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A range of factors must be considered when developing a topical antimicrobial for use in a healthcare personnel handwash, surgical scrub, or preoperative skin preparation. Antimicrobial effectiveness, low skin irritation, ease of use, and pleasing aesthetics are all essential if the product is to succeed. In addition, all facets of the product must comply with stringent regulatory requirements. With updated protocols and research, Topical Antimicrobials Testing and Evaluation, Second Edition comprehensively presents and reviews the latest techniques for testing antimicrobial compounds for effectiveness and regulatory compliance. Topics include: The anatomical structure of the skin and skin microbiology relevant to product testing Use of antimicrobial products against specific microorganisms such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species Measurement of antimicrobial action of topical antimicrobials from experimental design, microbiological, biostatistical, and marketplace perspectives Various aspects of the topical antimicrobial products currently in common use in medical, food service, and consumer markets Statistical analysis and specific statistical designs for clinical trials Epistemological requirements in evaluating the effects of specific treatments Evaluation strategies and sample working protocols for hand and body soaps, food-handler antimicrobial products, and medical/healthcare industry antimicrobial products The book is designed to inform industry and academia on the requirements to get products approved by the FDA and to market while also providing critical insight on ways to best service expanding markets.
Since 1945, "The Annual Deming Conference on Applied Statistics" has been an important event in the statistics profession. In Clinical Trial Biostatistics and Biopharmaceutical Applications, prominent speakers from past Deming conferences present novel biostatistical methodologies in clinical trials as well as up-to-date biostatistical applications from the pharmaceutical industry. Divided into five sections, the book begins with emerging issues in clinical trial design and analysis, including the roles of modeling and simulation, the pros and cons of randomization procedures, the design of Phase II dose-ranging trials, thorough QT/QTc clinical trials, and assay sensitivity and the constancy assumption in noninferiority trials. The second section examines adaptive designs in drug development, discusses the consequences of group-sequential and adaptive designs, and illustrates group sequential design in R. The third section focuses on oncology clinical trials, covering competing risks, escalation with overdose control (EWOC) dose finding, and interval-censored time-to-event data. In the fourth section, the book describes multiple test problems with applications to adaptive designs, graphical approaches to multiple testing, the estimation of simultaneous confidence intervals for multiple comparisons, and weighted parametric multiple testing methods. The final section discusses the statistical analysis of biomarkers from omics technologies, biomarker strategies applicable to clinical development, and the statistical evaluation of surrogate endpoints. This book clarifies important issues when designing and analyzing clinical trials, including several misunderstood and unresolved challenges. It will help readers choose the right method for their biostatistical application. Each chapter is self-contained with references.
Describing recent developments in the engineering and generation of plants as production platforms for biopharmaceuticals, this book includes both vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. It has a particular emphasis on targeting diseases which predominate in less developed countries, encompassing the current state of technologies and describing expression systems and applications. This book also includes a variety of vaccine case studies, protecting against pervasive infectious diseases such as rabies, influenza and HIV.
This book reviews macrocycles in drug discovery, both those of natural origin and semi-synthetic derivatives of natural products, and those designed and synthesized based on principles of medicinal chemistry. The medicinal chemistry of macrocyclic natural products is interesting in itself, but lessons learned from these compounds, in terms of the relationship between structure and desirable physicochemical properties, are now informing the design of fully synthetic macrocyclic drug candidates against a variety of targets including kinases, ATPases, proteases, GPCRs and others. Furthermore, as more non-classical drug targets, such as protein-protein interactions, are pursued in the pharmaceutical industry, macrocyclic molecules are generating increasing interest as they offer a way to provide drug-protein interactions that cover a larger surface area than traditional small molecules. A variety of macrocycles have become important drugs or have been identified as leads to marketed drugs. This text will discuss these compounds, their pharmacology and synthesis, in the context of their broad chemotype as compounds composed of large rings. Providing a wide reaching review of this important area in a single volume, this book will be of interest to biochemists, pharmaceutical scientists and medicinal chemists working in industry or academia.
The biopharmaceutical industry has entered an era of unprecedented change and challenge, characterized by increasing pricing pressures, rising rates of attrition in the product development lifecycle, and decreasing scientific innovation. The most successful products are losing patent protection, and pipelines have been unable to fill the gap. This book explores the evolving definition of innovation in therapeutic product development and begins to examine its effects on the life sciences R&D industry. Historically, scientific innovation alone was sufficient to maintain ROI and deliver on unmet medical needs. However, with many forces now conspiring to increase pressures on the commoditization of drug development, industry support for truly novel, often high-risk development has eroded. This calls for a drastic redefinition of what "innovation" is. While innovation in the pharmaceutical R&D industry has historically been applied to major advances in therapy and unmet medical needs, we now need to see innovation increasingly defined in terms of financial, marketing (e.g. branded generics and emerging markets), pharmacoeconomic, and operational innovation. In this book, contributors drawn from the executive ranks of clinical development practitioners and stakeholders-from biopharmaceutical companies, clinical research organizations, academia, the financial community, and the patient perspective-have all come together to provide their expertise and visions. Their goal is to start a dialogue about ways to radically improve therapeutics development and get more and better medicines to the patients who need them, as fast as possible, in the most cost-efficient manner.
As the generic pharmaceutical industry continues to grow and thrive, so does the need to conduct adequate, efficient bioequivalence studies. In recent years, there have been significant changes to the statistical models for evaluating bioequivalence. In addition, advances in the analytical technology used to detect drug and metabolite levels have made bioequivalence testing more complex. The second edition of Handbook of Bioequivalence Testing has been completely updated to include the most current information available, including new findings in drug delivery and dosage form design and revised worldwide regulatory requirements. New topics include: A historical perspective on generic pharmaceuticals New guidelines governing submissions related to bioequivalency studies, along with therapeutic code classifications Models of noninferiority Biosimilarity of large molecule drugs Bioequivalence of complementary and alternate medicines Bioequivalence of biosimilar therapeutic proteins and monoclonal antibodies New FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation Outsourcing and monitoring of bioequivalence studies The cost of generic drugs is rising much faster than in the past, partly because of the increased costs required for approval-including those for bioequivalence testing. There is a dire need to re-examine the science behind this type of testing to reduce the burden of development costs-allowing companies to develop generic drugs faster and at a lower expense. The final chapter explores the future of bioequivalence testing and proposes radical changes in the process of biowaivers. It suggests how the cost of demonstrating bioequivalence can be reduced through intensive analytical investigation and proposes that regulatory agencies reduce the need for bioequivalence studies in humans. Backed by science and updated with the latest research, this book is destined to spark continued debate on the efficacy of the current bioequivalence testing paradigm.
Guides You on the Development and Implementation of B-R Evaluations Benefit-Risk Assessment Methods in Medical Product Development: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments provides general guidance and case studies to aid practitioners in selecting specific benefit-risk (B-R) frameworks and quantitative methods. Leading experts from industry, regulatory agencies, and academia present practical examples, lessons learned, and best practices that illustrate how to conduct structured B-R assessment in clinical development and regulatory submission. The first section of the book discusses the role of B-R assessments in medicine development and regulation, the need for both a common B-R framework and patient input into B-R decisions, and future directions. The second section focuses on legislative and regulatory policy initiatives as well as decisions made at the U.S. FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The third section examines key elements of B-R evaluations in a product's life cycle, such as uncertainty evaluation and quantification, quantifying patient B-R trade-off preferences, ways to identify subgroups with the best B-R profiles, and data sources used to assist B-R assessment. The fourth section equips practitioners with tools to conduct B-R evaluations, including assessment methodologies, a quantitative joint modeling and joint evaluation framework, and several visualization tools. The final section presents a rich collection of case studies. With top specialists sharing their in-depth knowledge, thought-provoking considerations, and practical advice, this book offers comprehensive coverage of B-R evaluation methods, tools, and case studies. It gives practitioners a much-needed toolkit to develop and conduct their own B-R evaluations.
Biological drug and vaccine manufacturing has quickly become one of the highest-value fields of bioprocess engineering, and many bioprocess engineers are now finding job opportunities that have traditionally gone to chemical engineers. Fundamentals of Modern Bioprocessing addresses this growing demand. Written by experts well-established in the field, this book connects the principles and applications of bioprocessing engineering to healthcare product manufacturing and expands on areas of opportunity for qualified bioprocess engineers and students. The book is divided into two sections: the first half centers on the engineering fundamentals of bioprocessing; while the second half serves as a handbook offering advice and practical applications. Focused on the fundamental principles at the core of this discipline, this work outlines every facet of design, component selection, and regulatory concerns. It discusses the purpose of bioprocessing (to produce products suitable for human use), describes the manufacturing technologies related to bioprocessing, and explores the rapid expansion of bioprocess engineering applications relevant to health care product manufacturing. It also considers the future of bioprocessing-the use of disposable components (which is the fastest growing area in the field of bioprocessing) to replace traditional stainless steel. In addition, this text: Discusses the many types of genetically modified organisms Outlines laboratory techniques Includes the most recent developments Serves as a reference and contains an extensive bibliography Emphasizes biological manufacturing using recombinant processing, which begins with creating a genetically modified organism using recombinant techniques Fundamentals of Modern Bioprocessing outlines both the principles and applications of bioprocessing engineering related to healthcare product manufacturing. It lays out the basic concepts, definitions, methods and applications of bioprocessing. A single volume comprehensive reference developed to meet the needs of students with a bioprocessing background; it can also be used as a source for professionals in the field.
This book explores the use of various plant polysaccharides for pharmaceutical purposes, including drug delivery. It examines the exploitation of plant polysaccharides' auxiliary functions to enhance drug release, stability, bioavailability and target specificity. Plant-derived materials are at the center of drug-delivery research thanks to their non-toxicity, biodegradability, ready availability, eco-friendliness and low extraction costs. These materials include polysaccharides, a class of naturally occurring polymers consisting of glucose monomers, which serve as storage carbohydrates in cereals, root vegetables, rhizomes, seeds, fruits, etc.
This book explores techniques for exploring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its effects on the vascular system through numerous experimental animal models and vascular preparations. Alterations of vascular H2S generation/signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, preeclampsia, and erectile dysfunction, and H2S also serves as an attractive target for pharmacotherapy of cardiovascular diseases, as well as possible effects on cancer, wound healing, and diabetic retinopathy, among other pathologies. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Vascular Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide: Methods and Protocols is an ideal aid for scientists working to extend our knowledge in this valuable and wide-ranging field of study.
Used routinely in drug control laboratories, forensic laboratories, and as a research tool, thin layer chromatography (TLC) plays an important role in pharmaceutical drug analyses. It requires less complicated or expensive equipment than other techniques, and has the ability to be performed under field conditions. Filling the need for an up-to-date, complete reference, Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis covers the most important methods in pharmaceutical applications of TLC, namely, analysis of bulk drug material and pharmaceutical formulations, degradation studies, analysis of biological samples, optimization of the separation of drug classes, and lipophilicity estimation. The book is divided into two parts. Part I is devoted to general topics related to TLC in the context of drug analysis, including the chemical basis of TLC, sample pleparation, the optimization of layers and mobile phases, detection and quantification, analysis of ionic compounds, and separation and analysis of chiral substances. The text addresses the newest advances in TLC instrumentation, two-dimensional TLC, quantification by slit scanning densitometry and image analysis, statistical processing of data, and various detection and identification methods. It also describes the use of TLC for solving a key issue in the drug market-the presence of substandard and counterfeit pharmaceutical products. Part II provides an in-depth overview of a wide range of TLC applications for separation and analysis of particular drug groups. Each chapter contains an introduction about the structures and medicinal actions of the described substances and a literature review of their TLC analysis. A useful resource for chromatographers, pharmacists, analytical chemists, students, and R&D, clinical, and forensic laboratories, this book can be utilized as a manual, reference, and teaching source.
This readily comprehensible book explains the identification of
molecular targets via cellular assays, reporter genes or transgenic
models, as well as surveying recent advances in the synthesis,
separation and analysis of drugs. A special section is devoted to
molecular genetics methods.
Antibodies protect us from a wide range of infectious diseases and cancers and have become an indispensable tool in science-both for conventional immune response research as well as other areas related to protein identification analysis. This second edition of Making and Using Antibodies: A Practical Handbook provides clear guidance on all aspects of how to make and use antibodies for research along with their commercial and industrial applications. Keeping pace with new developments in this area, all chapters in this new edition have been revised, updated, or expanded. Along with discussions of current applications, new material in the book includes chapters on western blotting, aptamers, antibodies as therapeutics, quantitative production, and humanization of antibodies. The authors present clear descriptions of basic methods for making and using antibodies and supply detailed descriptions of basic laboratory techniques. Each chapter begins with introductory material, allowing for a better understanding of each concept, and practical examples are included to help readers grasp the real-world scenarios in which antibodies play a part. From the eradication of smallpox to combating cancer, antibodies present an attractive solution to a range of biomedical problems. They are relatively easy to make and use, have great flexibility in applications, and are cost effective for most labs. This volume will assist biomedical researchers and students and pave the way for future discovery of new methods for making and using antibodies for a host of applications.
The recent introduction of nanomedicines in the drug therapy arena is revolutionizing the management of severe diseases. The key advance in the field is the optimization of the biological fate of drug molecules, thus improving the therapeutic effect while keeping to a very minimum the associated toxicity. Volume one of this book series, "Nanoplatforms in Drug Delivery," established the basic aspects in the development of drug-loaded nanoplatforms, the so-called nanomedicines or nanodrugs, focusing on representative materials and strategies used in their formulation.
Taking advantage of the advanced conceptualizations on nanomedicine engineering that were described in volume one, volume two, Nano-Engineering Strategies and Nanomedicines against Severe Diseases, analyzes in depth special features related to the formulation of nanoplatforms for oral, dental, topical and transdermal, pulmonary and nasal, ocular and otic, vaginal, and brain drug delivery and targeting. Particular aspects of nanomedicine engineering and "in vivo" fate associated with the routing of drug administration are given special attention. In addition, an up-to-date view is presented on the use of nanomedicines against severe diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, infectious diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. The chapters analyze the key factors that need to be controlled to achieve the optimum therapeutic effect. Attention is further given to gene delivery and the recent concept of nanotheranosis.
Nuclear receptors (NR) are ligand-induced activated transcription factors that are involved in numerous biological processes. Since the 1990's when the first structures were determined by means of X ray diffraction, the number of NR structures has increased considerably. Moreover several "omics" projects (genomics, pharmcogenomics and proteomics) have opened up great opportunities for the discovery of new targets, the characterization of abnormal protein patterns, the selection of "tailored" drugs and the evaluation of drug efficacy even with a lack of structural data. Furthermore, structure-based drug design, computational methods for in silico screening and nanobiotechnology- based tools are simplifying this time-consuming and money-intensive research of lead compounds and, possibly, new drugs. Biological interactions such as those that occur between a protein and ligand are concerted events where flexible molecules interact. Thus understanding flexibility of large molecules or biological complexes is of primary importance to help define the right model to approximate the reality for drug discovery, virtual screening, food safety analysis, etc. NRs are known as flexible targets, with many structural similarities, in particular for their Ligand Binding Domain: these similarities could be assumed to share behavioural qualities that belong to this class of compounds. Thus to supply a possible, complete and exhaustive answer to questions about the behaviour of NRs, their interactions with new potential drugs, endocrine disruptors such as animal and human food toxins, food additives or industry residuals, it is mandatory to approach the problem from a different point of view: a molecular modelling approach, steered synthesis, and in vitro and in vivo tests, etc. The aim of this book is to provide a state of the art review on investigations into Nuclear Receptors.
The authoritative source on clinical data management Extensively revised and updated, with the addition of new chapters and authors, this long-awaited second edition covers all aspects of clinical data management. Giving details of the efficient clinical data management procedures required to satisfy both corporate objectives and quality audits by regulatory authorities, this text will be a timely publication in an ever-changing field. The volume:
Molecular modeling and simulation play a central role in academic and industrial research focused on physico-chemical properties and processes. The efforts carried out in this field have crystallized in a variety of models, simulation methods, and computational techniques that are examining the relationship between the structure, dynamics and functional role of biomolecules and their interactions. In particular, there has been a huge advance in the understanding of the molecular determinants that mediate the interaction between small compounds acting as ligands and their macromolecular targets. This book provides an updated description of the advances experienced in recent years in the field of molecular modeling and simulation of biomolecular recognition, with particular emphasis towards the development of efficient strategies in structure-based drug design.
Multi-target drug discovery (MTDD) is an emerging area of increasing interest to the drug discovery community. Drugs that modulate several targets have the potential for an improved balance of efficacy and safety compared to single targets agents. Although there are a number of marketed drugs that are thought to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of interacting with multiple targets, the majority of these were discovered accidentally. Written by world renowned experts, this is the first book to gather together knowledge and experiences of the rational discovery of multi-target drugs. It describes the current state of the art, the achievements and the challenges of the field and importantly the lessons learned by researchers to date and their application to future MTDD.
The nutritional and medicinal value of metals, such as zinc,
calcium, and iron, has been known in traditional medicine for a
long time. Other metals, such as silver and gold, may also have
therapeutic and health benefits. Ancient medicines have long
incorporated their use in the treatment of diseases, and they have
also more recently been explored for treatment in allopathic
medicine, birthing the concept of metallonutraceuticals. The
challenge of using metals in the human body is to find forms that
are safe and effective.
A comprehensive introduction for scientists engaged in new drug development, analysis, and approvals Each year the pharmaceutical industry worldwide recruits thousands of recent science graduates--especially chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmacy, and pharmaceutical majors--into its ranks. However, because of their limited background in pharmaceutical analysis most of those new recruits find making the transition from academia to industry very difficult. Designed to assist both recent graduates, as well as experienced chemists or scientists with limited regulatory, compendial or pharmaceutical analysis background, make that transition, Pharmaceutical Analysis for Small Molecules is a concise, yet comprehensive introduction to the drug development process and analysis of chemically synthesized, small molecule drugs. It features contributions by distinguished experts in the field, including editor and author, Dr. Behnam Davani, an analytical chemist with decades of technical management and teaching experience in compendial, regulatory, and industry. This book provides an introduction to pharmaceutical analysis for small molecules (non-biologics) using commonly used techniques for drug characterization and performance tests. The driving force for industry to perform pharmaceutical analyses is submission of such data and supporting documents to regulatory bodies for drug approval in order to market their products. In addition, related required supporting studies including good laboratory/documentation practices including analytical instrument qualification are highlighted in this book. Topics covered include: Drug Approval Process and Regulatory Requirements (private standards) Pharmacopeias and Compendial Approval Process (public standards) Common methods in pharmaceutical analysis (typically compendial) Common Calculations for assays and impurities and other specific tests Analytical Method Validation, Verification, Transfer Specifications including how to handle out of specification (OOS) and out of trend (OOT) Impurities including organic, inorganic, residual solvents and elemental impurities Good Documentation Practices for regulatory environment Management of Analytical Laboratories Analytical Instrument Qualifications including IQ, OQ, PQ and VQ Due to global nature of pharmaceutical industry, other topics on both regulatory (ICH) and Compendial harmonization are also highlighted. Pharmaceutical Analysis for Small Molecules is a valuable working resource for scientists directly or indirectly involved with the drug development process, including analytical chemists, pharmaceutical scientists, pharmacists, and quality control/quality assurance professionals. It also is an excellent text/reference for graduate students in analytical chemistry, pharmacy, pharmaceutical and regulatory sciences.
This book documents the latest research into the theory and application of force-fields, semi-empirical molecular orbital, density functional and ab initio calculations, Quantum Mechanical (QM) based modelling, Atoms in Molecules (AIM) approach, and biomolecular dynamics. It also covers theory and application of 2D cheminformatics, QSAR/QSPR, ADME properties of drugs, drug docking/scoring protocols and approaches, topological methodology, and modelling accurate inhibition constants of enzymes. Finally, the book gives the theory and applications of multiscale modelling of proteins and biomolecular systems. The information need for a book in this area is due to the continuing rapid advance of firstly theoretical approaches, secondly software/hardware and lastly the successful application of the technology and this book fills a gap in the literature. The co-editors have extensive experience of teaching and researching in the field and the book includes contributions from cutting-edge academic and industrial researchers in their respective fields. It is essential reading for medicinal chemists, computational chemists and those in the pharmaceutical industry.
Modern Strategy for Preclinical Pharmaceutical R&D Towards the Virtual Research Company David Cavalla Arachnova Ltd, Cambridge, UK With contributions from: John Flack AMRAD Corporation, Richmond, Australia and Richard Jennings Wolfson Industrial Liaison Office, University of Cambridge, UK The twentieth century has been a great success for modern medicine, and has resulted in the generation of a plethora of drugs to treat most common illnesses. However, in the light of increasing regulatory demands, spiralling costs and diminishing commercial returns, the question of how, when, where and whether to conduct pharmaceutical R&D has profound implications, and not just for those within the pharmaceutical industry. Modern Strategy for Preclinical Pharmaceutical R&D gets to the heart of the debate that surrounds this topic and asks the questions: Can the economies of scale of large multinational pharmaceutical companies adequately compensate for the loss of creative individualism that is essential for the process of drug discovery and development? Might technological experts provide better services to a number of clients rather than work within a single large infrastructure where confidentiality is paramount and synergy of multi-disciplinary operation readily possible? What are the long-term prospects for the latest alternatives to large pharmaceutical R&D companies? In response to these and other dilemmas, the authors define the processes involved in drug R&D, explore the advantages and disadvantages of collaborative methods of drug research, and examine the roles that academia, CROs, small 'biotechnology' companies and 'research boutiques', and possibly even the 'virtual research company'might play as contractors and collaborators. Without a doubt, Modern Strategy for Preclinical Pharmaceutical R&D is essential reading for all those interested in making sense of the confusion that surrounds today's pharmaceutical industry.
Although the Bioequivalence (BE) requirements in many global jurisdictions have much in common, differences in certain approaches and requirements such as definitions and terms, choice of comparator (reference) product, acceptance criteria, fasted and fed studies, single and multi-dose studies, biowaivers and products not intended for absorption into the systemic circulation (locally acting medicines and dosage forms), amongst others, provide food for thought that standardisation should be a high priority objective in order to result in a harmonized international process for the market approval of products using BE. An important objective of Bioequivalence Requirements in Various Global Jurisdictions is to attempt to gather the various BE requirements used in different global jurisdictions to provide a single source of relevant information. This information from, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union, India, Japan, MENA, Russia South Africa, the USA and WHO will be of value to drug manufacturers, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical scientists and related health organizations and governments around the world in the quest to harmonize regulatory requirements for the market approval of generic products.
The field of solid state characterization is central to the pharmaceutical industry, as drug products are, in an overwhelming number of cases, produced as solid materials. Selection of the optimum solid form is a critical aspect of the development of pharmaceutical compounds, due to their ability to exist in more than one form or crystal structure (polymorphism). These polymorphs exhibit different physical properties which can affect their biopharmaceutical properties. This book provides an up-to-date review of the current techniques used to characterize pharmaceutical solids. Ensuring balanced, practical coverage with industrial relevance, it covers a range of key applications in the field. The following topics are included: * Physical properties and processes * Thermodynamics * Intellectual guidance * X-ray diffraction * Spectroscopy Microscopy * Particle sizing * Mechanical properties * Vapour sorption * Thermal analysis & Calorimetry * Polymorph prediction * Form selection
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an established method with widespread recognition as an analytical technique of choice in numerous analytical laboratories, including industrial and academic sectors. Pharmaceutical and biochemical research and quality control are the most important CE applications. This book provides a comparative assessment of related techniques on mode selection, method development, detection, and quantitative analysis and estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters and broadens the understanding of modern CE applications, developments, and prospects. It introduces the fundamentals of CE and clearly outlines the procedures used to mitigate several barriers, such as detection limits, signal detection, changing capillary environment, resolution separation of analytes, and hyphenation of mass spectrometry with CE, for a range of analytical problems. Each chapter outlines a specific electrophoretic variant with detailed instructions and some standard operating procedures. In this respect, the book meets its desired goal of rendering assistance to lovers of electrophoresis.
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