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For human health, leishmaniasis is among the most important protozoan diseases, superseded only by malaria. Globally, 10 to 12 million people are infected with 1.5 million new cases every year. The development of cheaper new drugs is urgently needed for this neglected disease that is developing resistance to current treatments. Chemotherapy remains the only treatment option for the bulk of patients. However, this is largely unaffordable for most. In the past three years numerous advances in drug discovery have been made for treating this disease by exploiting diverging metabolic pathways between the Leishmania enzymes and their hosts, using nanotechnology to target the immune cell phagolysosomes where Leishmania resides. Drug Discovery for Leishmaniasis aims to provide a perspective of the current treatments and their challenges, blended with the emerging strategies and methodologies that will drive new target appraisals and drug developments, as well as addressing the molecular basis of resistance in Leishmania. Recent studies have shown that leishmaniasis affects some of the poorest people in the world, with 95% of fatal cases occurring in only 6 countries. With the WHO goal of eliminating this public health problem in the South-east Asia Region by 2020, this book will be important for anyone who is interested in neglected tropical diseases.
Written by more than 400 subject experts representing diverse academic and applied domains, this multidisciplinary resource surveys the vanguard of biomaterials and biomedical engineering technologies utilizing biomaterials that lead to quality-of-life improvements. Building on traditional engineering principles, it serves to bridge advances in materials science, life sciences, nanotechnology, and cell biology to innovations in solving medical problems with applications in tissue engineering, prosthetics, drug delivery, biosensors, and medical devices. In nearly 300 entries, this four-volume Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition covers: essential topics integral to tissue engineering research: bioreactors, scaffolding materials and fabrication, tissue mechanics, cellular interaction, and development of major tissues and organs being attempted by researchers worldwide artificial lungs and muscles, bio-artificial livers, and corneal, dental, inner ear, and total hip implants tissue engineering of blood vessels, heart valves, ligaments, microvascular networks, skeletal muscle, and skin bone remodeling, bone cement, and bioabsorbable bone plates and screws controlled drug delivery, insulin delivery, and transdermal and ocular implant-based drug delivery endovascular stent grafts, vascular grafts, and xenografts 3-D medical imaging, electrical impedance imaging, and intravascular ultrasound biomedical, protein adsorption, and in vivo cardiovascular modeling polymer foams, biofunctional and conductive polymers, and electroactive polymeric materials blood-material interactions, the bone-implant interface, host reactions, and foreign body responses and much more Also Available Online This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including: Citation tracking and alerts Active reference linking Saved searches and marked lists HTML and PDF format options Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages. US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) email@example.com International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) firstname.lastname@example.org
The activity of many biopharmaceutical polymers is dependent on conformation, and the next several years will see increased interest in the conformational analysis of these polymers resulting from the development of biosimilar or "follow-on" biological products. While a wide variety of approaches to analysis exists, finding the most viable ones would be much easier with a consolidated reference that details the benefits and cost of each approach, with an emphasis on real results and real products.
Explores the Growing Role of Conformational Analysis in Comparing Generic Biopharmaceuticals
Approaches to the Conformational Analysis of Biopharmaceuticals gathers the most useful techniques and methods into a single volume, putting the greatest emphasis on those approaches that have proven the most fruitful. Rather than cover specific uses of techniques in detail, this book provides commercial biotechnologists and researchers with the information and references they need to make good choices about the technology they choose to use. With a large number of references that direct readers to primary source material, it includes studies drawn from the gamut of current literature, covering physical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry, light scanning, and analytical ultracentrifugation. It also addresses chemical methods, such as hydrogen deuterium exchange and trace labeling, along with infrared, ultraviolet, and Raman spectroscopy.
Written by Roger Lundblad, a true pioneer in protein science, this volume supplies the necessary information researchers need to access when deciding on the most cost-effective approach, including:
With a clear focus on relevant commercial biotechnology, this book belongs on the shelves of those serious researchers who are paving the way for the next generation of biopharmaceutical polymers.
Providing must-have knowledge for the pharmaceutical industry and process chemists in industry, this ready reference offers solutions for saving time and money and supplying -- in a sustainable way -- valuable products. Application-oriented and well structured, each chapter presents successful strategies for the latest modern drugs, showing how to provide very fast bulk quantities of drug candidates. Throughout, the text illustrates how all the key factors are interwoven and dependent on one another in creating optimized methods for optimal products.
The need to screen targets faster and more efficiently, coupled with advances in parallel and multiplex chemical synthesis, has contributed to the increasing use of multiwell assays for drug discovery. The Handbook of Assay Development in Drug Discovery is a reference that describes the complete armament of tools currently available for performing various assay techniques. Featuring contributions from assay developers in the pharmaceutical and vendor communities, the book presents descriptions of methods, laboratory guidelines and protocols used to perform such methods, specific examples of each assay system, and troubleshooting tools. The handbook describes biochemical assay classes as well as non-class specific assay development for cell-based assays. It covers a wide range of target classes-including kinases, proteases, nuclear receptors, and GPCRs-and describes currently employed methods and assay types, such as radioligand binding assays, image analysis assays, enzyme fragment complementation, and bioluminescent and fluorescent-based assays. Designed as a guide to running an assay from start to finish, the Handbook of Assay Development in Drug Discovery is an ideal bench top companion for discovery researchers, laboratory managers, academics, and other scientists involved in drug discovery screening, lead profiling, therapeutic target evaluation, and assay development and implementation in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Daniel E. Levy, editor of the Drug Discovery Series, is the founder of DEL BioPharma, a consulting service for drug discovery programs. He also maintains a blog that explores organic chemistry.
High throughput screening remains a key part of early stage drug and tool compound discovery, and methods and technologies have seen many fundamental improvements and innovations over the past 20 years. This comprehensive book provides a historical survey of the field up to the current state-of-the-art. In addition to the specific methods, this book also considers cultural and organizational questions that represent opportunities for future success. Following thought-provoking foreword and introduction from Professor Stuart Schreiber and the editors, chapters from leading experts across academia and industry cover initial considerations for screening, methods appropriate for different goals in small molecule discovery, newer technologies that provide alternative approaches to traditional miniaturization procedures, and practical aspects such as cost and resourcing. Within the context of their historical development, authors explain common pitfalls and their solutions. This book will serve as both a practical reference and a thoughtful guide to the philosophy underlying technological change in such a fast-moving area for postgraduates and researchers in academia and industry, particularly in the areas of chemical biology, pharmacology, structural biology and assay development.
Written in four parts, this book provides a dedicated and in-depth reference for blending within the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. It links the science of blending with regulatory requirements associated with pharmaceutical manufacture. The contributors are a combination of leading academic and industrial experts, who provide an informed and industrially relevant perspective of the topic. This is an essential book for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, and related academic researchers in pharmaceutical science and chemical and mechanical engineering.
This reference outlines important applications of statistics for each stage of pharmaceutical development to ensure the valid design, analysis, and assessment of drug products under investigation in order to establish the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical compounds. Reinforcing the role of good statistical practices (GSP) in drug research and formulation, Statistics in Drug Research is an essential source for biostatisticians; pharmacologists; clinical, industrial, and research pharmacists; statisticians and applied statisticians; biometricians; quality control personnel; drug regulatory personnel; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
This book is about the fish we eat, fish that not only sustains us but also provides us with pleasure and well-being. Fish is also a valuable source of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. We follow a holistic approach in this book viewing fish in its entirety from the food that fish need in order to grow to the pharmaceutical applications of fish oil. 2014 is a historic year, it is the first year in human history where the amount of fish we consume from aquaculture will surpass that from the wild. As it seems that aquaculture will play a vital role in the future feeding of mankind, it should be considered imperative that it be done in a responsible and sustainable way. Food security is both the top political and scientific priority today. With this book, we try to provoke some thoughts as to how fish is produced, how it is valourised and what could be done in the future. We address within this book the issue of resource management, fish nutritional requirements, aquatic food security, nutritional value of marine oils and fish themselves as well as to how we can further exploit marine oil usage in the production of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
This first comprehensive survey to cover all pharmaceutically
relevant topics provides a comprehensive introduction to this novel
and revolutionary tool, presenting both concepts and application
examples of biosimulated cells, organs and organisms.
Interactions Between Chinese Herbal Medicinal Products and Orthodox
Drugs provides basic biomedical principles on adverse and
beneficial interactions between Chinese herbal medicine (CHM)
products (herbs and ready-made medications) and orthodox drugs. The
book includes concise accounts of the trends of development and
progress in Chinese medicine, pharmacological principles of CHM
materials and mechanisms of interactions. Clinically relevant
interactions are summarized in tables for easy reference with a
catalogue of commonly used CHM products.
This volume provides information on how to select and screen plants for their medicinal properties. It describes phytopharmacological techniques for extracting and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing a plant's phytochemicals. After a detailed in vitro investigation including nutritional and anti-nutritional analyses, medicinal properties were tested with various in vivo models for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anticancer and anti-diabetic properties, as well as wound healing, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Compound identification and purification techniques include, among others, TLC and column chromatography, as well as molecular docking with specific proteins.
The first contribution summarizes current trends in research on medicinal plants in Mexico with emphasis on work carried out at the authors' laboratories. The most relevant phytochemical and pharmacological profiles of a selected group of plants used widely for treating major national health problems are described. The second contribution provides a detailed survey of the so far reported literature data on the capacities of selected oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and polyketides to trigger receptors, enzymes, and other types of cellular factors for which they exhibit a high degree of affinity and therefore evoke specifice responses. And the third contribution discusses aspects of endophytic actinobacterial biology and chemistry, including biosynthesis and total synthesis of secondary metabolites produced in culture. It also presents perspectives fo the future of microbial biodiscovery, with emphasis on the seondary metabolism of endophytic actinobacteria.
Antibacterial agents act against bacterial infection either by killing the bacterium or by arresting its growth. They do this by targeting bacterial DNA and its associated processes, attacking bacterial metabolic processes including protein synthesis, or interfering with bacterial cell wall synthesis and function."Antibacterial Agents" is an essential guide to this important class of chemotherapeutic drugs. Compounds are organised according to their target, which helps the reader understand the mechanism of action of these drugs and how resistance can arise. The book uses an integrated "lab-to-clinic" approach which covers drug discovery, source or synthesis, mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, clinical aspects (including links to current guidelines, significant drug interactions, cautions and contraindications), prodrugs and future improvements.Agents covered include: agents targeting DNA - quinolone, rifamycin, and nitroimidazole antibacterial agentsagents targeting metabolic processes - sulfonamide antibacterial agents and trimethoprimagents targeting protein synthesis - aminoglycoside, macrolide and tetracycline antibiotics, chloramphenicol, and oxazolidinonesagents targeting cell wall synthesis - β-Lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics, cycloserine, isonaizid, and daptomycin
"Antibacterial Agents" will find a place on the bookshelves of students of pharmacy, pharmacology, pharmaceutical sciences, drug design/discovery, and medicinal chemistry, and as a bench reference for pharmacists and pharmaceutical researchers in academia and industry.
Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials is concerned with a specific kind of comparative trial known as the cross-over trial, in which subjects receive different sequences of treatments. Such trials are widely used in clinical and medical research, and in other diverse areas such as veterinary science, psychology, sports science, and agriculture. The first edition of this book was the first to be wholly devoted to the subject. The second edition was revised to mirror growth and development in areas where the design remained in widespread use and new areas where it had grown in importance. This new Third Edition: Contains seven new chapters written in the form of short case studies that address re-estimating sample size when testing for average bioequivalence, fitting a nonlinear dose response function, estimating a dose to take forward from phase two to phase three, establishing proof of concept, and recalculating the sample size using conditional power Employs the R package Crossover, specially created to accompany the book and provide a graphical user interface for locating designs in a large catalog and for searching for new designs Includes updates regarding the use of period baselines and the analysis of data from very small trials Reflects the availability of new procedures in SAS, particularly proc glimmix Presents the SAS procedure proc mcmc as an alternative to WinBUGS for Bayesian analysis Complete with real data and downloadable SAS code, Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials, Third Edition provides a practical understanding of the latest methods along with the necessary tools for implementation.
Provides a review of novel pharmaceutical approaches for Tuberculosis drugs * Presents a novel perspective on tuberculosis prevention and treatment * Considers the nature of disease, immunological responses, vaccine and drug delivery, disposition and response * Multidisciplinary appeal, with contributions from microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, pharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, chemical and mechanical engineering
A single volume collection that surveys the exciting field of plant-made pharmaceuticals and industrial proteins This comprehensive book communicates the recent advances and exciting potential for the expanding area of plant biotechnology and is divided into six sections. The first three sections look at the current status of the field, and advances in plant platforms and strategies for improving yields, downstream processing, and controlling post-translational modifications of plant-made recombinant proteins. Section four reviews high-value industrial and pharmacological proteins that are successfully being produced in established and emerging plant platforms. The fifth section looks at regulatory challenges facing the expansion of the field. The final section turns its focus toward small molecule therapeutics, drug screening, plant specialized metabolites, and plants as model organisms to study human disease processes. Molecular Pharming: Applications, Challenges and Emerging Areas offers in-depth coverage of molecular biology of plant expression systems and manipulation of glycosylation processes in plants; plant platforms, subcellular targeting, recovery, and downstream processing; plant-derived protein pharmaceuticals and case studies; regulatory issues; and emerging areas. It is a valuable resource for researchers that are in the field of plant molecular pharming, as well as for those conducting basic research in gene expression, protein quality control, and other subjects relevant to molecular and cellular biology. Broad ranging coverage of a key area of plant biotechnology Describes efforts to produce pharmaceutical and industrial proteins in plants Provides reviews of recent advances and technology breakthroughs Assesses realities of regulatory and cost hurdles Forward looking with coverage of small molecule technologies and the use of plants as models of human disease processes Providing wide-ranging and unique coverage, Molecular Pharming: Applications, Challenges and Emerging Areas will be of great interest to the plant science, plant biotechnology, protein science, and pharmacological communities.
This volume provides a single-source of reviews for all the important colloidal drug delivery systems, including nanoparticles, liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and ointments. Over 1000 bibliographic citations, as well as tables, drawings, equations and photographs, are provided. Arranged in order of increasing physical complexity, this work analyzes developments in the field.
This second edition of a very successful book is thoroughly updated
with existing chapters completely rewritten while the content has
more than doubled from 16 to 36 chapters. As with the first
edition, the focus is on industrial pharmaceutical research,
written by a team of industry experts from around the world, while
quality and safety management, drug approval and regulation,
patenting issues, and biotechnology fundamentals are also covered.
In addition, this new edition now not only includes biotech drug
development but also the use of biopharmaceuticals in diagnostics
The book summarizes advances in biochemical and biophysical property of membrane proteins as well as their applications in biomedicine. It is organised into 2 themed parts. This part focuses on mass processing and transportation and provides deep and comprehensive information on specific groups of membrane proteins including channels and transporters, nuclear and cytoplasmic membrane proteins, and membrane embedded enzymes. Their structures, functions, related diseases as well as their roles in drug discovery are fully discussed. Interesting topics cover fundamental concepts, latest progress and critical puzzles yet to be solved. This work will appeal to a wide readership within the membrane structural and functional biology field. Junior scientists could use it to fast track into the field. Advanced scientists will find it helpful to gain a broader view of the field beyond their area of specialization.
This detailed book explores techniques commonly used for research into drug repurposing, a well-known strategy to find alternative indications for drugs which have already undergone toxicology and pharma-kinetic studies but have failed later stages during the development, via computational methods. Thereby, it addresses the intense challenges of identifying the appropriate type of algorithm and relevant technical information for computational repurposing. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, the authors of each chapter use their experience in the field to describe the implementation and successful use of a specific repurposing method thus providing lab-ready instruction. Authoritative and practical, Computational Methods for Drug Repurposing serves as an ideal guide to researchers interested in this vital area of drug development.
The complexity of biological systems has intrigued scientists from many disciplines and has given birth to the highly influential field of systems biology wherein a wide array of mathematical techniques, such as flux balance analysis, and technology platforms, such as next generation sequencing, is used to understand, elucidate, and predict the functions of complex biological systems. More recently, the field of synthetic biology, i.e., de novo engineering of biological systems, has emerged. Scientists from various fields are focusing on how to render this engineering process more predictable, reliable, scalable, affordable, and easy. Systems and control theory is a branch of engineering and applied sciences that rigorously deals with the complexities and uncertainties of interconnected systems with the objective of characterising fundamental systemic properties such as stability, robustness, communication capacity, and other performance metrics. Systems and control theory also strives to offer concepts and methods that facilitate the design of systems with rigorous guarantees on these properties. Over the last 100 years, it has made stellar theoretical and technological contributions in diverse fields such as aerospace, telecommunication, storage, automotive, power systems, and others. Can it have, or evolve to have, a similar impact in biology? The chapters in this book demonstrate that, indeed, systems and control theoretic concepts and techniques can have a significant impact in systems and synthetic biology. Volume II contains chapters contributed by leading researchers in the field of systems and synthetic biology that concern modeling physiological processes and bottom-up constructions of scalable biological systems. The modeling problems include characterisation and synthesis of memory, understanding how homoeostasis is maintained in the face of shocks and relatively gradual perturbations, understanding the functioning and robustness of biological clocks such as those at the core of circadian rhythms, and understanding how the cell cycles can be regulated, among others. Some of the bottom-up construction problems investigated in Volume II are as follows: How should biomacromolecules, platforms, and scalable architectures be chosen and synthesised in order to build programmable de novo biological systems? What are the types of constrained optimisation problems encountered in this process and how can these be solved efficiently? As the eminent computer scientist Donald Knuth put it, "biology easily has 500 years of exciting problems to work on". This edited book presents but a small fraction of those for the benefit of (1) systems and control theorists interested in molecular and cellular biology and (2) biologists interested in rigorous modelling, analysis and control of biological systems.
The complexity of biological systems has intrigued scientists from many disciplines and has given birth to the highly influential field of systems biology wherein a wide array of mathematical techniques, such as flux balance analysis, and technology platforms, such as next generation sequencing, is used to understand, elucidate, and predict the functions of complex biological systems. More recently, the field of synthetic biology, i.e., de novo engineering of biological systems, has emerged. Scientists from various fields are focusing on how to render this engineering process more predictable, reliable, scalable, affordable, and easy. Systems and control theory is a branch of engineering and applied sciences that rigorously deals with the complexities and uncertainties of interconnected systems with the objective of characterising fundamental systemic properties such as stability, robustness, communication capacity, and other performance metrics. Systems and control theory also strives to offer concepts and methods that facilitate the design of systems with rigorous guarantees on these properties. Over the last 100 years, it has made stellar theoretical and technological contributions in diverse fields such as aerospace, telecommunication, storage, automotive, power systems, and others. Can it have, or evolve to have, a similar impact in biology? The chapters in this book demonstrate that, indeed, systems and control theoretic concepts and techniques can have a significant impact in systems and synthetic biology. Volume I provides a panoramic view that illustrates the potential of such mathematical methods in systems and synthetic biology. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology have clearly demonstrated the benefits of a rigorous and systematic approach rooted in the principles of systems and control theory - not only does it lead to exciting insights and discoveries but it also reduces the inordinately lengthy trial-and-error process of wet-lab experimentation, thereby facilitating significant savings in human and financial resources. In Volume I, some of the leading researchers in the field of systems and synthetic biology demonstrate how systems and control theoretic concepts and techniques can be useful, or should evolve to be useful, in order to understand how biological systems function. As the eminent computer scientist Donald Knuth put it, "biology easily has 500 years of exciting problems to work on". This edited book presents but a small fraction of those for the benefit of (1) systems and control theorists interested in molecular and cellular biology and (2) biologists interested in rigorous modelling, analysis and control of biological systems.
This book considers the rapid microbiological techniques that are now increasingly used in industry as alternatives to more conventional methods. Although many of the pioneering studies in this field have taken place in clinical laboratories, the materials listed and organisms sought for foods, beverages and pharmaceuticals are much more varied. In this volume, leading experts from research and industry review the wide variety of approaches that are needed in an industrial setting. The methods described include electrometric techniques, ATP assay, and immunological methods for a wide range of organisms from salmonellas to viruses, each chapter drawing on the authors direct experience in industry to give a highly practical guide. The book should prove invaluable to those in the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries, or in research and training, who require an up-to-date survey of the use of rapid microbiological methods.
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