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Although the Bioequivalence (BE) requirements in many global jurisdictions have much in common, differences in certain approaches and requirements such as definitions and terms, choice of comparator (reference) product, acceptance criteria, fasted and fed studies, single and multi-dose studies, biowaivers and products not intended for absorption into the systemic circulation (locally acting medicines and dosage forms), amongst others, provide food for thought that standardisation should be a high priority objective in order to result in a harmonized international process for the market approval of products using BE. An important objective of Bioequivalence Requirements in Various Global Jurisdictions is to attempt to gather the various BE requirements used in different global jurisdictions to provide a single source of relevant information. This information from, Brazil, Canada, China, European Union, India, Japan, MENA, Russia South Africa, the USA and WHO will be of value to drug manufacturers, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical scientists and related health organizations and governments around the world in the quest to harmonize regulatory requirements for the market approval of generic products.
The field of solid state characterization is central to the pharmaceutical industry, as drug products are, in an overwhelming number of cases, produced as solid materials. Selection of the optimum solid form is a critical aspect of the development of pharmaceutical compounds, due to their ability to exist in more than one form or crystal structure (polymorphism). These polymorphs exhibit different physical properties which can affect their biopharmaceutical properties. This book provides an up-to-date review of the current techniques used to characterize pharmaceutical solids. Ensuring balanced, practical coverage with industrial relevance, it covers a range of key applications in the field. The following topics are included: * Physical properties and processes * Thermodynamics * Intellectual guidance * X-ray diffraction * Spectroscopy Microscopy * Particle sizing * Mechanical properties * Vapour sorption * Thermal analysis & Calorimetry * Polymorph prediction * Form selection
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an established method with widespread recognition as an analytical technique of choice in numerous analytical laboratories, including industrial and academic sectors. Pharmaceutical and biochemical research and quality control are the most important CE applications. This book provides a comparative assessment of related techniques on mode selection, method development, detection, and quantitative analysis and estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters and broadens the understanding of modern CE applications, developments, and prospects. It introduces the fundamentals of CE and clearly outlines the procedures used to mitigate several barriers, such as detection limits, signal detection, changing capillary environment, resolution separation of analytes, and hyphenation of mass spectrometry with CE, for a range of analytical problems. Each chapter outlines a specific electrophoretic variant with detailed instructions and some standard operating procedures. In this respect, the book meets its desired goal of rendering assistance to lovers of electrophoresis.
Accounts in Drug Discovery describes recent case studies in medicinal chemistry with a particular emphasis on how the inevitable problems that arise during any project can be surmounted or overcome. The Editors cover a wide range of therapeutic areas and medicinal chemistry strategies, including lead optimization starting from high throughput screening "hits" as well as rational, structure-based design. The chapters include "follow-ons" and "next generation" compounds that aim to improve upon first generation agents. This volume surveys the range of challenges commonly faced by medicinal chemistry researchers, including the optimization of metabolism and pharmacokinetics, toxicology, pharmaceutics and pharmacology, including proof of concept in the clinic for novel biological targets. The case studies include medicinal chemistry stories on recently approved and marketed drugs, but also chronicle "near-misses", i.e., exemplary compounds that may have proceeded well into the clinic but for various reasons did not result in a successful registration. As the vast majority of projects fail prior to registration, much can be learned from such narratives. By sharing a wide range of drug discovery experiences and information across the community of medicinal chemists in both industry and academia, we believe that these accounts will provide insights into the art of medicinal chemistry as it is currently practiced and will help to serve the needs of active medicinal chemists.
This second edition details some of the recent trends in HCS/HCA/HCI. New and updated chapters guide readers through methods that utilize reagents and kits that have been developed to measure cells and subpopulation classifications, control measures, overviews of the data handling issues associated with HCS/HCA/HCI, and methods to implement more complex phenotypic models. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, High Content Screening and Analysis-The Ideal Format for Phenotypic Screening: A Powerful Approach to Systems Cell Biology and Drug Discovery, Second Edition aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
One of the most promising new approaches for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly for developing countries, involves topical, self-administered products known as microbicides. The development of microbicides is a long and complicated process, and this volume provides an overview of all the critical areas, from the selection of appropriate candidate molecules and their formulation, preclinical and clinical testing for safety and efficacy, strategies for product registration and finally, issues associated with product launch, distribution and access. The book will prove valuable to both those working in the field and all others who are interested in learning more about this product class, which has the potential to significantly impact the future of this devastating epidemic.
This thorough book provides a collection of techniques used in the emerging field of computational chemogenomics, which is an integration of chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, computer science, statistics, automated pattern recognition and modeling, database usage with data retrieval, and systems integration. Beginning with a section on public chemogenomic data resources, the volume continues by delving into the fundamentals of chemoinformatics, bioinformatics, and chemogenomic data processing. After the reader is comfortable with a core skillset, the volume introduces techniques to analyze specific proteins or compound structures and statistical pattern recognition techniques. Later chapters describe the future of chemogenomics including applications to medical care. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include the kind of detailed implementation advice that serves as an ideal guide in the lab. Practical and authoritative, Computational Chemogenomics will greatly aid experimental sciences who are novices to data processing and modeling, as well as those with computationally-oriented backgrounds wishing to engage in this scientific area, which is continually growing and expected to contribute to industry, academic, and government research projects.
This introductory text explains both the basic science and the applications of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on their clinical use. It serves as a complete one-stop source for undergraduate/graduate pharmacists, pharmaceutical science students, and for those in the pharmaceutical industry The Fourth Edition will completely update the previous edition, and will also include additional coverage on the newer approaches such as oligonucleotides, siRNA, gene therapy and nanotech.
In biostatistical research and courses, practitioners and students often lack a thorough understanding of how to apply statistical methods to synthesize biomedical and clinical trial data. Filling this knowledge gap, Applied Meta-Analysis with R shows how to implement statistical meta-analysis methods to real data using R. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experiences, the authors provide detailed, step-by-step explanations of the implementation of meta-analysis methods using R. Each chapter gives examples of real studies compiled from the literature. After presenting the data and necessary background for understanding the applications, various methods for analyzing meta-data are introduced. The authors then develop analysis code using the appropriate R packages and functions. This systematic approach helps readers thoroughly understand the analysis methods and R implementation, enabling them to use R and the methods to analyze their own meta-data. Suitable as a graduate-level text for a meta-data analysis course, the book is also a valuable reference for practitioners and biostatisticians (even those with little or no experience in using R) in public health, medical research, governmental agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry.
This book is the first to combine computational material science and modeling of molecular solid states for pharmaceutical industry applications. Provides descriptive and applied state-of-the-art computational approaches and workflows to guide pharmaceutical solid state chemistry experiments and to support/troubleshoot API solid state selection Includes real industrial case examples related to application of modeling methods in problem solving Useful as a supplementary reference/text for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students in computational chemistry, pharmaceutical and biotech sciences, and materials science
This book is a self-contained introduction to Statistics, presented in the context of clinical trials and pharmaceutical drug development. It focuses on the statistical analyses most commonly used in drug development and is therefore an ideal introduction to pharmaceutical statistics. Instead of introducing a series of statistical techniques, the book's organizational structure follows the order in which numerical information and statistical analyses are used in trials and new drug development.All students taking classes in pharmaceutical sciences and clinical research need a solid knowledge and understanding of the nature, methods, application and importance of Statistics. They need to understand:why, and how data are collected in clinical trials; how these data are summarized and analyzed; what the results mean in the context of the clinical research question; and, how the results are communicated to regulatory agencies and to scientific and medical communities.This title therefore adopts a unique approach and concept in organization of the content. It begins with an introduction to statistical theory, analysis and interpretation. This is followed by a discussion of t-tests and confidence intervals. Readers are then taken through the whole process of new drug development (using one specific example throughout) that is meaningful in the context of their broader studies. Throughout this process, statistical techniques and analyses are introduced in the order in which they are employed during the process.The book's realistic scientific and progressive organization from pre-clinical trials to clinical pharmacology through clinical trials is novel, meaningful and educationally powerful. The book emphasises the importance of descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics, something that is rarely done.Supplementary material is included for this text on the PharmPress website in the form of PowerPoint lecture notes on Statistics (based on content of this book) that can be downloaded by lecturers.
Authored by leading experts from academia, users and manufacturers, this book provides an authoritative account of the science and technology involved in multiparticulate drug delivery systems which offer superior clinical and technical advantages over many other specialized approaches in drug delivery. The book will cover market trends, potential benefits and formulation challenges for various types of multiparticulate systems. Drug solubility, dose, chemistry and therapeutic indications as well as excipient suitability coupled with manufacturing methods will be fully covered. Key approaches for taste-masking, delayed release and extended release of multiparticulates systems are of significant interest, especially their in-vivo and in-vitro performance. In addition, the principles of scale-up, QbD, and regulatory aspects of common materials used in this technology will be explained, as well as recent advances in materials and equipment enabling robust, flexible and cost-effective manufacture. Case studies illustrating best practices will also make the book a valuable resource to pharmaceutical scientists in industry and academia.
Containing authoritative and in-depth coverage, Producing Biomolecular Materials Using Fermenters, Bioreactors, and Biomolecular Synthesizers examines the bioproduction systems that support the controlled, automated, and quantity growth of proteins. The book discusses the substance, character, makeup, and quality of the basic materials used in the production and downstream processing of boimolecular materials: raw materials, reagents, intermediates, and consumables.
Dr. Hochfield gets right to the point, explaining just what must be done and how to do it effectively, then providing the formula necessary for reaching the required value, allowing you to simply plug-in your data and make protein. However, if you actually do need the origin and derivation of any given formula, you can go right to the extensive reference section in the Appendix, find the formula you need in the exact form that you need it, without having to wade through numerous pages of extraneous material.
This classic work presents unparalled, detailed, and cutting-edge information on bioprocessing systems. A working reference and formulary for producing recombinant, bioactive, or other exotic proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids to specification, the text provides coverage of the related technologies, coupled with the extensive biotechnology glossary, manufacturer's directories, extensive references, important formulae, charts, illustrations, comprehensive index, emphasis on practical techniques, time-proven methods, and essential applications. These features combine with its ingenious, easy-to-use layout to make it the resource you will consult on a regular basis.
This book examines statistical techniques that are critically important to Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control (CMC) activities. Statistical methods are presented with a focus on applications unique to the CMC in the pharmaceutical industry. The target audience consists of statisticians and other scientists who are responsible for performing statistical analyses within a CMC environment. Basic statistical concepts are addressed in Chapter 2 followed by applications to specific topics related to development and manufacturing. The mathematical level assumes an elementary understanding of statistical methods. The ability to use Excel or statistical packages such as Minitab, JMP, SAS, or R will provide more value to the reader. The motivation for this book came from an American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) short course on statistical methods applied to CMC applications presented by four of the authors. One of the course participants asked us for a good reference book, and the only book recommended was written over 20 years ago by Chow and Liu (1995). We agreed that a more recent book would serve a need in our industry. Since we began this project, an edited book has been published on the same topic by Zhang (2016). The chapters in Zhang discuss statistical methods for CMC as well as drug discovery and nonclinical development. We believe our book complements Zhang by providing more detailed statistical analyses and examples.
Ethnobotany: Local Knowledge and Traditions discusses various plants that have actually been used in traditional medicine for a specific ailment. It desribes the biological effectiveness (activities) related to each "sickness" which have been scientifically verified. This book will also discuss the bioactivities established/determined that are promising and have potential. Finally, this book will be an appropriate consultation tool for scientists/professionals/experts such as ethnobotanists, botanists, cell/molecular biologists, chemists, pharmacists, pharmacologists, environmentalists/ecologists.
The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law. The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC - a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re-thinking the adopted solutions.
Get Up to Speed on Many Types of Adaptive Designs Since the publication of the first edition, there have been remarkable advances in the methodology and application of adaptive trials. Incorporating many of these new developments, Adaptive Design Theory and Implementation Using SAS and R, Second Edition offers a detailed framework to understand the use of various adaptive design methods in clinical trials. New to the Second Edition Twelve new chapters covering blinded and semi-blinded sample size reestimation design, pick-the-winners design, biomarker-informed adaptive design, Bayesian designs, adaptive multiregional trial design, SAS and R for group sequential design, and much more More analytical methods for K-stage adaptive designs, multiple-endpoint adaptive design, survival modeling, and adaptive treatment switching New material on sequential parallel designs with rerandomization and the skeleton approach in adaptive dose-escalation trials Twenty new SAS macros and R functions Enhanced end-of-chapter problems that give readers hands-on practice addressing issues encountered in designing real-life adaptive trials Covering even more adaptive designs, this book provides biostatisticians, clinical scientists, and regulatory reviewers with up-to-date details on this innovative area in pharmaceutical research and development. Practitioners will be able to improve the efficiency of their trial design, thereby reducing the time and cost of drug development.
The pharmaceutical industry is on the verge of an exciting and challenging century. Advances in pharmaceutical sciences have dramatically changed the processes of discovery and development of new therapeutic drugs and, in turn, resulted in an extraordinary increase in the potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. In this atmosphere, an intimate understanding of the mechanisms of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity and the processes of drug evaluation is essential.
Clinical Trials of Drugs and Biopharmaceuticals provides an overview of current procedures and major issues involved in drug and biopharmaceutical development. The book examines critical biochemical and pharmaceutical considerations for trials conducted during each phase of clinical development. It also reports information related to early pre-clinical evaluations of pharmacological activities and safety before proceeding with initiation of clinical trials. The sections focus on clinical assessments of drugs and biopharmaceuticals such as cardiovascular, respiratory, central nervous system, gastrointestinal and liver, genitourinary, skin, metabolism, and chemotherapeutic drugs as well as vaccines, biotechnology-derived therapeutics, and plant-based medicines.
Practical and informative, this step-by-step guide includes information on all four phases of clinical trials prior to licensure and covers the design of post-marketing studies. The editors examine how recent advances and increased demand for safer and more effective drugs have changed the process by which drugs are developed and approved.
Currently, used anticancer drugs are found to be poorly water soluble and highly potent in nature. They act non-selectively on both tumour as well as normal cells. This non-selectivity is being tried to overcome by means of selective or targeted tumor drug delivery with improvised safety and efficacy. This book discusses nanocarrier systems for drug delivery.
Filling a gap in the literature for a hands-on guide focusing on everyday laboratory challenges, this English edition has been expanded and revised using the feedback received on the successful German precursor. Throughout the book, Professor Mascher draws on his 30 years of experience and provides abundant practical advice, troubleshooting and other hints highlighted in boxes, as well as a broad selection of walkthrough case studies. Based on a course taught by the author, the first part of the book intuitively explains all steps of routine bioanalysis and explains how to set up a robust, inexpensive and effi cient method for a given substance. In the second part he includes 20 worked example cases that highlight common challenges and how to overcome them. With its appendix containing tried-and-tested analytical methods for 100 clinically relevant substances from the author's own laboratory, complete with spectral and MS data as well as literature references and basic pharmacokinetic information, this is a life-long companion for everyone working in clinical, pharmaceutical and biochemical analysis. Comments to the German book: "The book comes to life through its examples, showing not only what did work in the author's laboratory, but also what didn't." ChemieReport "Indispensable for novices, while even old hands will be able to expand their knowledge. A collection of analytical data for ca. 100 substances completes the book's offering, leaving almost nothing to be desired." pharmind
The objective of this volume is to consolidate within a single text the most current knowledge, practical methods, and regulatory considerations pertaining to formulations development with poorly water-soluble molecules. A pharmaceutical scientist's approach toward solubility enhancement of a poorly water-soluble molecule typically includes detailed characterization of the compound's physiochemical properties, solid-state modifications, advanced formulation design, non-conventional process technologies, advanced analytical characterization, and specialized product performance analysis techniques. The scientist must also be aware of the unique regulatory considerations pertaining to the non-conventional approaches often utilized for poorly water-soluble drugs. One faced with the challenge of developing a drug product from a poorly soluble compound must possess at minimum a working knowledge of each of the abovementioned facets and detailed knowledge of most. In light of the magnitude of the growing solubility problem to drug development, this is a significant burden especially when considering that knowledge in most of these areas is relatively new and continues to develop
Fruit flies are "little people with wings" goes the saying in the scientific community, ever since the completion of the Human Genome Project and its revelations about the similarity amongst the genomes of different organisms. It is humbling that most signaling pathways which "define" humans are conserved in Drosophila, the common fruit fly. Feed a fruit fly caffeine and it has trouble falling asleep; feed it antihistamines and it cannot stay awake. A C. elegans worm placed on the antidepressant flouxetine has increased serotonin levels in its tiny brain. Yeast treated with chemotherapeutics stop their cell division. Removal of a single gene from a mouse or zebrafish can cause the animals to develop Alzheimer’s disease or heart disease. These organisms are utilized as surrogates to investigate the function and design of complex human biological systems.
Advances in bioinformatics, proteomics, automation technologies and their application to model organism systems now occur on an industrial scale. The integration of model systems into the drug discovery process, the speed of the tools, and the in vivo validation data that these models can provide, will clearly help definition of disease biology and high-quality target validation. Enhanced target selection will lead to the more efficacious and less toxic therapeutic compounds of the future.
This book will be of interest to geneticists, bioinformaticians, pharmacologists, molecular biologists and people working in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly genomics.
Newcomers to the field of biopharmaceuticals require an understanding of the basic principles and underlying methodology involved in developing protein- and nucleic acid-based therapies for genetic and acquired diseases. Biomaterials for Delivery and Targeting of Proteins and Nucleic Acids introduces the principles of polymer science and chemistry, as well as the basic biology required for understanding how biomaterials can be used as drug-delivery vehicles. No book to date combines a discussion of high-tech biomaterials-based delivery of protein and nucleic acid drugs with the pharmaceutical or biocompatibility aspects. Featuring contributions from leading experts from around the world, this text discusses physiochemical parameters used for design, development, and evaluation of biotechnological dosage forms for delivery of proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and genes. The authors also present biological barriers to extravasation and cellular uptake of proteins and nucleic acids. Combining an introduction to biomaterial delivery with the latest developments in the field, this is a valuable reference for both the novice student and the practicing scientist on delivery of biomaterials, on biomedical polymers, and on polymer therapeutics. Understanding these core fundamentals is critical to moving on to more advanced study.
Presents innovative methods of delivering active biochemicals to different systems Discusses lipospheres as a technical solution to problems associated with controlled release of biochemicals Covers lipospheres as carriers for vaccines Provides procedures for specific applications and biological systems Lipospheres in Drug Targets and Delivery: Approaches, Methods, and Applications presents an overview of the most recent applications of lipospheres primarily in the field of medicine, pharmaceutics, and biotechnology. Included are chapters on preparation, characterization, delivery (of peptides, proteins, vaccines, nucleic acids) therapeutic applications to different systems and suggestions for further research. Including numerous illustrations, tables and photos, this book provides procedures for specific applications and biological systems and shows lipospheres as a technical solution to various problems associated with controlled release of biochemicals.
While systems biology and pharmacodynamics have evolved in parallel, there are significant interrelationships that can enhance drug discovery and enable optimized therapy for each patient. Systems pharmacology is the relatively new discipline that is the interface between these two methods. This book is the first to cover the expertise from systems biology and pharmacodynamics researchers, describing how systems pharmacology may be developed and refined further to show practical applications in drug development. There is a growing awareness that pharmaceutical companies should reduce the high attrition in the pipeline due to insufficient efficacy or toxicity found in proof-of-concept and/or Phase II studies. Systems Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics discusses the framework for integrating information obtained from understanding physiological/pathological pathways (normal body function system vs. perturbed system due to disease) and pharmacological targets in order to predict clinical efficacy and adverse events through iterations between mathematical modeling and experimentation.
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