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"Integrated Pest Management: Current Concepts and Ecological Perspective" presents an overview of alternative measures to traditional pest management practices using biological control and biotechnology. The removal of some highly effective broad-spectrum chemicals, caused by concerns over environmental health and public safety, has resulted in the development of alternative, reduced risk crop protection products. These products, less toxic to the environment and easily integrated into biological control systems, target specific life stages or pest species. Predation - recognized as a suitable, long-term strategy - effectively suppresses pests in biotechnological control systems.
"Integrated Pest Management" covers these topics and more. It
explores the current ecological approaches in alternative
solutions, such as biological control agents, parasites and
predators, pathogenic microorganisms, pheromones and natural
products as well as ecological approaches for managing invasive
pests, rats, suppression of weeds, safety of pollinators, role of
taxonomy and remote sensing in IPM and future projections of IPM.
This book is a useful resource to entomologists, agronomists,
horticulturists, and environmental scientists.
Nano-Biopesticides Today and Future Perspectives is the first single-volume resource to examine the practical development, implementation and implications of combining the environmentally aware use of biopesticides with the potential power of nanotechnology. While biopesticides have been utilized for years, researchers have only recently begun exploring delivery methods that utilize nanotechnology to increase efficacy while limiting the negative impacts traditionally seen through the use of pest control means. Written by a panel of global experts, the book provides a foundation on nano-biopesticide development paths, plant health and nutrition, formulation and means of delivery. Researchers in academic and commercial settings will value this foundational reference of insights within the biopesticide realm.
An examination of political conflicts over pesticide drift and the differing conceptions of justice held by industry, regulators, and activists. The widespread but virtually invisible problem of pesticide drift-the airborne movement of agricultural pesticides into residential areas-has fueled grassroots activism from Maine to Hawaii. Pesticide drift accidents have terrified and sickened many living in the country's most marginalized and vulnerable communities. In this book, Jill Lindsey Harrison considers political conflicts over pesticide drift in California, using them to illuminate the broader problem and its potential solutions. The fact that pesticide pollution and illnesses associated with it disproportionately affect the poor and the powerless raises questions of environmental justice (and political injustice). Despite California's impressive record of environmental protection, massive pesticide regulatory apparatus, and booming organic farming industry, pesticide-related accidents and illnesses continue unabated. To unpack this conundrum, Harrison examines the conceptions of justice that increasingly shape environmental politics and finds that California's agricultural industry, regulators, and pesticide drift activists hold different, and conflicting, notions of what justice looks like. Drawing on her own extensive ethnographic research as well as in-depth interviews with regulators, activists, scientists, and public health practitioners, Harrison examines the ways industry, regulatory agencies, and different kinds of activists address pesticide drift, connecting their efforts to communitarian and libertarian conceptions of justice. The approach taken by pesticide drift activists, she finds, not only critiques theories of justice undergirding mainstream sustainable-agriculture activism, but also offers an entirely new notion of what justice means. To solve seemingly intractable environmental problems such as pesticide drift, Harrison argues, we need a different kind of environmental justice. She proposes the precautionary principle as a framework for effectively and justly addressing environmental inequities in the everyday work of environmental regulatory institutions.
This book gathers information concerning the problems caused by social insects. Control techniques are thoroughly discussed, as well as the beneficial aspects of social insects. By focusing specifically on termites, wasps, yellowjackets and various types of ants, the book provides essential information on the biology, physiology and ecology of all social insects. The volume also includes chapters assessing the economic effects of the destructive actions of social insects.
Widespread use of broad-spectrum chemical pesticides has revolutionized pest management. But there is growing concern about environmental contamination and human health risks--and continuing frustration over the ability of pests to develop resistance to pesticides. In Ecologically Based Pest Management, an expert committee advocates the sweeping adoption of ecologically based pest management (EBPM) that promotes both agricultural productivity and a balanced ecosystem. This volume offers a vision and strategies for creating a solid, comprehensive knowledge base to support a pest management system that incorporates ecosystem processes supplemented by a continuum of inputs--biological organisms, products, cultivars, and cultural controls. The result will be safe, profitable, and durable pest management strategies. The book evaluates the feasibility of EBPM and examines how best to move beyond optimal examples into the mainstream of agriculture. The committee stresses the need for information, identifies research priorities in the biological as well as socioeconomic realm, and suggests institutional structures for a multidisciplinary research effort. Ecologically Based Pest Management addresses risk assessment, risk management, and public oversight of EBPM. The volume also overviews the history of pest management--from the use of sulfur compounds in 1000 B.C. to the emergence of transgenic technology. Ecologically Based Pest Management will be vitally important to the agrichemical industry; policymakers, regulators, and scientists in agriculture and forestry; biologists, researchers, and environmental advocates; and interested growers.
Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm
productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially
dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems.
Farmers praise them, European consumers fear them, and Americans are growing uneasy about them -- transgenic crops have emerged as a contentious issue at the crossroads of health, agriculture, environment, and international trade.
This timely book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urgency of establishing an appropriate regulatory framework for these products, and the importance of public understanding of the issues.
The committee critically reviews federal policies toward transgenic products, the 1986 coordinated framework among the key federal agencies in the field, and rules proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency for regulation of plant pesticides.
Case studies explore the commercial production and oversight of transgenic crops, including "Bt" crops, the most widely used transgenic pest-protected plants.
Clearing up misconceptions and offering clear guidance, this book will be immediately important to anyone concerned about the transgenic issue.
The glassy-winged sharpshooter is one of the more recent invasive pests to afflict California agriculture. The insect transmits a bacterial pathogen that causes Pierce's disease, which has impaired production of wine, table, and raisin grapes in California. The report recommends strengthening the process and the priorities for research funded by state agencies and wine industry groups to address Pierce's disease and its vector. Research should be focused on identifying feasible options for controlling the spread of the disease and providing sustainable approaches that are adaptable and affordable over the long term. Several avenues of research be pursued more intensely including the genetic makeup of the pathogen that triggers Pierce's disease, understanding the mechanisms that make grapes resistant to the disease, the possibilities of introducing predator enemies to the sharpshooter, and new ways to manage the planting of crops to help avoid spread of the disease.
Their natural enemies largely determine the population size and dynamic behavior of many plant-eating insects. Any reduction in enemy number can result in an insect outbreak. Applied biological control is thus one strategy for restoring functional biodiversity in many agroecosystems. Predators and Parasitoids addresses the role of natural enemies in pest control as an integrated pest management concept. It examines how Trichogramma, the extensively studied natural enemy of insect pests, has been used as a pest management tool, and it describes important aspects such as the inducible defense mechanisms of plants and the effects that plant diversity can have on herbivores and natural enemies. Specific chapters address recent advances in biological control: the effects of multiparasitism on parasitization; synergism between insect pathogens and entomophagous insects; and the use of exotic insects for weed control. With contributions from leading worldwide experts, Predators and Parasitoids is ideal for graduate students, research scientists and professionals in biological pest control, agriculture, entomology and ecology.
As the sustainable agriculture movement has grown, there has been a dramatic increase in the production of horticultural crops in greenhouses worldwide. Although there are numerous publications associated with pest management in greenhouses, Greenhouse Pest Management is the first comprehensive book on managing greenhouse arthropod pests, particularly in commercial production systems. The book contains the necessary information on major insects and mites, describing their biology and life cycle. Color images are included to help with identification and also to illustrate the damage these insects and mites can cause to greenhouse-grown horticultural crops. The book also assesses strategies for managing greenhouse pests, such as cultural, physical, and biological control as well as the use of pesticides, and describes how cultural practices and sanitation affect pest population dynamics. Richly illustrated and presenting material in a concise and focused format, Greenhouse Pest Management is a vital book for professional growers and pest managers, researchers, crop consultants and advisors, hobbyists, students, and government agricultural extension agents. It provides a thorough source of textual and visual information for handling pests in greenhouses.
This handbook provides a systematic description of the principles, procedures, and technology of the modern analytical techniques used in the detection, extraction, clean up, and determination of pesticide residues present in the environment. This book provides the historical background of pesticides and emerging trends in pesticide regulation. The text discusses various techniques for analysis, including supercritical fluid extraction, disposable electrochemical biosensors, matrix solid-phase dispersion, volatmetric methods, and liquid chromatography. The authors also address the scope and limitation of NEEM products in plant protection as well as the analysis of medicinal plants.
Worldwide, there are a vast array of agricultural pesticides and chemicals used to eliminate pests and to protect health, food, and fiber. The safe handling, usage, and disposal of these chemicals and pesticides is of vital importance. The Agrochemical and Pesticides Safety Handbook serves as a field resource on the hazards of these pesticides and chemicals. Providing information on more than 500 pesticides and 100 agricultural chemicals, this informative handbook guides the reader in selecting proper respiratory protection, chemical protective clothing, and storage methods. The text also instructs users on proper response procedures for fires, spills, and other incidents involving these chemicals.
This work offers a comprehensive presentation of the identification, biology, ecology and sampling of insect pests in stored foods, and provides a balanced ciew of the biological, physical and chemical control methods used in pest management. It furnishes step-by-step procedures for creating individually tailored integrated pest management programmes. Every available method of control is covered.
The Global Politics of Pesticides explores the varied, and often conflicting, interests involved in the formulation of international policies on chemical pesticide manufacture and use in each of the main areas of environmental pollution, trade, development, public health, food security, biotechnology and industrial safety and explains why some aspects of pesticide use are subject to strict international guidelines whilst others are not. The book breaks new ground in objectively examining the competing viewpoints of food producers and other pesticide users, the chemical industry, health officials, traders, environmental/consumer pressure groups and the public. It also considers how international regulation can occur in spite of the fundamental differences of opinion and seemingly opposing interests held by the key actors.
Now in its tenth edition, this famous compilation of synonyms for drugs, pesticides and other substances of pharmacological or biochemical interest has become even more international and comprehensive in its scope. Electronic storage of the data has ensured that the book is fully up to date, while the highest degree of cross referencing between entries is guaranteed. The types of names presented are: chemical names, abbreviated chemical names, source names, pharmacological names, pesticide names, names derived from places, plants or persons, research code numbers, and proprietary names (trademarks).
For people working in the fields of biochemistry, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, and toxicology, as well as for medical editors and drug regulatory officers, this work will prove to be an indispensable source of information.
This is a handbook on the subject of crop pests. Including 288 colour photographs, the book contains information which has been edited and updated from the series of advisory leaflets issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) which have been a widely acknowledged source of valuable information for many years. Much of the information, which has been revised by entomologists of the Agricultural Development Advisory Service (ADAS), should be of interest in other countries of Northern Europe and throughout temperate regions of the world. The book contains descriptions of the pests, their life histories, the damage they cause, their natural enemies and the strategies for control. The demand for the continued availability of the wealth of knowledge and practical experience originally incorporated into the MAFF leaflets has prompted the publication of this book. This publication should be a useful handbook for all those involved with applied entomology and crop protection, particularly agricultural and horticultural students, crop consultants and advisers, those working in the agrochemical industry and proficient farmers, growers and entomologists.
This important book provides a practical guide to the principles and practice of developing an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. Integrated Pest Management answers the question `how do you devise, develop and implement a practical IPM system which will fully meet the real needs of farmers?'. The term `pest' in this book is used in its broadest sense and includes insects, pathogens, weeds, nematodes, etc. The book commences by outlining the basic principles which underlie pest control (crop husbandry, socio-economics, population ecology and population genetics) and reviews the control mesures available and their use in IPM systems. Subsequent chapters cover the techniques and approaches used in defining a pest problem, programme planning and management, systems analysis, experimental paradigms and implementation of IPM systems. The final seciton of the book contains four chapters giving examples of IPM in different cropping systems, contributed by invited specialists and outlining four different perspectives. Integrated Pest Management will be of great use to agricultural and plant scientists, entomologists, aracologists and nematologists and all those studying crop protection, particularly at MSc level and above. It will be particularly useful for, and should find a place on the shelves of all personnel within the agrochemical industry, universities and research establishments working in this subject area and as a reference in libraries for students and professionals alike.
More than 32 years ago, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring appeared upon the scene as a landmark of literary achievement which contributed greatly to the foundation of the modern environmental movement. Rachel Carson had designed Silent Spring to shock the public into action against the misuse of chemical pesticides. More than anything else, the book also served as an ecological primer, demonstrating the interrelationship of all things and the dependence of each on a healthy environment for survival. Today, Silent Spring is generally credited with providing impetus to the whole range of anti-pollution laws that came into force in the 1970s. It is also perceived as having played a crucial role in the eventual banning of DDT as well as in the restricted use or total phasing out of the most notorious hard pesticides identified in the book. The vigorous growth of the chemical industry geared to the production of newer and ever more powerful pesticides can be traced to the introduc tion of the organochlorine insecticide DDT in the 1940s. These pesticides were meant not only to control insects but also animal pests, disease and weeds. Initially their development was based on the belief that they would provide a definitive solution to pest and vector problems."
The chapters in this book were developed from some of the lectures presented at a sym posium at the XX International Congress of Entomology held in Florence, Italy in August 1996. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the impact of evolving modern agricultural landscapes on the insect species, of both economic and ecological importance, that utilize that habitat. Agricultural policy, to some extent, influences the choices that farmers make and thereby the shape of the agricultural landscape. In order to move toward more sustainable agro ecosystems future policy makers will have to consider the history of land use, consumer demands for both environmentally sound and affordable products, and the conservation of biological diversity. I would hope the information contained in this book will help stimulate discussion about the consequences of policy decisions on our agricultural landscapes and their insect inhabitants. I thank all the speakers from the symposium and in particular those that have been able to contribute chapters to this book. There have been many delays, most due to circumstances beyond anyone's control. I would like to express my appreciation to Gloria Verhey and Patrick Dumont for taking care of the book in these final months. CHAPTER I INTERCHANGES OF INSECTS BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL AND SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES BARBARA EKBOM Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden 1."
Want to get rid of pesky bugs and rodents in and around your home and garden without using dangerous chemical pesticides? "Bug Busters "provides dozens of environmentally
safe, easy methods for keeping your home free of pests. Written
in easy-to-understand language, this book combines traditional
time-proven pest controls with the latest research. Also included
are new and innovative techniques for eradicating vermin. And for
those times when a chemical pesticide or exterminator may be your
only recourse, as with termite infestation, "Bug Busters "tells you
how to find a competent professional and how to properly handle and
dispose of chemical pesticides.
At a time when literally thousands of adults and children are treated yearly for pesticide mishaps, "Bug Busters "provides important information for anyone who is concerned with safe and intelligent pest control. "
Arthropod pests cause huge annual losses in global crop production and transmit a number of infectious diseases. The control of such pests is therefore of the utmost importance. This text provides an up-to-date, detailed overview of current approaches including chemical pest control, the use of biological and biorational control agents, and the latest developments in biotechnology. While an introductory text for students in the fields of pest control, entomology, crop protection, and agricultural and environmental sciences, the volume is also aimed at professional pest control practitioners and government employees in extension services.
Pesticides and other agricultural chemicals are in use in virtually every country in the world. It is therefore useful and important to those involved with these chemicals to have a collection of data concerning the substances most commonly used for agricultural purposes.
This Handbook includes data on over 1,800 substances, including a number of mixtures, which are important in agriculture. Almost all records describing pure chemicals carry the appropriate CAS Registry Number and the associated EINECS Number. All chemicals in this edition which also appear in the twelfth edition of the "Merck Index" have the Merck Index Number provided. Wherever possible, the following information is also provided for each entry: definitions, classifications, chemical composition, functions, applications, suppliers, melting point, boiling point, density or specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, ultraviolet absorption, solubility, and acute toxicity.
Organized by functional category, this compilation provides important chemical and toxicity data for the 1800 substances registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency and used largely in the agricultural environment. The chemical, physical and bioactivity properties of each agent are recorded along with a comprehensive listing of product trade names and synonyms as well as manufacturers. The EPA status of each agent is given and each record carries the appropriate CAS Registry Number and the associated EINECS Number where available. The Merck Index number is provided for all chemicals in this edition which also appear in the 13th edition of the Merck Index. Wherever possible, the following information is also displayed for each entry: melting point, boiling point, density or specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, ultraviolet absorption, and solubility as well as chronic and acute toxicities.
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) for Pesticide
Regulatory Purposes stems from the experience of the EC funded
project DEMETRA. This project combined institutes involved in the
regulatory process of pesticides, industries of the sector and
scientists to develop and offer original software for the
prediction of ecotoxicity of pesticides. Then to be used within the
dossier preparation for pesticide registration. The basis of this
book is more than three-years of research activities, discussions,
studies and successful models. This experience represents a useful
example not only for the case of pesticides, but also for the
prediction of ecotoxicity and toxicity in general.
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