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The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control method that fits into area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. This book describes the principles and practice of SIT, frankly evaluating its strengths and weaknesses, successes and failures. SIT is useful against pests that have considerable impact on plant, animal and human health, and criteria are provided to guide in the selection of pests appropriate for SIT.
Weeds, insects, rodents, and pathogens are major problems in agricultural and urban environments; there is a clear need to augment chemical methods of control with biological methods. Until now these efforts have had limited success because of insufficient virulence of the host-specific organisms used. Naturally occurring biological agents are in evolutionary balance with their hosts, and attaining the level of control typically desired would lead to extinction of both the control agent and its host.In this book, the main researchers involved in enhancing fungal, bacterial, virus and insect biological control agents on different targets review progress in overcoming the barrier of insufficient virulence. This multi-disciplinary group, with backgrounds in many facets of biotechnology and crop protection, reviews their work and that of others, and describes the approaches, the successes and the remaining barriers in an integrated manner.
This important, interdisciplinary contribution to the 'greening' business debate looks at one of the most environmentally controversial industries - the chemical pesticide industry. If that sector can be put on to an environmentally sustainable footing, then the same may be possible for virtually all of industry. As business and environmental trends turn the pesticide industry's focus to biotechnology and seed engineering, this book examines the extent to which the industry is prepared to exploit new business opportunities in a more regenerative agriculture and draws attention to the industry's economic, environmental and social responsibilities.
"Weed Control" describes the basic biology of weeds and the characteristics of weed species. The methods of control - manual, animal-powered and engine-driven cultivation methods, biological, cultural and chemical control - are described and illustrated in detail, together with the main herbicides and their application measures. Preventative measures and how to choose a control method are included to stress the importance of appropriate methods. This volume continues by describing weed control in all the main annual and perennial tropical crops, and concludes with botanical details and control measures for the main tropical weed species.
The need and demand to feed the ever-increasing global population pose major challenges for increasing crop productivity in an eco-friendly manner. The cultivation of crops under input-intensive conditions has however resulted in an enhanced vulnerability of high-yielding cultivars to a multitude of pests and pathogens at all phenological stages. The disease spectrum and intensity are continuously changing because of the dynamic nature of crop systems, pests and pathogens. Disease management has therefore become the major functional component of the crop production systems. This reference volume and manual covers the complete spectrum of current issues in pest and pathogen disease management: Insect pests: pathogens of rice, sorghum, chickpea and castor and their management; Molecular marker-assisted breeding and transgenic crops for disease management; Management of forest insect pests; Effect of climate change on insects, pathogens, plants and pesticide usage; Botanicals & microbial pesticides and insect resistance to synthetic pesticides, and Integrated pest management and bioinformatics' solutions. The text is supported by a full color photograph section. Most chapters represent studies down in India and South East Asia. Scientists and practitioners working in other subtropical and tropical areas will also benefit from the information and strategies provided in this volume. Edited by three experienced specialists, this volume will benefit researchers and professionals in crop science, plant diseases and bioinformatics.
Insect pest control continues to be a challenge for agricultural producers and researchers. Insect resistance to commonly used pesticides and the removal of toxic pesticides from the market have taken their toll on the ability of agricultural producers to produce high quality, pest-free crops within economical means. In addition to this, they must not endanger their workers or the environment. We depend on agriculture for food, feed, and fiber, making it an essential part of our economy. Many people take agriculture for granted while voicing concern over adverse effects of agricultural production practices on the environment. Insect Pest Management presents a balanced overview of environmentally safe and ecologically sound practices for managing insects. This book covers specific ecological measures, environmentally acceptable physical control measures, use of chemical pesticides, and a detailed account of agronomic and other cultural practices. It also includes a chapter on state-of-the-art integrated pest management based, a section on biological control, and lastly a section devoted to legal and legislative issues. Insect Pest Management approaches its subject in a systematic and comprehensive manner. It serves as a useful resource for professionals in the fields of entomology, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, and environmental sciences, as well as to agricultural producers, industrial chemists, and people concerned with regulatory and legislative issues.
This two-volume book presents an up-to-date account of armored
scale insects (Homoptera: Diaspididas), a family of highly
specialized insects, many of which are important agricultural
pests. Being sedentary, colonial and rather cryptic, many species
have invaded new countries with important host plants. This has
made them prime targets for biological control by natural enemies.
The annual Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues was held in Geneva, Switzerland from 20 to 29 September 2011. The Meeting was held in pursuance of recommendations made by previous Meetings and accepted by the governing bodies of FAO and WHO that studies should be undertaken jointly by experts to evaluate possible hazards to humans arising from the occurrence of pesticide residues in foods. This report contains information on ADIs, ARfDs, maximum residue levels, and general principles for the evaluation of pesticides. The recommendations of the Joint Meeting, including further research and information, are proposed for use by Member governments of the FAO and WHO and other interested parties
Silent Spring catalyzed an environmental movement in the 1960s and achieved a ban on DDT, but are the alternatives any less toxic? Rachel Carson's eloquent book Silent Spring stands as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and inspired important and long-lasting changes in environmental science and government policy. Frederick Rowe Davis thoughtfully sets Carson's study in the context of the twentieth century, reconsiders her achievement, and analyzes its legacy in light of toxic chemical use and regulation today. Davis examines the history of pesticide development alongside the evolution of the science of toxicology and tracks legislation governing exposure to chemicals across the twentieth century. He affirms the brilliance of Carson's careful scientific interpretations drawing on data from university and government toxicologists. Although Silent Spring instigated legislation that successfully terminated DDT use, other warnings were ignored. Ironically, we replaced one poison with even more toxic ones. Davis concludes that we urgently need new thinking about how we evaluate and regulate pesticides in accounting for their ecological and human toll.
Health Effects of Pesticides covers various aspects of the use of pesticides, their behaviour, degradation, and impacts on the agrarian environment. It focuses on pesticide poisoning incidents and farm practices in developing countries. The health impacts of pesticides, including neurological, respiratory, and dermal effects, are examined. Other repercussions caused as a result of pesticides, including reproductive abnormalities and cancer, are comprehensively discussed. Effects of pesticides on general health and agrarian health surveys have been touched upon. Please note: This volume is Co-published with The Energy and Resources Institute Press, New Delhi. Taylor & Francis does not sell or distribute the Hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka
This Encyclopedia provides coverage of a wide range of topics contributed by experts world wide. The work emphasizes the chemicals used in agriculture for management of pests, their development, use, metabolism, toxicology and mode of action. These chemicals include pesticides, such as the herbicides (weed killers), insecticides and fungicides. Applications of biotechnology are included as are discussions of natural products and growth regulators. Fertilizers and soil fertility are covered at length as well as the persistence of pesticide residues, their degradation, environmental transport and implications of their residues in the environmental. Toxicological and regulatory implications are included throughout.
This work is a single source reference containing authoritative articles, definitions, literature citations and suggestions for further reading.
Available as a 3-volume print set or a convenient online edition. For details regarding the online edition please visit Wiley InterScience at www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/eoa
The definitive reference work on agrochemicals
Agrochemicals, such as pesticides, animal food additives, veterinary drugs, and related compounds, have become absolutely integral to the production of large-scale agriculture. As the prevalence of agrochemicals has steadily increased during the past 50 years, so have their complexity and sophistication. The three volume Encyclopedia of Agrochemicals is the first major reference work exclusively devoted to the cataloging, analysis, regulation, utility, and environmental impact of agrochemicals. This multidisciplinary resource proves an invaluable guide to government policy makers and environmental analysts as well as scientists in the agricultural, veterinary, chemical, and biotechnology industries.
The importance of understanding the metabolism of agrochemicals in
plants has never been greater. In a world where food safety and
environmental concerns are increasing, knowledge of the metabolic
processes within plants and the terminal residues of agrochemicals
in food crops is invaluable. Written by experts in the agrochemical
industry and academia, Metabolism of Agrochemicals in Plants is the
first text to give systematic coverage of this important topic.
This is an essential guidebook, providing a comprehensive overview of insect viruses and pest management. Part One of this volume explores the rationale behind the employment of insect pathogenic viruses in pest control and documents the assessment of biological activity, the ecology of baculoviruses, control strategies, virus production and formulation, and the conduct and recording of field control trials. Part Two comprises an authoritative global survey of current practice, R&D, and up--to--date technical studies of insect viruses and their application in pest management. This survey was compiled with the assistance of a panel of world--wide experts and will prove an invaluable and unique data source. Building on the key topics discussed in Part One, easy--to--follow, practical protocols are presented in Part Three, including detailed accounts of standard operating procedures for working with insects, isolation, propagation (in vivo and in vitro), purification, characterization and enumeration of viruses, suggestions for good laboratory layout and design, mass production methods, formulation and quality control. The importance of external environmental factors concerning virus survival and efficacy is also not forgotten, and in the final part the effects of solar radiation and the relationships between viruses and plant surfaces are discussed. Indispensable reading for all professionals and students interested in insect virology and pest control, this book is a comprehensive reference manual.
Over the past 50 years, triazines have made a great impact on
agriculture and world hunger by assisting in the development of new
farming methods, providing greater farming and land use
capabilities, and increasing crop yields. Triazines are registered
in over 80 countries and save billions of dollars a year. The
Triazine Herbicides is the one book that presents a comprehensive
view of the total science and agriculture of these chemicals. With
emphasis on how the chemicals are studied and developed, reviewed,
and used at the agricultural level this book provides valuable
insight into the benefits of triazine herbicides for sustainable
"Controlling Invertebrate Pests in Agriculture" discusses the principles of pest management and relates this to historical methods as well as current and future directions. It describes current practice, the concept of agricultural ecosystems, the role of pesticides and cultural control options. A separate chapter covers biological control and the different ways in which this may be implemented.The book provides a detailed examination of the application of pesticides, the different types that are available and how they may be integrated into more holistic approaches. A summary of all available pest control measures is given to allow the reader to decide which approach is best to adopt. The authors clearly describe why the most ecologically sound methods are not always adopted, but also explain why they can be adopted with great success.Examples of successful implementation of Integrated Pest Management are highlighted, and also a discussion on what is required in the future to achieve successful control of pests in a sustainable manner.* Written in plain English. It can be understood by entomologists, university researchers and also farmers and agronomists and other advisors to the agricultural industry* A clear thinking approach to pest management, presenting an analysis of first "why" a decision is made and second "how" that decision is made* Helps better decisions to be made on pest management
Covering some 450 species, this work is designed to aid identification of the insects and mites that cause damage to hardwood trees to the east of the Rocky Mountains. Identification is grouped under 20 tree genera with flowchart keys that lead to individual species or groups of similar organisms.
Intended for undergraduate students with little or no background in the field, this text explores the reasons for implementing biological control, the major strategies for the applications of natural enemies, and integrating biological control with other types of pest management. Addressing the issues of safety and non-target effects, Ann Hajek emphasizes the ecological relationships that make control by natural enemies possible.
It used to be: If you see a coyote, shoot it. Better yet, a bear. Best of all, perhaps? A wolf. How we've gotten from there to here, where such predators are reintroduced,protected, and in some cases revered, is the story Frank Van Nuys tells in Varmints and Victims, a thorough and enlightening look at the evolution of predator management in the American West. As controversies over predator control rage on, Varmints and Victims puts the debate into historical context, tracing the West's relationship with charismatic predators like grizzlies, wolves, and cougars from unquestioned eradication to ambivalent recovery efforts. Van Nuys offers a nuanced and balanced perspective on an often-emotional topic, exploring the intricacies of how and why attitudes toward predators have changed over the years. Focusing primarily on wolves, coyotes, mountain lions, and grizzly bears, he charts the logic and methods of management practiced by ranchers, hunters, and federal officials Broad in scope and rich in detail, this work brings new, much-needed clarity to the complex interweaving of economics, politics, science, and culture in the formulation of ideas about predator species, and in policies directed at these creatures. In the process, we come to see how the story of predator control is in many ways the story of the American West itself, from early attempts to connect the frontier region to mainstream American life and economics to present ideas about the nature and singularity of the region.
Nematode pests of crops can cause major losses of revenue for producers. It is therefore vital to recognise them and to apply appropriate measures to control them, as early as possible in the production cycle. Adequate nematode control is essential to the success of integrated crop management systems. This book covers control of the most important nematode pests of the world's crops, by all known, effective means. The nematodes and the damage they cause to plant tissues and to cops in situ are fully illustrated by line drawings and by black-and-white and colour photographs. Although the book is arranged by nematode pest species, the information relevant to a particular crop under threat is quickly accessed through a separate crop index. The book is an essential resource for all advanced students, lecturers and research workers in crop protection and plant pathology. Advisors to farmers will also find this book a useful addition to their crop protection libraries.
Domestic livestock in Africa are of importance not only as a source of milk and meat but also as a source of animal traction enabling farmers to cultivate larger areas, with crops providing the staple foods. Trypanosomosis, a parasitic disease transmitted cyclically by the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.), is arguably still the main constraint to livestock production on the continent, preventing full use of the land to feed the rapidly increasing human population. Sleeping sickness, the disease caused in humans by species of Trypanosoma, is an important and neglected disease posing a threat to millions of people in tsetse-infested areas. Often wrongly thought of as a disease of the past, the prevalence of human sleeping sickness is increasing in many areas.Although alternative methods to control the disease are being investigated, such as immunological approaches, use of chemotherapy or exploitation of the trypanotolerance trait, it is only control or eradication of the tsetse fly vector which will remove the threat of the disease rather than providing a better means of "living" with it. As a result of the economic impact of tsetse-transmitted Trypanosomosis, a large amount of research literature has been produced. This book provides a comprehensive review of this literature. The text is divided into four parts: tsetse biology and ecology, epidemiology, vector control and control of trypanosomosis. The book is invaluable for medical and veterinary entomologists, parasitologists and epidemiologists.
The book describes the natural history of myxoma virus in American rabbits and the history of its introduction into European rabbits at length. The changes in rabbit and virus over the last forty years provide the classical example of coevolution of a virus and its vertebrate host and a paradigmatic model for the understanding of an emerging infectious disease. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus has been spreading in Australia for only three years, but in some areas has been very effective. Written by leading world experts in animal virology and the history of medicine.
Nematodes are the most abundant and diversified group in the animal kingdom, with four out of five animals on earth being nematodes. Nematology was first recognized as an independent discipline during the early part of the century and since that time has made unparalleled advances to become an integral part of biological sciences.Written as two volumes, this title provides a broad overview of our current knowledge of nematology. The first volume addresses basic biology, while the second volume covers applied aspects of nematodes as parasites of plants, humans and other animals, or as disease vectors, and the control of pest nematodes. The contributors to this work include the world 's leading authorities from Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, New Zealand, UK and USA. It will provide essential reading for researchers and students with an interest in nematology.
Non-Chemical Weed Control is the first book to present an overview of plant crop protection against non-food plants using non-chemical means. Plants growing wild-particularly unwanted plants found in cultivated ground to the exclusion of the desired crop-have been treated with herbicides and chemical treatments in the past. As concern over environmental, food and consumer safety increases, research has turned to alternatives, including the use of cover crops, thermal treatments and biotechnology to reduce and eliminate unwanted plants. This book provides insight into existing and emerging alternative crop protection methods and includes lessons learned from past methodologies. As crop production resources decline while consumer concerns over safety increase, the effective control of weeds is imperative to insure the maximum possible levels of soil, sunlight and nutrients reach the crop plants.
Integrated Analytical Approaches for Pesticide Management provides proven laboratory practices/examples and methods necessary to control pesticides in food and water in various environments. The book presents insights into good laboratory practices and examples of methods used in individual specialist laboratories, thus enabling stakeholders in the agri-food industry to appreciate the importance of proven, reliable data and the associated quality assurance approaches for end product testing for toxic levels of contaminant residues in food. The book is written in a rigorous, but simple, way to make sure that a broad range of readers can appreciate its technical content. The book's practical nature and generic guidelines distinguish it from others in the marketplace.
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