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Fundamental understanding of the uptake, translocation, and distribution of agrochemicals is of great interest among scientists in industry and academia, because biological activities of pesticides against their target species can be significantly influenced by the biokinetics of the pesticides. Biological activity of pesticides is initially identified during the courses of in vitro bioassays, but the active molecules often lose their biological activity in greenhouse tests. The lack of translation of activity between in vitro assays and greenhouse tests is generally associated with many factors, including poor retention on plant surface, lack of foliar or root uptake, and limited systemicity within plants. Therefore, a clear understanding of the factors that govern the effectiveness of pesticides is key to overcome certain barriers for the expression of biological activity, and this can lead to a strategy to improve biological performance. This ACS symposium book is based on a symposium that was held at the 246th American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition in Indianapolis, Indiana from September 8-12, 2013. Although uptake, translocation, and distribution of agrochemicals in plants have been extensively studied over the years, there are still many unanswered questions that need to be addressed. Retention, Uptake, and Translocation of Agrochemicals in Plants aims to update current knowledge with new studies that contain new findings on the uptake, translocation, and distribution of agrochemicals in plants as well as provide review-style chapters that summarize existing information on specific subjects. This volume will serve as a valuable resource for researchers who study uptake, translocation, and distribution of pesticides in plants. As researchers involved in discovery and development of agrochemicals want to understand a broad range of biological factors, this book will promote researchers in other scientific disciplines to generate new ideas and technologies in the process of new product development. With contributions from experts in the field of agrochemical research, Retention, Uptake, and Translocation of Agrochemicals in Plants will add to the body of knowledge of biokinetics, and will help further the understanding of the use of agrochemicals on our planet.
Providing a critical evaluation of the management strategies involved in ecologically-based pest management, this book presents a balanced overview of environmentally safe and ecologically sound approaches. Topics covered include biological control with fungi and viruses, conservation of natural predators, use of botanicals and how effective pest management can help promote food security. In the broader context of agriculture, sustainability and environmental protection, the book provides a multidisciplinary and multinational perspective on integrated pest management useful to researchers in entomology, crop protection, environmental sciences and pest management.
Pathogen resistance to fungicides has become a challenging problem in the management of crop disease. It has threatened the performance of some highly potent commercial fungicides, resulting in resistance to more than one hundred different active ingredients reported from around the world. This book compiles information on fungicide resistance over the past three decades, beginning with the history of resistance development, then exploring the status, detection and management of resistance in pathogens to different groups of fungicides with diverse case studies from countries including France, India, Italy, Japan and the US. It also discusses the genetics of resistance and the problem of multidrug resistance, before concluding with an overview of the work and initiatives of the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee for managing this problem.An essential resource for researchers and students of plant pathology and mycology, this book is also a useful collection of the present status and future projections of fungicide resistance for extensions workers and pesticide industry personnel.
This book was written in response to significant recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of parasitism in the Orobanchaceae, and breakthroughs in the control of the parasitic weeds" Striga "and "Orobanche." It consists of 26 contributions by internationally recognized leading scientists. The main book chapters are grouped into two parts:
. Part I The Orobanchaceae and Their Parasitic Mechanisms
. Part II The Weedy Orobanchaceae and Their Control
The first part provides cutting-edge information on all key aspects of plant parasitism, such as the structure, development and function of the haustorium; nutrient transfer and the physiology of the parasite-host association; host reaction to parasitic plants; seed production and germination; the strigolactones and host-parasite signaling mechanisms; the parasite genome, phylogenetics, evolution and epigenetics; and ecology. Topics of the second part include: the problem posed by the weedy parasites; population diversity and dynamics; molecular diagnosis of seed banks; and detailed discussion of the various management strategies, including agronomic, chemical and biotechnological approaches, as well as host breeding for resistance, allelopathy and biological control.
This book is intended for plant scientists, university lecturers and students, agronomists and weed specialists, breeders and farmers, extension personnel and experts in tropical and subtropical agriculture.
Induced resistance offers the prospect of broad spectrum, long-lasting and potentially environmentally-benign disease and pest control in plants. Induced Resistance for Plant Defense 2e provides a comprehensive account of the subject, encompassing the underlying science and methodology, as well as research on application of the phenomenon in practice. The second edition of this important book includes updated coverage of cellular aspects of induced resistance, including signalling and defenses, costs and trade-offs associated with the expression of induced resistance, research aimed at integrating induced resistance into crop protection practice, and induced resistance from a commercial perspective. Current thinking on how beneficial microbes induce resistance in plants has been included in the second edition. The 14 chapters in this book have been written by internationally-respected researchers and edited by three editors with considerable experience of working on induced resistance. Like its predecessor, the second edition of Induced Resistance for Plant Defense will be of great interest to plant pathologists, plant cell and molecular biologists, agricultural scientists, crop protection specialists, and personnel in the agrochemical industry. All libraries in universities and research establishments where biological, agricultural, horticultural and forest sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this book on their shelves.
Techniques for Reducing Pesticide Use Economic and Environmental Benefits Edited by David Pimentel Cornell University, USA Pest insects, plant pathogens, and weeds destroy approximately 400f all potential food production worldwide. This major food loss occurs despite the application of 2.5 million tons of pesticides at a cost of more than $25 billion each year. Pesticides provide many important benefits in pest control, returning about $4 for every $1 invested. However, this cost/benefit ratio does not include the annual environmental and public health costs of using pesticides which include 3 million human poisonings and 220,000 deaths annually worldwide. With more than 2 billion people malnourished in the world, a major effort is required to reduce the continuing 400ss of crops to pests. With a relatively small investment in research and extension, this crop destruction can be reduced. Technologies now exist to reduce pesticide use by at least 50%, without reducing crop yields or substantially altering the 'cosmetic standards' of fresh fruit and vegetables. Reducing pesticide use will lower the economic costs of pest control, protect public health, and improve the stability of the natural environment. The various pest management techniques available are discussed in all chapters of this book. It will help governmental leaders, scientists and the public to understand that many strategies, if implemented, will improve pest management, maintain crop yields, and reduce pesticide use.
In this fascinating book, Graham Matthews takes the reader through the history of the development and use of chemicals for control of pests, weeds, and vectors of disease. Prior to 1900 only a few chemicals had been employed as pesticides but in the early 1940s, as the Second World War raged, the insecticide DDT and the herbicide 2-4-D were developed. These changed everything. Since then, farmers have been using a growing list of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides to protect their crops. Their use has undoubtedly led to significant gains in agricultural production and reduction in disease transmission, but also to major problems: health concerns for both users of pesticides and the general public, the emergence of resistance in pest populations, and environmental problems. The book examines the development of legislation designed to control and restrict the use of pesticides, the emergence of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and the use of biological control agents as part of policy to protect the environment and encourage the sustainable use of pesticides. Finally, the use of new technologies in pest control are discussed including the use of genetic modification, targeted pesticide application and use of drones, alongside basic requirements for IPM such as crop rotations, close seasons and adoption of plant varieties with resistance to pests and diseases.
Covering all aspects of practical plant nematology in subtropical and tropical agriculture, the third edition of this definitive global reference work is fully revised and in full colour throughout. It covers the presence, distribution, symptomology and management of all economically important plant parasitic nematodes damaging the world's major food and cash crops. This includes: rice, cereals, solanum and sweet potatoes (and other root and tuber crops), food legumes, vegetables, peanut, citrus, fruit tree crops, coconut and other palms, coffee, cocoa, tea, bananas, sugarcane, tobacco, pineapple, cotton, other tropical fibres, spices and medicinal plants. New content for this edition includes: - A chapter on nematode soil biodiversity and soil health. - Reflections on the future impact of nematodes and nematology on food security. - The importance of climate change, emerging threats, and new management technologies for large and small subsistence growers. - Significant revisions to the IPM chapter and chapters on vegetables, citrus, legumes, tuber crops, cotton, peanut and banana where major advances in nematode management have occurred. This book is highly illustrated, with up-to-date practical guidance on methods of extraction, processing and diagnosing of different plant and soil nematodes and on integrated pest management. It remains an invaluable resource for those studying and working in the area of crop protection.
Insects, being poikilothermic, are among the organisms that are most likely to respond to changes in climate, particularly increased temperatures. Range expansions into new areas, further north and to higher elevations, are already well documented, as are physiological and phenological responses. It is anticipated that the damage to crops and forests by insects will increase as a consequence of climate change, i.e. increasing temperatures primarily. However, the evidence in support of this common "belief" is sparse. Climate Change and Insect Pests sums up present knowledge regarding both agricultural and forest insect pests and climate change in order to identify future research directions.
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a sustainable approach to manage pests through biological, cultural, physical and chemical means in order to minimize economic and environmental injury caused by such pests. Any comprehensive IPM program requires an understanding of the ecological relationships between crops, pests, natural enemies and the environment. This book presents a series of review chapters on ecologically-based IPM. Topics covered range from the ecological effects of chemical control practices to the ecology of predator-prey and parasitoid-host systems.
Bats in roofs has been compiled by the Bat Interest Group of KwaZulu-Natal as a practical guide to assist householders and pest controllers to live harmoniously with bats, identifying various species of bat that may occur around buildings, and dealing with bat nuisance problems in an effective and bat-friendly, non-chemical manner. Although predominantly about bats living in roof spaces, this title also deals with bats, such as fruit bats and tomb bats, which may roost or forage in outside areas such as eaves and garden trees. In addition, it seeks to foster a more tolerant attitude towards bats and an appreciation of the ecological and economic benefits of these intelligent and misunderstood mammals.
A comprehensive manual of phytobacteriology, this work is heavily illustrated with over 200 colour photographs and line illustrations. It begins by outlining the history and science of bacteriology and gives an overview of the diversity and versatility of complex bacteria. It then explains the characterization, identification and naming of complex bacteria, and explores how bacteria can cause disease and how plants react to such disease. The book also discusses the economic importance of bacterial diseases as well as strategies for their control and the reduction of crop losses. It concludes with 50 examples of plant pathogenic bacteria and the diseases that they cause.
Achieving a sustainable agriculture requires integrating advances in multiples disciplines, covering both fundamental and applied research in a common objective: enhancing crop health for better productions. This first volume of the Series "Sustainability in plant and crop protection" presents a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary compendium about the recent achievements in the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as biological control in a global scale. The volume is organized in a first section discussing the last discoveries on the biology and ecology of the EPN, a second section covering the advances on the EPN productions and release, and a third section with multiples case-studies in which the concepts and ideas on the two previous sections are integrated and discussed. An essential tool for researchers and professionals working to advance in the sustainable use of our resources.
This book provides up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the research and application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in tropical regions. The first section explores the agro-ecological framework that represents the foundations of IPM, in addition to emerging technologies in chemical and biological methods that are core to pest control in tropical crops. The second section follows a crop-based approach and provides details of current IPM applications in the main tropical food crops (such as cereals, legumes, root and tuber crops, sugarcane, vegetables, banana and plantain, citrus, oil palm, tea, cocoa and coffee) and also fibre crops (such as cotton) and tropical forests. Integrated Pest Management in Tropical Regions: * Explores the techniques aimed at controlling pests in agro-ecosystems sustainably while reducing secondary effects on the environment and on plant, animal and human health * Contextualizes IPM within our current knowledge of climate change and the global movement of organisms * Covers integrated strategies to contains pests in major tropical food crops, fibre crops and trees * Discusses options and challenges for pest control in tropical agriculture
Reprint Now Available Concentrate on growing crops well, and you will find you have very few pest or disease problems to worry about. Those pests that persist can be controlled with the multitude of organic pesticides and fungicides Jackie has developed and tested in sixteen years of observation, experimentation and hard work. This book contains workable natural gardening and farming methods, along with techniques for natural pest control in flower and vegetable gardens, orchards and small farms.
This book explores the most important aspects of the biology, ecology and management of what is one of the world's worst weeds. Originally regarded as a major weed in Australia and India, Parthenium weed is now widespread in around 48 countries in Africa, Asia and the South Pacific, and has the potential to spread to new countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. This book, which is a collective effort by 27 members of the International Parthenium Weed Network, addresses research and knowledge gaps for different countries. It examines the weed's mode of spread, its impact on agricultural production, its effect on the environment and on human health, and its management using biological control, as well as cultural, physical and chemical approaches. It also considers the coordination of the weed's management, possible uses for Parthenium weed, its present distribution and how this is impacted by climate change. This book includes: A detailed analysis of Parthenium weed biology. Experiences with Parthenium weed worldwide. An explanation of practical management options. This book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in universities and institutes, in the fields of plant ecology, botany, agriculture, conservation and restoration ecology.
This book is an up-to-date and comprehensive reference covering pest management in organic farming in major crops of the world. General introductory chapters explore the management of crops to prevent pest outbreaks, plant protection tools in organic farming, and natural enemies and pest control. The remaining chapters are crop-based and discuss geographic distribution, economic importance and key pests. For each pest the fundamental aspects of its bio-ecology and the various methods of control are presented. Understanding of the scientific content is facilitated with practical advice, tables and diagrams, helping users to apply the theories and recommendations. Handbook of Pest Management in Organic Farming: * Consists of rational approaches and advice. * Is authored by a team of international specialists in pest control. * Represents the only available comprehensive review of insect pest management in organic systems. This is an essential resource for researchers and extension workers in crop protection, integrated pest management and biocontrol, and organic farming systems.
There is increasing interest in the use of fungi for the control of pests, weeds and diseases. This book brings together perspectives from pathology, ecology, genetics, physiology, production technology, to address the use of fungi as biological control agents.
This book comprehensively reviews current pest management practices and explores novel integrated pest management strategies in Brassica oilseed crops. It is essential reading for pest management practitioners and researchers working on pest management in canola and other Brassica crops worldwide. Canola, mustard, camelina and crambe are the most important oilseed crops in the world. Canola is the second largest oilseed crop in the world providing 13% of the world's supply. Seeds of these species commonly contain 40% or more oil and produce meals with 35 to 40% protein. However, its production has declined significantly in recent years due to insect pest problems. The canola pest complexes are responsible for high insecticide applications on canola. Many growers rely on calendar-based spraying schedules for insecticide applications. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella and flea beetles Phyllotreta spp. (P. cruciferae and P. striolata)cause serious damage to canola. In the Northern Great Plains, USA, for instance, P. xylostella is now recorded everywhere that canola is grown. Severe damage to canola plants can be caused by overwintering populations of flea beetles feeding on newly emerged seedlings. Cabbage seed pod weevil (Ceutorhynchus obstrictus), swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii), and tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) are also severe pests on canola. Minor pests include aphids (cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and turnip aphid, Hyadaphis erysimi) and grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes. This book: * is the only single compiled source of information on integrated management of canola and other Brassica oilseed pests * presents the biology and management of all the major and minor pests of Brassica oilseed crops * is an essential source of information for applied entomologists, crop protection researchers, extension agents and stakeholders
Biological pesticides based on pathogenic micro-organisms specific to a target pest offer an ecologically-sound and effective solution to pest problems. They pose less threat to the environment and to human health than do chemical pesticides. However, despite the enormous potential for biopesticides, their development, commercialization and use has been slow. The information reported in this book is based on a survey of more than 100 biopesticide research workers in developing countries. The results demonstrate that the main difficulties and constraints facing researchers relate to a lack of expertise in the crucial later stages of development. Biopesticide research is receiving mostly low investments, mainly from the public sector, and requires more multidisciplinary expertise. It is concluded that targeted assistance on a multinational and multi-disciplinary basis is required in developing countries in order to remove the constraints.
Since the publication of the first edition of this book in 2003, the status of many important invasive plants around the world has changed dramatically. Species have extended their ranges, new literature has been accumulated, and control methods have been improved. Research on some plant invaders has also focused on the species' ecology and impacts, confirming that invasive plants continue to pose serious threats to species and ecosystems. Given their range expansions and introduction via international trade, these problems will only become more serious in the future. Providing the latest information on the most important invasive plants, this new edition: - Contains 50 new species, chosen for their impacts on ecosystems and native species - Reviews the most significant new publications on ecology and species management - Updates introduced, invasive and native ranges, providing an easy-reference, full-colour map for each species - Provides new and improved control methods Including colour images of each species, this up-to-date reference guide on the most important plant invaders is an invaluable tool for both researchers and policy makers.
Since 1973, Storey's Country Wisdom Bulletins have offered practical, hands-on instructions designed to help readers master dozens of country living skills quickly and easily. There are now more than 170 titles in this series, and their remarkable popularity reflects the common desire of country and city dwellers alike to cultivate personal independence in everyday life.
Termites are of great interest to both entomologists and those concerned with pest management. On the one hand their complex social systems and nest building make them fascinating for students of insect behaviour, while on the other they are major pests of crops and buildings in the tropics and subtropics. This book provides a general scientific introduction to the termites, including their biology, behaviour, pest status and control. Commonly used ecological and laboratory techniques are described in appendices. There has been no such general book published for many years and so this title will fill a definite gap in the market. It is aimed at advanced students of entomology and pest management, as well as professionals concerned with urban and agricultural pest control.
Rachel Carson Environment Book Award, First Place (2018) IPPY Outstanding Book of the Year: Most Likely to Save the Planet (2018) Thorpe Menn Literary Excellence Award (2018) "Reads like a mystery novel as Gillam skillfully uncovers Monsanto's secretive strategies." --Erin Brockovich "A damning picture...Gillam expertly covers a contentious front." --Publishers Weekly "A must-read." --Booklist "Hard-hitting, eye-opening narrative." --Kirkus It's the pesticide on our dinner plates, a chemical so pervasive it's in the air we breathe, our water, our soil, and even found increasingly in our own bodies. Known as Monsanto's Roundup by consumers, and as glyphosate by scientists, the world's most popular weed killer is used everywhere from backyard gardens to golf courses to millions of acres of farmland. For decades it's been touted as safe enough to drink, but a growing body of evidence indicates just the opposite, with research tying the chemical to cancers and a host of other health threats. In Whitewash, veteran journalist Carey Gillam uncovers one of the most controversial stories in the history of food and agriculture, exposing new evidence of corporate influence. Gillam introduces readers to farm families devastated by cancers which they believe are caused by the chemical, and to scientists whose reputations have been smeared for publishing research that contradicted business interests. Readers learn about the arm twisting of regulators who signed off on the chemical, echoing company assurances of safety even as they permitted higher residues of the pesticide in food and skipped compliance tests. And, in startling detail, Gillam reveals secret industry communications that pull back the curtain on corporate efforts to manipulate public perception. Whitewash is more than an expos about the hazards of one chemical or even the influence of one company. It's a story of power, politics, and the deadly consequences of putting corporate interests ahead of public safety.
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