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The Meeting evaluated 19 pesticides, including acetochlor and chlorantraniliprole, for toxicity or residues, or both. It estimated maximum residue levels and made recommendations for use by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues, and estimated supervised trials median residue (STMR) and highest residue (HR) levels as a basis for estimating dietary exposures. The FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food was responsible for reviewing residue and analytical aspects of the pesticides under consideration, including data on their metabolism, their fate in the environment and use patterns, and for estimating the maximum levels of residues that might occur as a result of use of the pesticides according to good agricultural practice.
Pesticide pollution of groundwater results from agricultural
practices, the properties of the substance and its behavior in the
soil environment, and the characteristics of aquifers and their
vulnerability. Pesticide Risk in Groundwater provides an overview
of the main issues concerning pesticide pollution of groundwater
The second edition of "Termites and Borers" is the long-awaited revision of its very successful UNSW Press predecessor of the same name, which published in 1998, reprinted three times and sold nearly 14,000 copies. The book is a consumer-oriented and compact handbook written in plain English for a general audience with an interest in protecting their home against termites (and other timber pests such as borers). The revision brings the book right up to date, discussing new termite detection techniques, as well as treatment options for termite infestations. "Termites and Borers" is in full colour and includes some 92 colour photos, allowing untrained householders to be able to make informed decisions on detection and treatment options and issues of building design. Topics covered include: termite lifecycles, habits and their natural instincts; inspection techniques, including what to look for and where to look; chemical and non-chemical means of eradicating termites; the use of bait monitors; pest inspections, and what technicians can and can't do; building out termites; FAQs on termites (with answers); and, borers and wood decay.
"Cold, Clear, and Deadly" is both a mystery and the story of the evolution of its author, from a chemical and bioprocess scientist to the vice president in charge of a major company's corporate environmental division, to engaging in international research and travel to discover the source of POPs (persistent organic pollutants) in cold northern waters from the Great Lakes to the Arctic. POPs - PCBs and chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, toxaphene, and chlordane that came into use following World War II - were used in a wide range of seemingly benign scientific enhancements of modern life, from increasing crop yields to preventing fires. Initially, they were used in the West with abandon. However, when pesticide POPs and industrial PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were found to cause cancer in humans and to devastate wildlife near their areas of application, they were banned. And yet, to this day they remain in the environment at dangerous levels. The question of why that is has occupied Melvin J. Visser for more than a decade. The attempts of Visser and other international environmental scientists to understand POP contamination in the far north, where the POP content of whale blubber would classify it as hazardous waste, leads to unraveling the mystery of continuing contamination of the Great Lakes. They discovered that POPs banning was not global and that POPs evaporating from agricultural and industrial uses in developing countries were circling the globe and traveling north. Air sweeping North America and Europe is contaminated with more than 100 million POPs molecules per adult human breath, a toxic blanket that keeps our waters dangerous to man and wildlife. This devastating toxicity and the fact that our current efforts to clean up POPs residues in developed countries - "Thinking Globally and Acting Locally" will not solve the problem - makes "Cold, Clear, and Deadly" a must-read for anyone concerned about the silent but deadly persistence of toxic chemicals in our food and water.
Pesticide users, producers, and regulatory officials will find this book to be the authoritative and most comprehensive analysis of pesticide law and regulation. Featuring contributions from key authorities, Pesticides Law Handbook covers international pesticide regulation, including exports, imports, and global issues; pesticide regulation under other laws including the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, RCRA, Superfund, NEPA, OSHA, and others; and the role of pesticides from environmental, manufactural, agricultural, and governmental perspectives.
This authoritative guide is published annually and contains information on pesticides and adjuvants approved for use in UK agriculture, horticulture, forestry and amenity. It provides a practical guide to the pesticides, plant growth regulators and adjuvants that farmers and growers can realistically and legally obtain in the UK, and describes how they may be safely and effectively used. The CD-ROM includes powerful search functionality with harvest interval data, product LERAP classification and off labels and SOLA data. It is also linked to the regularly updated Leatherhead Food International online database of Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). The 2005 edition contains all the latest products and actives. Any products not submitted for inclusion in the Guide but which can be legally used until their approval expires can be found in the section on Products Also Registered. The book includes: Crop/pest guide index Pesticide profiles Products also registered Adjuvants Supplier listing Key information for users of pesticides It is illegal to use any pesticide in the UK unless it is officially approved under current legislation. The UK Pesticide Guide 2005 is an essential reference source for all products approved for professional use in UK agriculture horticulture, forestry and amenity. It will also be particularly useful for those involved in the current Voluntary initiative, including the writing of Crop Protection Management plans. For this edition, a new environmental hazard classification has been added to help with the assessment of risk.
Entomology as a branch of biological science has undergone rapid expansion and development in recent decades. There have been major advances in the technologies associated with pest management and the ecological studies that underpin much of this work. Greater emphasis is now placed on topics such as modelling and biochemical techniques, with new approaches to the study of insect behavior and insecticide efficacy making inroads into traditional approaches. This book aims to integrate the new approaches and technologies with traditional and well-proven methods. It provides a critical analysis and evaluation of methods available, through reference to general principles, but emphasis is also placed on providing detailed descriptions of methods and their application. Written by leading authorities from the UK, USA and Australia, the book is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in entomology and pest management.
Viruses transmitted by nematodes are responsible for many economically important diseases of crops. Thus, when in the late 1950s, this mode of disease propagation was demonstrated by proof of the transmission of grapevine fanleaf disease by Xiphenema index. It marked the start of a significant and fruitful period of research. After the initial enthusiasm associated with the discovery of new vectors and new viruses, there followed a spell of consolidation in which researchers sought the answers to intriguing questions about the nature of the association between virus and vector, as well as more mundane, but equally compelling questions about life-cycles, geographical distribution and the taxonomy of groups of vector species. With the introduction of molecular biology, new approaches became available with which to investigate nematode-virus-plant interactions and these techniques are being exploited to provide new insights. Numerous reviews have been published on different aspects of nematode transmission of plant viruses and the nematode transmitted viruses themselves. However, until now there has been a lack of any source which draws all of this research together. This book fills this need by providing a valuable overview of the last 40 years of research into the transmission of viruses by nematodes as well as setting the agenda for future investigations. This book is an important resource for all nematologists and plant virologists, as well as others concerned with crop protection.
Thrips have recently surged to prominence as insect pests of field, plantation and glasshouse crops in many countries, associated with increased international trade in fresh vegetables, fruit, flowers and plant propagation material. They can cause direct feeding damage to the aerial parts of plants, resulting in yield loss and spoilage, and some are vectors of destructive plant viruses. Their minute size and secretive habits make them particularly difficult to detect and control. This book, containing contributions from several world authorities from Europe, the USA and Asia, is the most comprehensive treatise on thrips as crop pests ever to be published. It brings together a vast amount of modern work set against a wealth of background knowledge, covering basic biology, ecology, applied science and pest control. The result is a book indispensable for agricultural advisers and growers concerned with thrips pests, and a unique reference source and stimulus for research entomologists studying these intriguing insects.
A number of species of Thysanoptera (thrips) are increasingly important crop pests in many parts of the world, as well as in some cases being vectors of plant disease. Communicating the known information about a species of organism is dependent on our ability to recognize or identify it accurately. This book is a completely revised and rewritten edition of the standard, widely used manual on these minute flying insects written by J.M. Palmer, L.A. Mound and G.J. du Heaume and published in 1989 as "CIE Guides to Insects of Importance to Man 2. Thysanoptera," which provides a practical identification guide on a worldwide scale. The previous version posed problems for students in terms of fluency in English & knowledge of dichotomous keys. However, this thoroughly updated edition incorporates a new set of pictorial keys, which have been developed and used very successfully for training courses at the International Institute of Entomology and which will greatly enhance the ability of the non-specialist to identify thrips to species. Individuals of these insects can usually be identified only by examination under a microscope, often at high power. Within each species, individuals can vary in size, colour and shape and their appearance can be altered by techniques used in preparation. This booklet describes techniques used in the preparation of thrip specimens onto slides for identification and the means of identifying slide-mounted specimens most commonly encountered. It also introduces students to the biological diversity that is found amongst the Thysanoptera, their economic importance in terms of both damaging and beneficial effects, new identification techniques, additional information and taxa, glossary of technical terms, notes on each genus (described alphabetically within their families and subfamilies). Supplementary keys to species are also given within four genera that include several pest species (Caliothrips, Frankliniella, Scirtothrips and Thrips) along with new distribution records which have occurred since the publication of the first edition. It is an essential tool for applied entomologists and crop protection specialists involved in the control of crop pest thrips, and thrip taxonomists.
The first edition of this book, published in 1991, was well received as an upper-level undergraduate textbook for courses in agricultural entomology and pest management. Since the publication of the first edition, many new advances have taken place in the subject, and these have been incorporated into the new version. The content has been updated throughout to provide a more balanced, comprehensive coverage.
This book covers the statistical concepts of sampling in agricultural pest management. These can be summarized as how to obtain sample data from the field and how to use the data in decision-making. Options may include introducing natural enemies, spraying with pesticide, or adopting a wait-and-see approach. Some prior knowledge of pests and how they interact with crops is required of the reader, but only minimal mathematical background is assumed. Worked examples using the mathematical software program Mathcad are also included.
This book addresses these topical issues and is based on a Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society, London, in April 1998. Contributors include scientists from leading research groups in Europe, North America, Asia and Australia. The papers have also been published as an issue of the journal Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, published by the Royal Society. Topics covered include molecular genetics, mechanisms, ecological genetics and management. There is also discussion of the genetically delivered toxicant derived from the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. The book is essential reading for agricultural, medical and veterinary entomologists concerned with pest management.
This volume provides background theory and practical protocols for bioassays of bacteria, viruses, fungi, microsporidia and nematodes that can be used as biological control agents against insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. In addition, experimental design and statistics, computational modeling for bioassay analysis, and relevant legislation are described. With contributions from internationally recognized scientists from their respective fields, this book will be of particular value to researchers both experienced and inexperienced in this area.
Host plant resistance is one of the cornerstones upon which integrated pest management is based. Improved pest management is an essential element of sustainable agriculture. Resistance to nematodes is currently under utilized, particularly in developing countries. This practically orientated book describes methods for evaluating the resistance and tolerance of plant cultivars to parasitic nematodes, and provides specific instructions on all phases of resistance screening. With the current emphasis on decreasing the use of chemical nematicides, this book is a timely addition to the subject.
This work reports the results of a seven-year-long research programme that examined the best way to reduce pesticide use among low-income farmers in developing countries, while improving the effectiveness of the products, and safety practices. The study was sponsored by the Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development. Its aim was to investigate how to reduce crop losses, while minimizing pest resistance in plants and harmful side effects to human health and the environment. India, Mexico and Zimbabwe were chosen as the three project countries, as they are similar in economic development, but have widely disparate sociocultural environments and agricultural practices.
During recent decades there has been a steady increase in the use of chemical pesticides in both developed and developing countries. This has caused widespread concern about their impact on human health and on the environment. This is particularly the case in less developed countries which may lack appropriate resources to minimise risks and rectify problems. The purpose of this short book is to provide a review of chemical pesticide markets, including global figures, exports from developed countries, and markets in Latin America, Asia and Africa. The focus is on acute problems in developing countries, particularly in Latin America, Asia and Africa, but some information is also provided about developed countries. This is the first volume in a new "Biopesticides Series" developed by the Biopesticides Program at CABI Bioscience. *Information on the scale of manufacture, import, export and use of chemical pesticides*Examples of direct risks to human welfare in terms of acute poisonings caused by occupational exposure and pesticide residues in food *Examples of problems with the storage of obsolete stocks of pesticides in developing countries.
Mites are among the most important arthropods in greenhouses, both as pests causing economic injury to greenhouse crops, and as natural enemies used in the biological control of pest insects and other mites. Because of their minute size, mites are much less well known than insects. This book describes the biology, identification and control of such mites and the topics covered include an introduction to the Acari, illustrated keys to orders, families and selected species, the control of pest mites, and the role of beneficial mites in biological control. The book will be of interest to those working in entomology, crop protection and horticulture.
Biological control has made a major contribution to integrated pest management (IPM) in Africa, but its documentation has been scattered and often under-reported. This book provides a review of the most important studies, including not only successes, but also on-going challenges. The focus is on arthropod pests and weeds, but diseases are also covered where significant. In 24 chapters, case studies and promising research results are presented that cover biocontrol by naturally occurring agents, by exotic agents or by seasonal manipulation. This book provides a valuable resource for scientists worldwide. It is particularly useful for pest control professionals working in Africa.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture has had a fundamental impact on agricultural policy worldwide. The new WTO agreements will cover agriculture,sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade and trade in intellectual property rights. This book addresses the interface between the law of international agricultural trade, the emerging legal and economic order for agricultural trade under the auspices of the WTO, and its impact on agricultural policy reform both in the European Union and the USA. With contributions from leading authorities in the appropriate areas.
This authoritative guide contains information on pesticides and adjuvants used in UK agriculture, horticulture, forestry and amenity. It provides a practical guide to the pesticides, plant growth regulators and adjuvants that farmers and growers can realistically and legally obtain in the UK, and describes how they may be safely and effectively used. The CD-ROM includes powerful search functionality with harvest interval data, product LERAP classification and off labels and SOLA data.
Habitat manipulation comprises biological control, crop rotations, crop diversity, flower strips, natural enemy refuges etc, and is a powerful tool for suppressing arthropod pest populations. It offers scope for farmers to avoid high tech approaches, and reliance on powerful pesticides, and is the backbone of organic and traditional farming systems. This book examines the broad range of theoretical, methodological and applied approaches currently used, and captures state-of-the-art thinking by key international researchers and practitioners.
Want to get rid of pesky bugs and rodents in and around your home and garden without using dangerous chemical pesticides? "Bug Busters "provides dozens of environmentally
safe, easy methods for keeping your home free of pests. Written
in easy-to-understand language, this book combines traditional
time-proven pest controls with the latest research. Also included
are new and innovative techniques for eradicating vermin. And for
those times when a chemical pesticide or exterminator may be your
only recourse, as with termite infestation, "Bug Busters "tells you
how to find a competent professional and how to properly handle and
dispose of chemical pesticides.
At a time when literally thousands of adults and children are treated yearly for pesticide mishaps, "Bug Busters "provides important information for anyone who is concerned with safe and intelligent pest control. "
From February 24 -28, 1992 an international symposium on Durability of Disease Resistance was held at the International Agricultural Centre in Wageningen, the Netherlands. The symposium, organized by the Department of Plant Breeding of Wageningen Agricultural University and the Centre for Plant Breeding and Repro duction Research, CPRO-DLO, was part of the DGIS funded programme Durable Resistance in Developing Countries. Without any form of prevention or protection nearly all crops will be seriously or even severely damaged by a range of pathogens. In modern agriculture man has been able to control many if not most pathogens using i) pesticides, ii) phyto sanitary methods such as control of seed and plant material in order to start a crop disease free, iii) agronomic measures such as crop rotation, iv) disease resis tance or combinations of these measures. Over the years the use of pesticides has increased enormously and so did the pro blems associated with pesticide use, such as environmental pollution and building of resistance and tolerance to these pesticides in the pathogens. The use of resis tance too increased strongly over the years and here too problems arose."
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