of Ganoderma species. The use of molecular and biochemical methods can be used to provide a greater understanding of the spread of the pathogen, and consequently, the improved management of disease.
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